Using Spectrophotometer to measure the concentration of compounds

The spectrophotometer can measure the intensity of light absorbed indirectly by the solutes in solution because each solution has its own characteristic absorption chattels. The spectrophotometer can be used to measure the concentration of compounds in a certain solution. Differentiating compounds is another uses of spectrophotometer .It works by analyzing the pattern of wavelengths absorbed […]

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Water treatment Processes

Question Limit of detection Stating the water supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2001, “limit of detection is calculated as three times the relative within batch standard deviation of a natural sample containing a low concentration of the parameter. Also, its means five times the relative within batch standard deviation of a blank sample”. DA Armbruster et […]

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X-ray Crystallography Technique Analysis

1 Limitations of x-ray crystallography From the first crystalline structure determination of table salt in 1914; whose structure elucidation proved the existence of ionic compounds (6), single crystal x-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) has been widening our view of the hidden world of molecular structures. Today, SC-XRD continues to be the only structural analysis method that offers […]

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X-ray diffraction

INTRODUCTION: X-ray diffraction The diffraction of X-rays as they pass through a substance, usually forming an interference pattern that can be captured on film and used to analyze the internal structure of the substance. The scattering of x-rays by crystal atoms, producing a diffraction pattern that yields information about the structure of the crystal. X-ray […]

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Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates

1.0INTRODUCTION TO ZEOLITES Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates, composed of TO4 tetrahedra (T = Si, Al) with O atoms connecting neighbouring tetrahedral, that contain pores and cavities of molecular dimensions (Breck, 1974). Many occur as natural minerals, but it is the synthetic varieties which are among the most widely used sorbents, catalysts and ion-exchange materials in […]

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Unknown Ionic Compound Preliminary Lab

Discussion of Results and Scientific Explanation The main goal was to identify the unknown compound, which was MgCl2, better known as Magnesium Chloride. Before knowing what the unknown was, we had several test that needed to be done in order to determine the unknown compound. To find the identity of the compound we did various […]

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The lactate dehydrogenase

Enzymes: Enzymes are protein molecules which catalyst the biological reactions within living systems [23]. They provide a reaction surface to which a substrate can easily bind and a suitable environment for the reaction to occur. They bring the reactants together and orient them in such a way that they attain their transition-state configurations. They weaken […]

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Disadvantages

Keywords: protein amino acide, pH, lowry method * Highly susceptible to contamination by buffers, biological materials and salts * Protein amino acid composition is extremely important, thus the choice of a standard is very difficult, especially for purified proteins * Absorbance is heavily influence by pH and ionic strength of the solution. General Considerations * […]

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the major systematic error sublimation of caffeine

Introduction: Coffee has been a popular drink since 20th century, not only because of its different colors and flavors due to different degrees of roasting, but also the effect on which it can keep you to stay awake and to finish your job. It is commonly known that the reason for coffee to possess this […]

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the METALLURGY OPTIONS FOR TUBING

The metallurgy of tubing is a very important factor while choosing tubing for a particular environment. Generally the tubing is made up of carbon or low alloy steels, martensitic stainless steel, Duplex stainless steel or other corrosion resistant alloys like Nickel-base alloy etc. METALLURGY FOR TUBING: Carbon steel is an alloy of carbon and iron […]

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