AN INTRODUCTORY REVIEW:
We are in the era, where we regularly envisage different sort of problems, some have a severe distress in it and some are like to be flash instantly. Poverty, financial instability, unemployment are some of the basic problems our society have faced from a number of years, but apart from that problems there are such problems which really makes the world like a hell. I intend to divert intentions towards some problems, which becomes so common across the globe. Energy Crisis and its conservation and environmental problems are some of the main problems our society has been facing from past few years. Before going further in to the details of its impacts and the problems which may arise from its threats, let’s take a closer look of Energy Conservation and different environmental problems.
AN OVERVIEW OF ENERGY CONSERVATION:
Electricity and energy is now becomes an integral part of our routine life. Believe or not we are totally on the mercy of the energy to accomplish our different task. It has been observed that, and we also noticed that, the fear of energy crisis has been surging from past few years chaotically, which intervenes between the country to viable economically.
After listen the name of the energy crisis, the thing which instantly clicks in our mind is the mitigation plan for this action and to abridge its threats accordingly. The practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used is known as the energy conservation. Efficiently uses any thing will enhance the productivity of that thing and will condense the hazards associated with it. A number of attributes are associated with the conservation of energy like deducing the financial cost which ultimately effects on the bottom line, other advantages includes national security, personal security andÂ human comforts.
One of the important forms of energy is the Electrical energy, which is in use by the human beings exaggeratedly that is why the conservation of energy is termed as an integral element of the energy policy (Mike Adams, 2008). There are a number of problems connected with the energy conservation which exacerbates the situation, which we will examine in details when we move further.
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ENERGY CONSERVATION:
Before going in to the details of the problems of the energy, I want to do a mind set of my readers regarding the uses of energy. Let me mention some examples associated with the transformation of different types of energy into the form of energy and heat. I have found a process of energy transmitting and processing which is mentioned below.
â€¢Â Oil is being burns to produce heat.
â€¢Â Heat boils the water
â€¢Â Water then turns into steam
â€¢Â Steams Pressure than turns a turbine
â€¢Â Turbine use to on the electric generator.
â€¢Â Generator than generates electricity.
â€¢Â Electricity than empowers the light bulbs, which gives us (the end users) lights and heat.
The main problem lies with the energy is the exhalation of different types of injurious and devastative gases which spoil the health of a person in an outrageous manner. Carbon dioxide is one of the main threats for the health of the human being. A number of people consensuses that the gas act as a transparent blanket due to the atmospheric work. Synthetically speaking, carbon dioxide is combustion of gas, coal and oil which uses in the heating system and in car engines (Mike Adams, 2008). Health professionals and Doctors said that, carbon dioxide is the most perilous gas for the human being which demolishes the respiratory system of a person after penetration that is why the Doctors exhorts a lot to keep distance with plants at night because the plants excrete the carbon dioxide which can be disperse in a person if he doesn’t take the safety majors into consideration.
Apart from the hazards of carbon dioxide sulfur dioxide is also a major foe of the human’s health. Sulfur dioxide emitted in the air when the coal is being burned. Sulfur dioxide produces with the burning of coal which penetrates in the clouds after react with water and oxygen to from precipitation which commonly knows as “acid rain”, which is not even injurious for the human being but also for the sea spices. Acid rain is very harmful for the human’s skin and sometimes it plays a vital role to inflate the fear of skin cancer.
There are a number of factors which influences on the conservation of energy, threats of severe disease are the some examples of it.
HOW ENERGY CONSERVATION MITIGATE SUCH PROBLEM
We are in an era where the technologies really matters and we can’t bear the crisis of this energy. Energy conservation is a brave and bold step towards efficiently use the energy in diversified sectors. Electrical energy and oil is the main thing which we have to utilize for the economic development of a country. The unavailability of these two things will make the situation chaotic for a country. Let’s see in details what value efficient energy conservation can add in the accounts for a country.
?Â Increment in the energy efficiency, resultantly makes the energy relatively cheaper, which is equally beneficial for the users and for the Government as well.
?Â Increased energy efficiency will definitely lead to enhance the economic and physical growth, which spikes the graph of energy use in the whole economy.Â
?Â Efficiently uses the fuel energy will help to increase the production among the industries of a country which leads to a higher quality of life.
?Â The threats we discussed earlier, which will be born from the poisonly gases like carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide can be abate with the help of energy conservation. It will help to reduce the effects of headache, stress, blood pressure, fatigue and work pressure.
?Â Telecommunication becomes a major part to viable a company economically as a number of business been done on the telephone, so we have to be vigilant regarding the efficient use of telecommunication energy from a business stand point.
?Â It is observed that electric motors, like elevators, water pumping machines, refrigerators and other electric home appliances consume more than 60% of all electrical energy, which become a major cause of the loss of 10 to 20 percent of all electricity. In order to tackle with this menace, we have to be cautious granted the wastage of energy. What can we do in this regards, is not an uphill task at all, use the electrical appliances when we use it like bulbs, iron, juicer blender and all such kind of things.
?Â The problem of energy crisis persists in the whole world, because of the unavailability of the natural resources to produce the electricity energy.
?Â Usage of bicycle and walking rigorously instead of driving to overcome on the fuel crisis.
?Â Use air to dry clothes rather than the clothes dryer machine.
?Â Install a programmable thermostat in your room cooler and air conditioners, which automatically adjusts the temperature when you are in bed or away.
?Â Switch off lights when leaving a room.
The view of energy conservation, is been defined to give a thorough overview of renewable energy, now let’s take a brief look over the stance of renewable energy.
AN OVERVIEW OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY:
The energy which has been generated from the natural resources, like the sunlight, rain, tides, wind, and geothermal heat which can be refill tranquilly is called renewable energy. It has been estimated that in the year 2006, about 18% of the global energy consumptions came from renewable from which 13% imminent from biomass like from burning of the wood. Hydroelectricity is known as the second largest resource of the renewable energy which conduced 3% of the energy consumption and 15% of electric generation across the globe in the year 2008 (Global Status Report 2007). Wind power is also a famous form of the renewable energy which has a remarkable growth rate of around 30% annually with a installed capacity of over 121,000 megawatts in the year 2008, which has been massively used in Europe and in the United States of America (USA) (Renewable Global Status Report: 2009 Pg- 9). As per estimation the annual manufacturing output of the photovoltaic industry breached the level of 6900 MW in the year 2008. The photovoltaic power stations are quite popular in Spain and Germany because of their credible performance. Solar thermal power station is also one of the famous stations which mainly operate in USA and Spain. The largest of the solar thermal power station produces 354 MW operated in the Mojave Dessert. The Geysers is the world largest Geothermal Power Station (GPS) which is located in California, with a record or rated capacity of 750 MW (Calpine Corporation – The Geysers”. “Retrieved from http://www.geysers.com”). Brazil is the country who has the largest setup program of the renewable energy; it also involves the production of ethanol fuel which has been produced with the help of the sugar cane and the essence of the ethanol provides 18% of the country’s automotive fuel. Apart from the Brazil, ethanol fuel is also amply available in USA, while most of the renewable energy projects and its production on the large scale are also suited to the small off-grid applications which sometimes located in the rural and remote areas, wherein the component of the energy are so essential for the human development (World Energy Assessment (2001). Renewable energy technologies, pg. 221). Kenya is the country which has the world’s highest household solar ownership rate with roughly 30,000 small (20-100 watt) solar power systems sold per year (What Solar Power Needs Now Renewable Energy Access, 13 August 2007). The market of the renewable energy has been envisage a continuous growth but the climate change like the high oil prices and mounting government support are driving spurring renewable energy legislation incentives and commercialization.
Hydropower is inevitably is the largest source of the renewable energy, which provides 10% of the nation’s overall electricity. As per estimation, there were over 77,000 Megawatts of hydropower, which are adequate enough to provide energy to 35 million homes. Hydropower energy has been produce with the help of the water. The water has been utilized in this way that its flow will be converting in the hydropower energy. Most of the water which has been utilized for this purpose taken from the rivers or released through turbines to produce enough energy for the global usage. The power source has a great element attached with it, which is the releasing of the population so the ingredients which have been implant in the water will not harm the living beings and also the ocean species. However, scientist endeavors really hard through the latest technology to reduce the loss of marine life from the adverse effects of the energy, but the core problem with the technology is that, it is highly expensive and take a long time to build. Renewable energy technology is improving considerably. The prices of energy have dropped because new vehicles with sophisticated fuel systems and substitute fuels like the Ethanol are being launched and are a way to better technological encroachments.
As per the estimation and the result of the statistics the biomass construct about 7,000 megawatts of renewable electricity. Biomass fuels come from the forestry like the wood products, agriculture, constructions and transportation. Like the hydropower energy, which can be produce by replace the water into energy, it has also produced by reinstate the coal into the power plant which produces the energy. It has considered producing the energy because it fabricates less sulfur dioxide than coal.
The operations of the Mill give the impression to be the chief basis of biomass energy in the U.S.Â On the contrary, Europe illustrates its foremost source of bio-energy from urban wood squander.Â However, the third world countries make lumber their most important source of the bio-energy.
As per the statistics, 11% of the world obtains s its energy from biomass stations.Â Developing countries use about 35% of the biomass energy; by contrast the poorest ones use roughly 90%.
Geothermal energy has the propensity to produce about 2,800 Megawatts of energy each year, or more precisely it can be say that 0.2% of the energy of US as a whole. Geothermal energy is shaped from logically taking place condensation and scorching dampens as of beneath the Earth’s exterior.Â The vapor turns around a turbine, which in revolve powers of an electric generator.Â Apart from that, the hot water can also be used to unswervingly heat edifices.Â The disadvantage to geothermal energy is that land sites are very hard to find and tremendously rare.Â An optimistic fact is that geothermal energy is very cost effective and dependable.
Wind energy manufactures a propos 2,500 Megawatts of energy, and engenders a measly .1% of our electricity.Â The blustery weather turns blades in the region of a hub, which is allied to the main streak.Â The core streak spins the generator.Â The extent of turbines is gritty by how much energy is needed.Â Miniature wind turbines are frequently used for homes, farms and ranches.Â Other ways to use wind energy include grinding grain and pumping water.
Wind is classed in categories of 1 through 7, with 7 being the highest and 1 being the lowest.Â A good blustery weather source that has a class of 3 or higher is the east shoreline and along the Appalachian Mountains.Â North Dakota is an excellent wind source.
The drawbacks of wind energy are that again, the technology is very luxurious and unaffordable, the equipment is acknowledged to be earsplitting natural world have been killed by successively into the turbines, and the wind might not be present at convinced period all over the year.
PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV) CELLS:
PHOTOVOLTAICS PV cells generate electrical energy from the sunlight.Â Resources used in computer chips are comparable to resources used in PV cells.Â These resources soak up the sunlight, which frees the electrons from their atoms and mandates them to produce the electricity.
PV cells are enormous because they don’t entail high continuation, are very reliable and dependable, and don’t produce pollutants.
Even though it is better to use renewable energy, we immobile have to use some type of relic fuels.Â We can, nevertheless, make the paramount choices, by using normal gas for water heating and power domestic device, which not only is better for the environment, but costs effective as well.
The negative aspect to this power resource is that it costs more than other energy sources and tends to work in actual fact only when the sun is immaculate.
THE NIGERIAN ENERGY SITUATION
From the residence expansion based evaluation description on the Niger Delta Environment, it was acknowledged that water and oil which are the two rich normal resources in the region are the springs and grounds of miserable deficiency. The equivalent can be said about vigor possessions such as gas, coal etc. in Nigeria, which is in huge large quantity, yet there is energy dearth in the country.
Climate change is like the Sword of Damocles hanging over humanity. It is simply the process by which human emissions of Greenhouse Gases are believed to be causing changes in the Earth’s climate system. The emission of Green House Gases (mostly from anthropogenic activities) into the atmosphere, turn out to deplete the ozone layer that absorbs/shields the atmosphere of intensive sun radiation and in turn makes the planet earth unduly warm with resultant variations in climate conditions. This phenomenon is known as climate change. It brings about global warming that is responsible for increases in extreme weather conditions, rise in sea level, storms, floods, decrease in rainfalls, droughts, impairment of the ecosystems and its biodiversities which human life depends on, rapidly melting glaciers, destabilization of major ice sheets, desertification, decrease in agricultural produce etc.
Government effort in the area of developing energy sector to the improvement of the poor status quo is on-going as seen in the current legislative process on national energy bill for an act that will lead to the establishment of a national agency that will take charge of regulating, enforcing policies and developing the energy sector in Nigeria. Just as we
now have the National Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA), so we hope to have the national energy regulatory agency when the bill is enacted into law.
Yet, if we must achieve energy efficiency, gas flaring must not exist and in the face of government’s discouraging effort in that direction, much is expected to be done, particularly by the civil society. Although the issuance of deadline for flares-out, January
2008 is reasonable, whereas its commitment to realizing it is absolutely discouraging due to lack of compliance on cash calls to the tune of $4billion (N508 billion) yearly for joint venture projects (JVP). This is due to the fact that the Federal Government through
NNPC owns the largest stake in the JVP. The oil/gas sector have since been working on various gas utilization projects, by way of using gas for power generation to, at least, improve epileptic nature of power supply in the country, while some are working on exporting the gas.
On Gas-to-Power Project
The International Finance Institutions (IFIs) and the World Bank are currently assisting the Agip’s Kwale Partners’ Flaring-Reduction to use the natural gas to generate electricity. The project is further supported by Global Gas Flaring Reduction (GGFR) – a
Public Private Partnership (PPP) project and is to be registered as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project under the Kyoto Protocol. The Kwale Partners’ Flaring Reduction Project which is 40% stake to Nigerian AGIP and 60% to NNPC, will be
the first to put associated natural gas into generating electricity in Nigeria and will eliminate 1.5 million tons of CO2 – thus becoming the 10th largest in the 2,160 projects in CDP pipeline of Kyoto Protocol.
There are also plans to build a $10billion (N1.27 trillion) gas pipeline network across the
Sahara Desert through Niger, Algeria, across the Mediterranean for export of gas from Nigeria to Europe by Shell. In addition to that, the West Africa Gas Pipeline (WAGP) project spearheaded by Chevron is to also export gas from Nigeria to Benin, Togo and
Ghana, with capacity of 75 billion cubit feet a year and would cost $590 million (N74.6 billion). SPDC, NNPC are equally partners in the project. And for Ghana Pipeline stretch,
the World Bank has already provided guarantee for $50 million (N6.3 billion) while $75million (N9.5billion) political risk guarantee has also been provided for West African
Gas Pipeline Company (WAGPCO) – that will operate the project. Chevron has 36.7 % stake in WAGPCO, Shell, Tokoradi Power Company Limited of Ghana, Togolaise de
Gaz and Societe Beninoise de Gaz are other shareholders in the company.
Impacts and Statistics
Meanwhile, United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOOA) in its studies revealed that Nigeria flares 75% of its Natural gas for lack of processing facilities and that amounted to 20% of flared gas Worldwide. Secondly, according to Earth Trend Country Profile 2003, its report on Nigeria shows that Nigeria flares 2.5billion cubic feet per day of associated gas and that represents 40% of all natural gas consumed in the continent of Africa and further represents the single largest sources of GHG emissions on planet earth.
On that note the Nigerian Government is doubling its effort in seeking support on how to tackle the issue of flares-out. Presently, the Government is seeking assistance from Norway, while World Bank is presently mediating between it and the Multinational oil/gas companies for a compromise on the ultimatum to end gas flaring January 2008.
SUSTAINABLE HOUSING IN NIGERIA:
One may perchance be excited to put why accent is being positioned on the housing. Firstly of all man’s basic needs, housing questionably, constitutes and incontrovertibly poses the supreme challenge.
Secondly, dynamic and lighthearted accommodation sectors are a proposition of a physically powerful curriculum of countrywide investment and are to be sure the groundwork of and the first step to future monetary growth and social development.
The unpleasant housing delivery is consequently a most important factor in the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) and indeed this reflects the mirror and the gauge of the state of health of the Nation.
Financially viable activities are well recognized to include all aspects of human enterprise that are heading for towards the conception of wealth. It is also known that one of the foundations of person needs is to try to find to augment our self worth by civilizing our living standards.
Economic growth is therefore a natural hunt in any individual set-up as such enhancements is predictable to lead to amplified wealth and affluence both for individuals and the complete nation.
In regulate to restrain the heightened deficiency of sanctuary in the country, the NHP for the period spanning 1994 to 1998 was probable to build 121,000 housing units. In addition, the amount of Licensed Primary Mortgage Finance Institutions (LPMFI) rose from 251 in 1993 to 276 in 1994. However, by the end of 1998, it has declined to 115. Similarly, the Federal Government resources disbursement on somewhere to live increase by over 500 per cent to
N4818.3 million in 1995 from N776.7 million in 1988, but deteriorates slightly by about to per cent to N722.0 million in 1998 (CBN 1994 and 1998). The Federal and the State Government were probable to spend N2.7 billion on housing provision during the 1996-8
NRP. Over N3.0 billion was expected to be spending by the two levels of governments during the 1999-2001 NRP (NPC, 1998 and 2000). Regardless of all these interferences and inventions and huge investments in housing requirements since the colonial times and to date, Nigeria’s housing problems still remain intractable. In fact, access to decent shelter has wretched for increasing segments of the urban population in Nigeria. For instance, it was reported that out of 121,000 housing units be down for to be built between 1994 and 1995, only 1,014 houses were completed (CBN, 1994 and 1998; and Vision 2010 Main Report). Also, it was estimated that about 85 per cent of urban population live in single rooms, and the number of tenants per room range from 8 to 12 with adverse effects on sanitation and health. The deteriorating housing situation in Nigeria, especially at the urban centers is too critical to leave for government to level out alone.
Nigeria is the 6th biggest creator of unfinished oil in the privileged confederation known as OPEC, whose members account for over two -third of the world’s total supply of this product. Also the country’s anticipated reserves of natural gas runs into billions of metric tones and the first train of the liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has recently being shipped out with theÂ construction all fully committed to purchase’s from abroad. In terms of revenue earning capability and latent, it is worth mentioning that Nigeria to date has realized over S200 billion from crude oil sales.
For a country that could blow your own horn of such huge amount of possessions, it is very saddening and disturbing to note that very little of the pay packet have been put into use to boost the fortune of the Housing Industry and infrastructure. The industry should have seen a lot more commotion and government support, in large scale development schemes, and improvement and providing of infrastructure; provision of large scale community housing, creating and getting higher new towns.
A superficial look at the present state of the housing condition tells an obtrusive tale of a huge paradox – An absurdity of achieving so little with so many donations! A measure of inadequacy of the government that should to provide the lead. And so today the somewhere to live stipulation is in a state of down for the count, neither dying nor living!!!
STATUS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN NIGERIA:
Wind Energy Potentials
Internationally, Nigeria is positioned within short to moderate wind liveliness zone. Ojosu and Salawu (1989) carried out the most inclusive on a national scale study on current of air get-up-and-go accessibility and latent in Nigeria. The revise uses facts on Wind speeds and guidelines for 22 meteorological Stations from the Nigerian Meteorological office, Oshodi near Lagos. The meteorological data are based on the 3-hourly records of wind for periods ranging from 12 to 33 years (1951 – 1983)
The insolvents at 10m heights are drawn and four different wind zones/regimes are identified .The wind energy probable for wind energy consumption in Nigeria is broadly considered (Ojosu and Salawu, 1990).
Solar Energy Resources in Nigeria
According to Bala et al (2000), Nigeria is gifted with a twelve-monthly normal daily brightness of 6.25 hours, ranging between about 3.5 hours at the coastal areas and 9.0 hours at the far northern boundary (Figure 8). Correspondingly, it has an annual average daily solar emission of about 5.25 KW/m2/day, varying between about 3.5 kWm2/day at the coastal Area and 7.0kW/m2/day at the northern boundary (8). Nigeria accepts on the subject of 4.851x 1012 KWh of energy per day from the sun. This is the same to about 1.082 million tones of oil Equivalent (mtoe) per day, and is about 4 thousand times the current daily crude oil diminution, and about 13 thousand times that of natural gas daily construction based on energy unit. This huge energy resource from the sun is available for about 26% only of the day. The country is also characterized with some cold and dusty impression during the harmattan, in its northern part, for a period of about four months (November-February) annually (13). The dust has an attenuating effect on the solar radiation intensity (Bala, et al, 2001).
Biogas Energy Resources
Akinbami et al (2001)’s consideration indicated that in Nigeria, notorious feedstock substrate for an economically reasonable biogas program embraces water lettuee, water hyacinth, dung, cassava leave, urban refuse, solid (including industrial) waste, agricultural residues and sewage. Various farming and domestic animals resources and their coupled residues have the prospective substrates for biogas production in the country. Akinbami et al (2001)’s views include the following; Nigeria produces about 227,500 tons of fresh animal wastes daily. Since 1 kilogram (kg) of fresh animal wastes produces about 0.03 m3 gas, then Nigeria can produce about 6.8 million m3 of biogas every day. In addition to all these, 20kg of municipal solid wastes (MSW) per capital has been estimated to be generated within the country annually. By the 1991 census figure of 88.5 million inhabitants, the full amount generated MSW will be at least 1.77 million tones every year. With escalating urbanization and industrialization, the annual MSW generated will maintain to increase. Biogas construction may therefore be a money-spinning means of falling or even eliminate the peril and annoyances of urban waste in many cities by recycle them.
- Â Abumere S. (1987) “Urbanisation and Urban Design in Nigeria” in Onibokun A.C,
- Â Olokesusi et al Urban Reveiwal In Nigeria
- Â Agbola Tunde (1998) “The Housing of Nigerian: A review of policy development and
- Â Implementation. Research Report No.14.
- Â CBN (1990-1998) Annual Report and Statement of Accounts, Central Bank of Nigeria;
- Â Abuja.
- Â CBN (1993-1997) Statistical Bulletin (Various issues) CBN; Abuja
- Â Falegan S.B. (1985) “Housing Finance and Funding: The Nigeria Experience” In(ed)
- Â Onibokun, Poju; Housing in Nigeria (A book of reading) NISER.
- Â Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) (1994) Social Statistics in Nigeria FOS; Abuja
- Â Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) (1997) Social Statistics in Nigeria, FOS, Abuja
- Â Federal Office of Statistics(FOS) (1999) Poverty profile for Nigeria (1980-1996) FOS;
- Â Abuja
- Â Federal Ministry of Works And Housing (2001) Publication in Policy News Journal June
- Â 4, 2001.
- Â Policy strategies should be targeted towards sustainable, eco-friendly alternative energy sources.
- Â The government should set up the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency.
- Â Develop adequate policies with input from the civil society to address renewable energy and energy efficiency
- Â Nigerian government should encourage the use of solar energy to provide electricity for her populace
- Â State government be encourage to generate alternative energy sources Civil society and NGOs must be involved in the planning and implementation of renewable energy and energy efficiency policy
- Â Capacity build should be intensified to empower communities to advocate for renewable energy and energy efficiency
- Â Nigerian government and local NGOs should develop partnership with international agencies to develop renewable energy and energy efficiency
- Â The importation of renewable energy products should be duty free to encourage the development in Nigeria
- Â The government should promote the mapping of renewable energy and energy efficiency centers
- Â Mainstream gender in the energy sector through policy formulation and implementation
- Â The government should increase budgetary allocation to energy sector for research and development of alternative energy in Nigeria
- Â Enhance strategic integration of relevant stakeholders groups into all policies on renewable energy