Study On Charismatic Leadership Management Essay

Introduction

Nowadays, managing people is a common issue on all type of businesses but it is important. To effectively and efficiently leading the personnel in the organization without wasting intellectual capital or the company’s resources is the ideal that organizations want to achieve.

In our research, we attempt to clarify the correlation between the charismatic leadership and the organizational change.

Charisma is the extraordinary ability that a person possesses naturally and let them able to influence people, attract their attention and admiration.

Charismatic leadership is the type of leadership which make people admire and willing to follow them. Charismatic leader is a person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers. According to Max Weber, Charismatic leader has a fire that ignites followers’ energy and commitment, which produce results beyond the call of duty. Thus, he had the ability to inspire and motivate people.

There are several qualities of Charismatic leadership:

Lofty visions

Ability to understand and empathize

Empowering and trusting subordinates

Proactive, high energy and action orientation

Everything is changing except the status quo of “change”. Every individuals, every things, could not running out of the scope of change. Similarly to organization, changes will always affects every part of the companies include their business, their environment, their people and so on.

The Objective of this report is to enhance the leading style of charismatic leadership on the organizational change. Besides, improve the organization to adapt to the changes of environment, and the organization growth through globalization.

Content Analysis

From the study, the researchers found that the followers who rated their leaders as charismatic also reported being open and accepting the changes occurring in their organization. Specifically, followers of charismatic leaders were much more open to their work-roles changes and had a positive outlook on the benefits of the changes to their organization. Given the nature of organizational change and the pervasiveness of employee resistance to change, this finding suggests that charismatic leadership behaviours may engender follower attitudes and beliefs that promote rather than resist organizational change.

Besides, a necessary ingredient of successful organizational change is leadership behaviour capable of overcoming resistance to change by causing followers to experience a “felt need” for the proposed changes. Indeed, the results suggest that charismatic leadership behaviours, including the ability to powerfully articulate an inspiring vision and communicate to followers a sense of ownership of the vision, may affect followers’ openness to organizational change and perceptions of leadership effectiveness. (Kevin, 2005, p. 19)

In conclusion, the effectiveness of the charismatic leadership will influence the follower’s behaviour.

From the study, the researchers found that the both of the visionary and expressive delivery components of charismatic leadership can influence follower task performance. The expressive delivery includes having energy, leaning toward followers, maintaining direct eye contact, having a relaxed posture, and exhibiting animated facial expressions.

Second, they also found that the extent to which each of these components affects the follower task performance is dependent on the type of tasks in which followers are engaged. They suggested that organizations should consider the importance of performance quantity versus quality in their decision to select or promote a charismatic leader or non-charismatic leader. For example, if performance quality is much more important than quantity, the use of charismatic vision might be especially relevant. Regarding task type, charismatic leaders in non-charisma-conducive jobs or industries might be encouraged to adopt a contingent-reward or structuring style of leadership rather than focusing on the communication of a charismatic vision to followers. When followers are in a more charisma conducive job or industry, leaders should communicate a vision to followers to improve follower’s task performance.

In addition, a charismatic vision may provide meaning to the task, which can add to follower’s motivation. Under these conditions, followers might work to get the task done right, resulting in high quality rather than simply working to get the task done. A lack of vision for followers could, therefore, translate into very poor performance on more difficult tasks. (Stefanie & Robert, 2008, p. 102)

Charismatic leader

Work Engagement

OCB

In the diagram above, it is the combination of the four hypotheses. Four of the hypotheses are all links with each other. Work engagement is a mediator which is likely an intermediary trying to find solution and between the two disagreement of two parties (charismatic leader and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour-OCB). OCB is defined as individual behaviour that is discretionary. The relationship between charismatic leaders is also closely related. As OCB discuss mainly about the organization behaviour, it will also reflect charismatic leadership. Since charismatic leaders can spark an employee’s engagement in work, it will lead to more participation in positive behaviours that promote the organization.

In the journal Toward a Behavioural Theory of Charismatic Leadership in Organizational Settings, there are some significant variables discussed. The term charisma here refers to the particular type of character by follower and leaders behaviour. First, the behavioural and nature of the charismatic leader can be determined by doing empirical test. The method can through questionnaire to identify it. Then, they can use the result to compare with the person to find out that whether he is a charismatic or non charismatic leader. Second, after determining charismatic leader, it can be use as a tool to change the organization. A charismatic leader may not only key to success of an organization but also vital to countries that are developing which may require to adopt new technologies and transform traditional way of operating.

From the study of Workgroup gender diversity-asymmetric among men and women, the need of charismatic leadership is generated from a situation of uneasiness and uncertainty created in context of weak social diversity. For example, increasing levels of gender diversity comes with lower levels of pro-social behaviour where the behaviour that is beyond the requirements of the job, higher levels of conflict, lower levels of friendliness, and lower levels of job-related satisfaction and self-esteem. This situation brings indefinite and doubtful social circumstance when role expectations are less clear. The reason of these negative effects of gender heterogeneity comes from similarity-attraction paradigm, which is people with similar attitudes are attracted among themselves, in contrast, distrust and discomfort could occur when dissimilarity of attribute in group are happened. In the circumstance of gender heterogeneity, tendency of needs of charismatic leadership is greater than in homogeneous group or attribution of charisma is lower in homogeneous group than in heterogeneity group.

Meanwhile, the hypotheses are made based on the journal. Hypothesis said that as the level of gender diversity increases in the work team, individual members would attribute higher levels of charismatic leadership to their elected leader and the result are partially supports this hypothesis. So, as expected, the higher the gender diversity, the higher the needs of charismatic leadership to their elected leader. Besides, they also made a hypothesis that the positive effect of gender diversity on individual’ charismatic relationship with the leader will be stronger for men than for women. The result shown that, it may happen when teams are formed in major; minor or a balanced condition.

From the journal of Team climate, work team members tend to share their mood at work, so called ‘team affective climate’ that related to job satisfaction, commitment, and performance of the workers. Related with the climate, team leaders need to play an important role in influencing individual’s different dimensions and modelling the group climate. The key is leaders with charisma, which can strongly influences the work-team effects, such as performance and other intangible aspects. In fact, charismatic leadership is said to be the result of an attribution based on followers’ perception of their leader’s behaviour, specifically behaviours that articulate and help build a positive vision and foster an impression of the importance of the followers’ mission. Hence, leader with charisma is said to have an important implication of building team affective climate and they need to articulate a constructive affect that results in a positive affect facing by followers.

From the study, they had made few hypotheses. First, they posit that higher levels of perceived leaders’ charisma will predict higher levels of team optimism whereas higher levels of perceived leaders’ charisma will predict lower levels of team tension. As the result, team optimism and charisma leaders are correlated meanwhile lower levels of team tension cannot create by charisma leaders. Besides that, they also hypothesizes that Leader’s influence will make the positive relationship between leader’s charisma and team optimism stronger; at the same time, leader’s influence will make the negative relationship between leader’s charisma and team tension stronger. The result shown that, both hypotheses are supported by their findings. Lastly, they had made guesses that more frequent leader’s interaction will make the positive relationship between leader’s charisma and team optimism stronger and negative relationship between leader’s charisma and team tension stronger. After they had processed their findings, the result showed that both guesses are not correct.

From the study of Political Connection: The Missing Dimension in Leadership, Strong Networks cans Supplement Other Leadership Deficiencies. While, Larry Chasteen, the PhD holder state out that many people will think leadership is just a part of the business. It is a key ingredient for successful firm, making profit or non profit and even using in the countries. They have examines in the combination of traits to find out the change in organization behaviour in the organization. Some even use more than three of the traits such as emotional intelligence versus intellectual quotient or charismatic leadership versus instrumental leadership.

The Classical Myers Briggs has made a classification on uses the four dimensions. There are physics notes that more dimension will lead to confusing from explaining our original traits. This article just focus on leadership :charismatic leadership instrumental leadership and political connections .These three tools can be use as a tool for self-assessment .It has combine the attributes of leaders , managers and networking.

The research showing a charismatic leader is not enough to change the organization in long term as it can wear off easily .The instrumental leadership has been include the strength of charismatic leadership. It will lay over through structuring , controlling and rewarding to give out support for achieving the organization final goal .Charismatic leadership is needed to generate the initial energy and to create commitment. Many government and industry leaders who uses charismatic and instrumental leadership have fail to make changes to the organizations. For example, Colin Powell has exhibit a great charismatic and instrumental that serve him exceptionally well during his early career. But because of his lack of political support, he has been hindered of accomplishment and legacy as a U.S. Secretary of State. However, Condoleezza have a political connections led to a longer-lasting accomplishments at the Department of State. As a fact, General Electric has passing by such a leadership matrix to allow more variation in selected parameters for company decisions.

In a great changing of an organization, charismatic is not enough to achieve an effective institutional re-organization. It requires both the charismatic and instrumental leadership as well with political powers to move on to the higher position. A good political connection can overcome the weakness of the leadership and bring strength in any firms and government offices. Make sure you are clear enough on which goals are most important and for the organization are the first steps to career advancement.

From the study of “Charismatic Leadership: A Phenomenological and Structural Approach” The author of this journal propose that the most direct impact of the visionary charismatic’s characteristics is on the perceptions and feelings of the followers. Their interpretative schemes and what flows from them purposefully, emotionally and motivationally. Intrinsic and extrinsic validity are experienced whenever perceptions and feelings are congruent with behaviour is congruent with consequences. Changes in follower perceptions, feelings or behaviour in the consequences of that behaviour therefore could establish the necessary conditions for phenomenological validity to be experienced.

The direct impacts of leader behaviour on the feelings of followers will an indirect impact on the followers. As an example, when leaders changes task or environmental variables, which hypothesized to affect internal and external correspondence such as task design, reward systems, and organizational structure.

There are some proposition consists in charismatic leadership. Proposition is that it believes that it must be based on the articulation of an ideological goal. The writers may not fully agree as in crisis situation, ideological is too restrictive to be broadening to include the cognitions, values and need structures. Propositions 2 will lets he followers experiencing the leaders and others behaviours as well as their own. Propositions 3 to 8 primarily concern factors that influence whether cognitions and feelings and behaviours will be high on internal correspondence and will be experienced by the followers as intrinsically valid. Propositions 9 to 15 is concern about the primarily thought to affect external correspondence.

The implication of the writer model is that charismatic effect may not be limited to a few who are endowed with exceptional gifts or supernatural qualities. They imply that charismatic effect may be widespread. They feel that their model invites an understanding of meaning, reasons motivations, and intentions as it seeks explanatory connections between formal structural arrangements and behaviour.

From the study of “The role of emotional intelligence and personality variables on attitudes toward organizational change” People-oriented research in organizational change explored issues of charismatic or transformational leadership, the role of top management in organizational change and the phenomenon of resistance to change, without considering the psychological traits or predispositions of individuals experiencing the change, which are equally crucial for its success. Nevertheless, they argued that individual difference variables, such as locus of control, positive affectivity, openness to experience and tolerance for ambiguity play an important role in employees’ work attitudes (e.g. organizational commitment, satisfaction) as well as they predict self and supervisory assessments of coping with change. King and Anderson (1995) also indicated the role of individual differences along with previous bad experiences of change as responsible for high levels of negative attitudes and resistance to change.

It shows that there is correlation between charismatic leadership’s role perception, personality and organisational change.

From the study of “Beyond the Charismatic Leader: Leadership and Organizational Change”

By: David A. Nadler Michael L. Tushman

While the subject of leadership has received much attention over the years, the more specific issue of leadership during periods of change has only recently attracted serious attention.” What emerges from various discussions of leadership and organizational change is a picture of the special kind of leadership that appears to be critical during times of strategic organizational change. While various words have been used to portray this type of leadership, we prefer the label “charismatic” leader. It refers to a special quality that enables the leader to mobilize and sustain activity within an organization through specific personal actions combined with perceived personal characteristics.

There are three types of behaviour that categorises these leaders. They are envisioning, energising and enabling. In envisioning, it involves the creation of a picture of the future, or of a desired future state with which people can identify and which can generate excitement. By creating vision, the leader provides a vehicle for people to develop commitment, a common goal around which people can rally, and a way for people to feel successful. It is then easier to achieve the new organisational goals. Energising means that the role of leaders to motivate members in the organisation. Different leaders engage in energizing in different ways, but some of the most common include demonstration of their own personal excitement and energy, combined with leveraging that excitement through direct personal contact with large numbers of people in the organization. They express confidence in their own ability to succeed. They find, and use, successes to celebrate progress towards the vision. Lastly, enabling is where the leader psychologically helps people act or perform in the face of challenging goals. Charismatic leaders demonstrate empathy-the ability to listen, understands, and shares the feelings of those in the organization. They express support for individuals. Because of this, people tend to be motivated in achieving their goals when there is change in the organisation.

From the study Journal of ERP Implementation lifecycle, it revealing the changes made by the charismatic leadership. Charismatic leadership is an exemplary type of leadership that shows significant relationship to the level of ERP assimilation.

Environmental sensitivity of a charismatic leader will lead the organization change and make significant improvement to the organization since he is able to diagnose and update himself to the internal and external environment.

Communication of the leader’s vision is significantly important it will influence and lead his follower to align the vision with the organization and make the organization growth stronger and change accordingly to the leader’s vision.

Expectation of leader also will indicate a positive outcome from his follower and organization. According to Self-fulfilling prophecy, positive expectation from a leader will create a positive desired result from his followers. It shows that, the complete guide and influences of the vision from a leader toward his followers, will affect them to be motivated and collaborated to help in achieving the vision of the leader.

Furthermore, complete guide and influences of the vision from a leader toward his followers, will make them to be motivated and collaborated themselves that help in achieving the vision of the leader. Similarly caring of the leader will make the followers feel more supported and secure and trust to the leader. Besides, it also builds confident to the followers. If the leader is trusted and respected by his followers, his followers are more likely to follow and help the leader to achieve his vision. Therefore, the followers do not mind to work hard for achieving the organization vision and thus the organization change and performance increase.

Cohesiveness from the follower shows changes in organizational norms and culture. It shows that a positive norms and culture such as organizational citizenship behaviour. Thus, the cohesiveness of the follower will indicate changes in organizational norms and culture, if this type of positive norms and culture stay longer; the growth of the organization will be undoubtedly fast.

It shows that a leader’s charismatic leadership is significantly related to organizational change and all level of ERP implementation lifecycle.

Conclusion:

In our research there are significant relationship between Charismatic leadership and Organisational Change.

Firstly, it shows that a Charismatic leadership behaviour is an exemplary or model for his followers which enable and capable for overcoming the constraints for organisational change. It drives the followers to learn from many aspect of the charismatic leader. Significantly, the behaviour of the leader creates organisational citizenship behaviour toward the employees that allow them to take good care about the organisation image and the internal environment. Similarly to the norms of working of employees, it is also creating a working culture and work standard that improving the performance in an organisation.

Secondly, the role perception of a Charismatic leadership is significant important as well as the personal meaning for the leadership. It influences their follower understand of their role and this will incur the organisational change. Form this aspect, it shows that if the leader able to give motivation, support and cheer the work of employees will smoothen the organisational changing process.

Thirdly, the relationship and collaboration among group, team and the charismatic leadership also will indicate significant changes in the organisation performance and organisational culture. Similarly to the workgroup diversity, the strong and cohesiveness workgroup will indicate high performance culture that makes the organisation have high sustainability where the entire organisation culture can aligns with the organisational performance.

Lastly, good attribution from charismatic leadership such as environmental sensitivity, persuasive communication, and unconventional vision will foster and lead the changes in the organisational environment.

Recommendation

Unconventional styles used by charismatic leader will often create the undesired conflicts among the colleagues in the organisation as changing the status quo of works. Therefore the charismatic leader had to consider the others feelings and try to make them follow and align with his vision even if he is able to take the accountability and risk by himself.

Morals are often covered up by the deficiencies of wisdom. However, wisdom is not always filled up by morals. This is referring to the negative charismatic leadership. Some charismatic leaders tend to use the leadership style for their own personal gain and thus neglect the moral values. In order to manage change in the organization efficiently, charismatic leaders must put the organization’s interest above his personal interest. Being a charismatic leader gives an advantage to him because he may influence others in the organization to follow his bidding and if it is against the organization’s interest, it will be very much unhealthy to it. That is the reason why charismatic leaders should have strong moral values in them.

Besides that, organizations should also encourage whistle blowing in the company. This can help reduce the negative charismatic leadership from expanding in the organization. When an organization is facing with changes, it will be chaotic and this will give chances to charismatic leaders to do under the table exchanges. By encouraging such behaviour among employees, executives are able to keep most charismatic leaders under control from influencing others for personal gain.

Charismatic leaders should also make contingency plans. This serves as a backup plan when the original plan fails to work. During a change, charismatic leaders may be responsible to keep followers in track and to maintain order. This needs the leaders to come out with more plans to keep followers motivated into accepting the change. Some employees tend to resist change and so the charismatic leaders must form plans and considering the scenarios that may happen so that it will make him or her influence them to accept the changes.

In addition, during a huge crisis, these charismatic leaders must think conventionally and behave unconventionally. During a change, things will be hectic and many problems may arise or perhaps conflict may happen among followers. Leaders need to think rationally on how to handle this kind of situation and not just simply jump into it and create even more confusion.

Charismatic leaders should also come up with strategies to minimize the resistance of followers to the change. Many followers tend to resist change because they think that it is going to mess up their normal routine. As a leader, charismatic leaders need to come up with ways to persuade these types of followers to accept the change instead of going against it in order to reduce the conflict that might have arise if it is not handled properly.