1.1 Research Background
A port can be simply defined as a location where ship can dock and move personnel or cargo to or from land. in the last 50 years, ports have evolved from this definition, and have acquired a vital place in value-driven logistic-chain systems. They now are international logistic platforms forming a common boundary between production and consumption centres .Being an international logistic platform port sector deals with the volatile world market and are influenced by political factors, international trade, and overall world economic conditions than other sectors. These complex environments in port sector has made the port planning and port development into a very challenging task (Taneha,2010).Port functions can be compared to a self sustaining industry with domestic and international trade. As a part of supply chain management they also act as foreign exchange earner by providing logistics services to the industry. Thus while expansion of an existing port or planning of a green field project, ports can be treated as an industry.
Water transportation is a relatively energy-saving and environment friendly way of transporting many goods. However, coastal zones are particularly sensitive regions, and coastal ecosystems often are very fragile. Planning of an industry is driven by lot of factors such as demand and supply, institutional framework, application of technology, marketing strategy and ultimately economic impact analysis for the development and implementation of a project. The vigorous development of waterways in promoting sustainable development of transportation could potentially lead to negative environmental impacts on ports and the waters surrounding around ports ,and hence planning of a port should not only be concerned on simply demand and supply but need to pay more attention the importance of port environmental protection and planning
1.2 The reason of the choice of this subject
There have been a lot of researches and papers done on port planning but much of these researches were dominated by financial-economic aspects of port planning. .Author being a port management aspirant believes that focusing on other factors in port planning may contribute to the acceptance of the port activities and the sustainable development. The planning of a port should not only be concerned on simply demand and supply but need to pay more attention to the issues such as environmental factors ,safety and security, local mobility, noise, pollution, etc of the port area
The Existing Doha port has become somewhat hemmed in by all the development going on around the city’s waterfront, and thus a new Doha port is under construction. it has already been recognized that the location of the new port is close to environmentally sensitive coastal areas and the government has already ensured that the environmental impacts of the project, during both construction and the subsequent operation of the port will be mitigated to the maximum extent possible .Author consider this as opportunity to attain practical knowledge apart from theoretical studies on environmental considerations in port planning. Since the author has lived and visited Qatar several times he was able to generate some personal relationships which he believes to be vital in doing this thesis.
1.2 Overall Aim
The aim of this research is to investigate the role of Environmental factors in strategic port planning and development .The research will be done taking new Doha port as case study
1.3 The objectives of this research include:
- Analyzing the role of Institutional framework in def
ining the Port ownership model and hence to define the objectives of port
- To evaluate the power and influences of stakeholder in port development and planning process
- To investigate the limitations of port Planning in terms of environmental considerations
- To provided an overview of proposed new Doha port
1.3 Propose Methodology
Research will be done by using both primary and secondary data .The secondary data will be collected from book, journal, company report and website which will be used to construct the framework of this research. Primary data will be collected from the ports and port authority in the form of documents, questionnaires and interview. After that, the findings from primary and secondary data together with the literature review will be employed to conclude this thesis.
1.4 Research Overview
There is relatively little academic literature concerning planning perspective of environmental management within ports .The literature review will first cover a comprehensive summary of the basic features of strategic port planning including the definition, with the emphasis on the importance of port environmental protection, planning and management. Thorough analysis of the environmental issues related to ports will be conducted to gain a more comprehensive understanding of port environmental protection in New Doha port. A review will also be done in analysing the present methods followed in mitigating existing problems. Secondly an outline of the new Doha port will be done involving Qatar’s new policy and the reasons for conceiving the new port.
2.2 Strategic Port Planning
Planning and development of ports requires extensive organization and collaboration .Strategic planning in port can be defined as “systematic and continuing process which enables a port and its management to clearly determine mission, direction and activities” (AAPA,1998).
One of the key principles to be followed on planning a seaport is that it should be flexible to accommodate the periodic emerging changes happening in the technology of ships and cargo handling. Therefore identifying the factors that effects the port in the future including an appraisal of the port’ s external and internal environment can be considered as a top priority objective in strategic port planning . The major function of environment appraisal is to utilize the identified opportunities by developing appropriate responses and to act upon the counter threats in its market share. To evaluate the strategic investment required in terms of human resources, training, facilities and infrastructure, a clear assessment of port’s strength and weakness is essential. It is imperative for a port to identify its environment and its competition, its vision and mission and its strategies.
Ideally a port is designed according the demands of the objectives of the port, which in turn depends on the mission statement. Mission statement includes four elements – purpose, strategy, behaviour standards and values. The purpose elements explains why the company exits, strategy explains the competitive position and distinctive competence of company, values suggests why the company exits and behaviour standards look in to the policies and behaviour patterns that underpins the distinctive competence and the value system of company. (Gaur,2009)
An ideal single typology for port planning can rarely be achieved.The facilities which a port provides is designed by considering ships which uses them, the land transport and the port facilities at the other end of the route-that is, as part of an integrated transport system. A planner should always consider the problems in the port, in the context of the larger transport system of which the port is a part. He should also be aware of that fact that that strategic and social considerations play an important role in the location of a new port. Within these limits he should, however must be able to encourage and assist the industrial planners to search for the overall optimum economic resolution.
Port development and planning is largely influenced by numerous factors such as demand, competition, changes in trade patterns,port management, cargo handling technology ,environmental pressures etc.
Environmental Issues of Port
Sea ports are very multifaceted system when viewed from environmental point of view. The, the very existence of ports, as well as any expansion can always results in a certain loss of habitat .In fact most of the elements including construction and operation of ports in one way or another way can be associated with environmental impact. Pollution in ports can take place either under normal conditions or accidentally(Darbra et al., 2004). The constant and movement of ships in a limited and compact area can lead to collisions between ships or between ships and the coast at frequent intervals, following risk the of the release of hazardous materials (Trozzi andVaccaro, 2000).Ports faces with different environmental issues and is greatly influenced by the characteristics of each port (Casal, et al., 1999).
Table 2-1 (A) summarizes the ranking of the major environmental issues in sea ports,
according to the results obtained from the Europe Sea Ports Organization (ESPO)
The have been a lot of changes occurred over the thirteen years ase shown in the table .Port waste which not even present in the 1996 top 10 ranking was able achieve the first placed in 2003.In 2009 pollution caused by noise topped the chart. These changes can be considered as the result of increased environmental awareness in ports and the actions carried out as a result of increasing pressure from environmental legislation.
Contributions of Port Activities in Pollution
A wide range activities in port and harbour including dredging operations, materials disposal, shore zone development, increased maritime traffic and vehicular traffic in the port has an outcome in the form of anthropogenic contaminants to the environment (Trozzi and Vaccaro, 2000).
Pollution problems caused by port activities can be characterized into the following:
- Destruction of coastal habitats and silting of navigational channels due to causeway construction and land reclamation;
- Unregulated mariculture activities in the port and harbour areas may threaten navigation safety;
- Surface water quality deterioration can happen during the construction and operation phases;
- Operations in port and harbour can generate sewage, bilge wastes, solid waste and leakage of harmful materials both from shore and ships;
- Contamination of coastal water by urban effluent discharge can affect the human and fish health
- Pollution caused by oil due to the port/harbour and shipping operations is one of the major environmental hazards . This includes bilge oil released from commercial ships handling non-oil cargo as well as the more common threat from oil tankers
- Air pollutant emissions due to ship emissions, loading and unloading activities, construction emission and emissions due to vehicular movement. Gupta et al. (2002, p. 199)
The major air pollutants related to port activities are particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone, and sulphur oxides (SOx). Other pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, heavy metals, dioxins, and pesticides can cause problems as well (Bailey and Solomon, 2004).Construction and vapours, gas oil produced during
oil product transport, emissions of transport vehicles are considered to be major sources of air pollution in ports. Specific analysis is as follows (Bailey, 2004):
- A mixture of lime dust is produce during port construction which involves land piling, excavation, road resurfacing, materials transport, and cement casting .These have a definite impact on the air in the port area.
- Another source causing air pollution is the dust released during the process of handling and transporting of coal, ore, grain and other substances.The secondary stirring of dust may also occur whenever natural wind blow are produced with storage of similar merchandises bulk yards. Atmospheric dust pollution may result from the fuel used in assisted lifting facilities;
- Gases produced during port operation also causes serious air pollution.During the loading, transporting and storing of oil products and liquids at oil ports and container zones exhaust gases are emitted .These gases are referred as oil gases.Exhaust gases are also emitted from freight trucks and transportation vehicles. (Bailey, 2004).
- Another source includes indirect GHG emissions associated with the import and consumption of purchased electricity by a port for port-owned buildings and operations
The largest emission sources within ports are from marine vessels, trucks and cargo handling equipment. Together they account for over 90% of emissions at ports. Figure 2-2 shows the PM emissions and NOx emissions (Bailey, 2004).
Largest Emission Sources within Ports (PM Emissions and NOx Emissions)Source：Bailey, 2004.
Noise can be transferred through waterborne, airborne and structureborne. Most of the noise pollution is the airborne noise and it can influence related area nearby ports (Trozzi and Vaccaro, 2000) Theory of ergonomics states that ‘when the noise operating environment is more than a certain threshold the operating efficiency will decline sharply. it will lead operation errors then cause security incidents
- Noise in the shore:Construction and operation of a port are the main sources of noise pollution In port areas.This include the noise of construction machinery, traffic noise , mechanical noise of loading and unloading and other shipping activities.
- Ship noise includes the noise of ship operation, cabin mechanical impacting, air flow vibration, which can seriously affected staff’s physical and mental health..
Port activities and development process have larger contribution in water pollution. Major pollutants include direct pollutants during construction and operation phases and indirect pollutant occurring from the port under development.
Construction of a new port or development includes building of Cofferdam, land reclamation, waterway dredging which can result in sea water turbidity; and the possible discharge of hazardous substances in sediments at the surface of water cause secondary pollution; Port activities causing water pollution are listed below:
- Ballast water, washing process of oil tankers, cabin water, gas stations on shore, repair machinery and moving machinery wash water are example of wastewater containing oil by products;
- Runoff water from storm sewers and coal storage iron ore, non-metallic ore, the terminal yard, the wash water of the terminal surface, the belt corridor and other places, and the leaked sewage water from coal and or mines Toxic, hazardous materials and bulk liquid from containers and transport ships can bepresent in the cleaning sewage
- Port region and ship sewage, mainly from local canteens, bathrooms, toilets, office buildings and other ships anchored in port; and,Industrial wastewaters produced from the nearby port industrial zone.
- Mishandling and breakage of cargo process ,fault in machine or fault of stevedores and lack of maintenance can lead to leakage of oils, fuels, chemical substances, toxic material and liquids International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH), 1999):
2.3 Environmental Planning and Management in Ports
The purpose of environmental management is to protect environment and natural resources systems in the port surrounding area and to ensure the sustainability of development efforts over a long-term basis(Environmental Impact Assessment of Irrigation and DrainageProjects,1995).Throughout the history of port planning there has been only a little attention paid to the major environmental aspects Planning process at ports is basically in the hands of civil engineers and surveyors (Anon,1997) and hence the priority has always been on technical standards and land values. The environmental aspects considered during port development have generally been the by-products of related legislation, such as Health and Safety regulations, dangerous goods area spacing, waste reception and disposal, and traffic planning for ship safety (Couper, 1999).