X-ray diffraction

INTRODUCTION: X-ray diffraction The diffraction of X-rays as they pass through a substance, usually forming an interference pattern that can be captured on film and used to analyze the internal structure of the substance. The scattering of x-rays by crystal atoms, producing a diffraction pattern that yields information about the structure of the crystal. X-ray […]

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Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates

1.0INTRODUCTION TO ZEOLITES Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates, composed of TO4 tetrahedra (T = Si, Al) with O atoms connecting neighbouring tetrahedral, that contain pores and cavities of molecular dimensions (Breck, 1974). Many occur as natural minerals, but it is the synthetic varieties which are among the most widely used sorbents, catalysts and ion-exchange materials in […]

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Unknown Ionic Compound Preliminary Lab

Discussion of Results and Scientific Explanation The main goal was to identify the unknown compound, which was MgCl2, better known as Magnesium Chloride. Before knowing what the unknown was, we had several test that needed to be done in order to determine the unknown compound. To find the identity of the compound we did various […]

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Using Spectrophotometer to measure the concentration of compounds

The spectrophotometer can measure the intensity of light absorbed indirectly by the solutes in solution because each solution has its own characteristic absorption chattels. The spectrophotometer can be used to measure the concentration of compounds in a certain solution. Differentiating compounds is another uses of spectrophotometer .It works by analyzing the pattern of wavelengths absorbed […]

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Water treatment Processes

Question Limit of detection Stating the water supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2001, “limit of detection is calculated as three times the relative within batch standard deviation of a natural sample containing a low concentration of the parameter. Also, its means five times the relative within batch standard deviation of a blank sample”. DA Armbruster et […]

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X-ray Crystallography Technique Analysis

1 Limitations of x-ray crystallography From the first crystalline structure determination of table salt in 1914; whose structure elucidation proved the existence of ionic compounds (6), single crystal x-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) has been widening our view of the hidden world of molecular structures. Today, SC-XRD continues to be the only structural analysis method that offers […]

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the METALLURGY OPTIONS FOR TUBING

The metallurgy of tubing is a very important factor while choosing tubing for a particular environment. Generally the tubing is made up of carbon or low alloy steels, martensitic stainless steel, Duplex stainless steel or other corrosion resistant alloys like Nickel-base alloy etc. METALLURGY FOR TUBING: Carbon steel is an alloy of carbon and iron […]

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The multiple emulsions

Introduction: Seifriz started his pioneering work about multiple emulsions since 1925, which is regarded as the fundamental knowledge in the later research. Multiple emulsions are complicated systems which are considered as “emulsions of emulsions” (Garti, 1996).In the outer continues phase, the droplets of the dispersed phase named as globules which contain even smaller dispersed droplets […]

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The Practice And History Of Alchemy Chemistry Essay

Alchemy, derived from the Arabic word al-kimia (ØلكيميØØ¡, ALA-LC: al-kÄ«miyā’), is both a philosophy and an ancient practice focused on the attempt to change base metals into gold, investigating the preparation of the “elixir of longevity”, and achieving ultimate wisdom, involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of several substances described […]

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The prion diseases

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy’s can be inheritable or transmissible, a common feature of the prion disease involves the change of the prion protein (PrPc) to the isoform PrPsc (Hu et al, 2007). Prion propagation involves a mechanism that changes PrPc to PrPsc in an autocatalytic way (Harris and True, 2006). PrPc is said […]

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