Question 1 Section A:
Standard deviation– is the positive square root of the variance. E.g. if 217.4 is gotten as the variance from a given distribution, it then implies that the standard deviation will be 14.7 by applying the square root on the variance score of 217.4.
Mean-is the arithmetic average of a set of scores in a distribution. The average of the scores; 8, 9,10,11,12 is 10 which means summation of all the scores (x) divided by the total number of elements (n), which gives 10.
Hypothesis– this is an assumption of statement which may not be true concerning one or more population. E.g. a hypothesis to test the ability of trained employee is better or higher than that of an untrained employee in a company.
Continuous variable– are those variable that assume a continuum of values within the range of its observed lowest and highest values. This means that the values in the range are infinitely close to one another, and uncountable. E.g. heights of human beings temperature of a room, volume of water in tank, weights of people, etc. while categorical variable is a random variable that takes only a discontinuous set of values. It takes only specific values within a set of range of values that are countable. E.g. number of persons in a household, no of days on sick leave, scores recorded to the nearest hall mark.
Bivariate research design– A bivariate research is defined as the type of study which tries to look at the causal relationship between two variables under investigation
Variable label and variable value– variable label can be explained in words what variable represent while variable value is a set of values that relates to variable.
Statistic descriptive- is agenda variable to run a frequency expressed numerically.
Mode– is defined as the score or element that repeats or occurs most frequently in a given distribution.
Theory– can be define as a system of ideas in explaining something.
Paradigm- is defined as a theory, statement or fact that tends to be generally acceptable by all when explaining a particular phenomenon.
Face validity– seeking to know the measurement strategy, like how a measure and procedure appears.
Reliability and validity– reliability is a degree of assessment to produce a stable tool while validity is to test measure and what it claims to measure.
Random assignment– proceeding based on evaluation, for instance properties knowing how the levy tax is been paid.
Covariation versus causality– in a relation of x and y are related in a population, e.g. When there is no relationship meaning that is non-hypothesis while causality has to do with co-variation to random which by chance.
Experimental design– this is some-well defined act or process that leads to single well-defined outcome .e.g. tossing a coin to see whether heads or tails comes up, opening a book at random and noting the first word on the right hand page, etc.
Measurement- finding a number that shows the size and amount of something.
Spurious relationships– is a calculation related to two events or variable that has no frequent interval of connections.
Probabilistic statement– this is a statistical statement made for the chance or likelihood of event occurance over the others. E.g. someone may say that girls can perform home chores than the boys.
Descriptive statistic– this is the aspect of statistic that studies a body of statistical data and no generalisation is made from the result obtained. E.g. collection of data classification of data, drawing of histogram. Polygons statistical graphs and charts.
Deterministic statement: A deterministic statement is defined as that aspect of research which tries to look at the causal relationship between variables in which the occurrence or the degree of relationship between the variables occur with high sense of certainty.
Question 2 Section B:
(A) This is the guide line: In a typical research settings or statistical activities, Independent variable in a layman language could mean that which can change to give result to a particular thing and that is what is called Dependent Variable. There is a probability or likelihood that a relationship will exist between 2 variables; Example: A) Person’s Education: X) voter’s turn out Here is a relationship between Independent Variable A) which is “Person’s Education and X) Dependent Variable which is “Voter’s Turnout. This is because a person’s education can influence people coming out to vote base on their perception about election because educated people know the power of vote. So the probability is that the election outcome would be more positive. If we look into this issue from another perspective it is possible that educated people might not take part in politics because they do not like politics and political activities.
(B)Nation’s economic health (x) and a political revolution.
There is an intimate relationship between economy and revolution. In this section economy is an independent variable while revolution is a dependent variable. The probability is that if the economy is weak X, it would affect the Y and the people would go for revolution in order to change the existing set up because of their dissatisfaction. On the other hand if we look into the issue from a deterministic lens it would come into our minds that if the economy is strong the people would have no reason for revolution because they would be satisfied.
(C)Candidate’s height (X) and election outcome (Y).
The probability in this case is that X would affect Y because people like tall people than short one. But if we look from another position it would not appear the same because if someone is short it would not mean that he would not get any vote because it is not only height which does matter.
(2): This question first of all tries to look at whether or not it is possible to conduct an experimental research by a researcher under the prevailing variables.
A) An individual level of religiosity (x) his or her preference for different political candidates.
In this situation, conducting an experimental research is quite unlikely especially as it involves this two variables, an individual’s level of religiosity and his/her preference for different political candidates based on the following reasons:
- Conducting an experiment involves the ability of the researcher to be able to manipulate and control his variables, in which it is very difficult to conduct experiment because one cannot effectively manage, control and manipulate an individual’s level of religiosity.
- Another reason why conducting an experimental research tends to be problematic is based on the idea that individual’s views and opinions are dynamic and not static, therefore one cannot count on that as a pretext to vote.
- One illuminating factor that affects experimental research is the presence of a spurious variable which individual’s adopt in the process of conducting elections for example similar ideology, individual’s personal interest could also count and not necessarily religion.
(b). Military Service X and Attitudes towards foreign policy.
In this situation, conducting an experimental research is quite likely. In doing this, the researcher will randomly defined and assign values on his variables as thus:
Treatment group: This group involves the use of manipulation and control by the researcher in which he expose them to military service which would invariably affect their attiudes towards foreign policy
Control group: This group will not be controlled and manipulated by the researcher.
After assigning these values between the control and treatment group, it is quite likely that the researcher has conducted experiments on his variables and the group that has been exposed will react differently towards foreign policy than the group that has not been exposed.
(c) Exposure to negative news X and Political Apathy Y
Under this, having an experimental researcher is also possible when the researcher divides his population into both:
Treatment Group: It comprises the group that the researcher will control by exposing them to negative political news.
Control Group: It comprises the group that the researcher will not be under the purview or control of the researcher.
After randomly assigning this values to this two groups, it will become evident that the group exposed to negative news will likely develop political apathy than the group that has not been exposed.
D) A speaker’s personal characteristics (x) persuasiveness.
In this situation, it is difficult for experiment to work largely due to the fact that:
- Human beings and their views are not static but are subject to change at any given point in time.
- The challenge of control and manipulation of the variable to the researcher is also problematic.
- Other confounding variable may lead to persuasion rather than a speaker’s personal characteristics.
Question 3 Section C:
- Conceptualizing and Operationalizing Terms:
In this first step, the researcher will define his variable conceptually and operationally. Conceptual definition means the literal or library definition whereas operational definition refers to the applicability of the term (s) in my research.
Peace and justice are two interrelated ideas. It is clear to most of us that in order to achieve peace we are supposed to ensure justice and vice versa. A peace without justice would not be a sustainable one.
Conceptually speaking peace means a condition where you are secured by every mean or in other words you are no longer disturbed. If we look into this operationally then it means peace is the state of society where you will not find violence in the streets and there will be no threat to your life.
According to Oxford dictionary justice means’’ the state of being fair’’. If we look into this word operationally it carries different meaning to different people but the best definition is that if the social contract is monitored fairly by the authority then we can say that justice is there.
In my work peace would be an independent variable X while justice would be a dependent variable Y.
2. Developing a Methodological discourse or Agenda:
The second step is for the researcher to develop a methodology that will explain how the study will go about its research, whether qualitative or quantitative method.
In order to prove the relationship between two variable I would collect empirical data from various sources. My work will give an understanding to the readers that whether Peace causes justice or not.
3. Generating a Hypothesis:
By hypothesis it involves the use of hypothetical statements that will reject or approve the earlier established theory about the subject under investigation.
The next aspect is for the researcher to develop a hypothesis that will test his variables, in order to approve or disprove the theories and it is divided as thus:
- H1- peace brings justice
- H2- peace does not bring justice
- Reviewing relevant related literature about the state of the art:
Reviewing the works of other scholars about the subject the researcher is investigating is the next phase of the study.
The next phase is to develop a literature review about the sublects under investigating such as:
Literature Review on Peace-
According to Tim Sisk who defines peace as a step-by- step reciprocal moves to build confidence, resolve gnarly issues such as disarmament, and carefully define the future through the design of new institution.
According to New Testament, peace could mean the absence of conflict, as mentioned, but also either the health of body and mind or concord. Regarding the latter, peace seems an act of will of those in a conflictful situation.
According to David Cortright- sees peace as a social equality. Socialists and feminists brought these issues to the fore and broadened the peace agenda to include problems of economic injustice and patriarchy.
Literature Review on Justice-
According to Chris a scientist, he said that justice is the act upholding the law. However, the controversy that remains and the debate that ensures has to do with what the law itself should be.
According to Thrasymanchus, that justice is subjective form civilisation to another. Since the rulers can influence policy, law, and education, they can control the public perception of justice.
5. Data Analysis and Interpretations of Findings:
This phase of research will try to clearly explain the findings of the research whether or not the research has been able to achieve its objective or not by testing the initial stated hypothesis.
6. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This is the final phase in the research agenda, where the researcher will clearly summarize what the study is all about, draw the necessary conclusions and offer meaningful contributions or recommendations to the study.
Four Hurdle Facing Researcher:
- The degree of causality of variable i.e Independent and Dependent variables (X & Y).
Every researcher is faced with the dilemma of understanding the degree of causality between his independent variable X and his dependent variable Y.
- Could the Dependent variable Y also cause an effect on the Independent Variable Y
The second hurdle is for the researcher to be able to ascertain whether or not the dependent variable could invariably leads to a causal relationship with the independent variable Y.
- The degree of Covariation
The third hurdle, is for the researcher to be able to determine the degree of correlation or covariation between his variables.
- The presence of extraneous or Z- variable.
The last hurdle or dilemma faced by any researcher is the plausibility that other confounding or spurious variables tend to also serve as the possible causes in determining the degree of causality between X and Y variables which it is the responsibility of the researcher to keep that perspective in check.