A dsdm outline plan
Project initiation phase (1 page, not technical knowledge)
CSA projects will have a stepwise plan for doing prelimionary analysis before committing to the full scope of work, in the event of unknowns or surprises being within the scop;e of work. Scope is managed through the finance Department.
The scope of CSA project is to develop and implement centralized management, sharing data and the supporting IT systems and infrastructure necessary to provide: A secure and trusted means by which data communication can share information. A framework for information sharing, which can be transferred to other branches; areas and regions to assist in the delivery of integrated person centered services. The opportunity to measure and explore KPIs and other operational issues which effect the transition of children for example; each children remark, records, personal info.etc.
§ Large or high-risk projects will usually include provisions for review and reassessment of scope of work at this stage. By prior agreement, there may be a go/ nogo decision at this point.
Existing System Analysis: Mainly, there is no standard way that projects record information about users of their services. Some projects record using different ways of paper based system, spreadsheet to help maintain records. It is needed centralized management and powerful administration.
It is like that to choose the RAD technique within the DSDM framework. Proposed system requirements were feasible in contract agreement between our development team and CSA. We have been decided to use the ‘’Oracle Database” (this have enterprise features, models) as a standard database to implement.
Feasibility report will cover all the usual topics, but not in great details. If a project is seen to be feasible from the results of the study, the next logical step is to proceed with the full business plan.
Objectives of Business – to fulfill the business requirements of CSA, to solve each department responsible person in Area, Region, Administration. To make the CSA project better than the existing system, some of them will be needed to update information to meet business in marketplace.
- Stimulate innovative partnership practice in the voluntary and provider sector to further increase the volume of service available.
- Incremental and iterative development necessary to converge on an accurate business solution.
Configuration Management is a key factor in managing the evolving products (both software and documents). The changed plan or control procedure must be valid within the contract. If it is not, we can’t take this trouble. Project Manger probably reports this ‘user request form’ to Change Control Board (high level management to make decisions) to confirm the change request, features.
Another problem is scope changes because it takes more about features that some aren’t available in real time system when we implement. (Prototyping is used to help users visualize and request changes to the system as it is being built, allowing applications to evolve iteratively.)
Delivery timeframe changes because we can’t to get end product in the agree date. So, we must schedule again to balance about the urgent product. (Timeboxing is used to create artificially with customer agreement that was estimated at 12 weeks’ duration.)
Product description and breakdown structure
The product description considered about the CSA organization, firstly we must considered the products that are associated with
Budget Estimation happens after contract for development of the CSA project. It is the mainly event to perform as soon as later contract. Requirements Analysis is essentially required to make assessment of which are the requirements in CSA. Develop specific functionality defined as to carry out the proposed functions described in contract as CSA requirements. Define CSA requirements are needed really to determine the system starts before. It is divided by functional and non-functional requirements. Define System requirements are also needed to get required performance, response time to perform the system tasks such as defining required hardware, software.etc. For methodology, DSDM is used for development.
Organization Structure by product WBS
Risk Management Type
The risk lists is periodically reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies, which in turn drives revisions to the project plan and subsequent iteration plans.
Delays in appointing key personnel
Inability to meet target date
Project Board to progress appointments as a priority
Insufficient skills / resources / capacity within the partnership when required
Inability to meet target date
Ensure commitment at a senior level to deliver required resource
Board Of Directors (High level)
Competition for Technology Partner’s resources
Plan and identify resource requirements early
Poor co-operation between partners
Decisions take longer
Adequate internal resources must be made available to the project & appropriate representatives attend meetings
The system is to be developed under the joint guidance of the Director of Administrative Services and the Finance Director.
How to Reduce Risks
A central contract database will overcome the problem of record duplication. This solves the different way of project recorded information about users of their services. We decided to choose ‘’Oracle Database” to implement the central database as a enterprise standard of CSA. It has the features of data secure functions of performance and reliability of the backup and recovery operations are critical to effective database operation.
Monitor & Control risks
KPI helps the performance of indication of our CSA projects. It is essential to measure for each project. Risks monitoring and contingency plan are required together with KPIs. We must think of other potential risks such as hardware failure, disaster, staffs leaving etc. at the initiation stage before the development of CSA project. We must start taking care of during design phase before implementations. We must set up milestones, critical paths in CSA projects. In avoidance of risk, pre-consideration of overcome risks with contingency plan and risks training are essential.
Contingency Planning Project Manager also monitors the project progress. The main tool for deciding on progress is the prioritized requirements rather than a Gantt chart of activities. The Gantt chart will show the timeboxes, but the supplementary documentation about what is to be produced in each timebox is far more important for control and monitoring purposes of CSA.
Project manager must monitor on each of the phase finished before and after during the project. Limited duration solved by a milestone date, not to deviate the schedule he drew out before the project during planning stage.
Steve Sutherland (Finance Director) says “There can’t be a hard connection between the finance system we use and the MIS (Management Information System) as that would open up all sorts of security risks that we don’t want to open up”. We must think how we can share data between the two systems without compromising our finance system.
Possible Solutions (Security review)
//Unauthorisation of resources and data in order to decrease errors in activities of access level , CSA was going to manage the application software cover rights on single users to whom to prevent unauthorized access of secret information by this way we produce fully protection of database access to centralized office.
CSA could be to ensure instruction to functions in the area of information maintaining, retrieving from program. For the recovery and backup purposes, CSA’s privacy were secure because of the above functions.
We must consider security before documents sent to the central office in London, each of regions and areas needed to scan for virus free. And then, must send the required documents to the central.
How to control security
Login to database (Enter valid code to access data from centralized office). Give authority to each person to access for each of their application. Some kind of security like Norton Antivirus kit for threats, virus, spams mail, for other different threats. That is required for CSA database and documents security needed for all regions and areas. Back up for important data at off-site to be secured.
B) Prioritised Function Lists
Source: Mr Tulley
Sign Off: Mr Tulley
Functional Requirement (s)
-Centralized standard db (Must have)
-Centralized management (Must have)
-Record contracts info in current & future(Must have)
-Each projects linked to central contract(Must have)
-Record core data about the projects, young people and their —KPIs they are working with(Could have)
-Secure personal data (accessing authorized person)(Should have)
-Secure Data sharing between central to regions, areas,(Must have)
-Accurate and update info, KPIs send back to Administrative —–(Must have)
-Services Department every 3 months(Must have)
-Sending data to Funding body to correct (Must have)
-Produce regular monitoring reports for funding bodies(Want to have)
-Send children’s KPIs to Administrative Service Department (to change data) (Must have)
-Monitor children’s behavior, character in KPIs for admin(Could have)
Assumption of functional requirements
Project prioritization MoSCoW is required to prioritise. It can be divided by FMI or DBI. Implement the recommendations of the CSA, review establishing children’s records and review each of their KPIs.
CSA with functions for the department of regional and areas for housing, family support, education & training and tackling crime with this portfolio as their primary responsibility. Fulfill the requirements for each contract linked to central contract.
Provide support to develop oracle database for centralized offices to ensure more effective way for branches such as areas, regions and related partner. We have to consult to agree functions with the Board of Trustees.
From each department to central offices can send KPIs information safety related with administrative department. Secure data sharing is also needed to develop among them. Staff must be trained on new system established for training case to know how Oracle database system works. Training and qualifications are necessary to respond to send data vice versa. We must define staff level or permission to access data, records. We have responsibility to manage IT training course for young people who have previously committed crime.
Training should be refreshed on a periodic basis. For example, holidays, duties off.
C) Non-functional Requirements Specification
Non-functional Requirement (s)
– Safety and Efficiency(DBI)
-The above requirements are permitted by Project Board.
Acceptable Range: ok
Assumption on non-functional requirements
In addition, donation for young children from online should be able to meet with people who want to donate.
Data collection and management issues will substantially affect the usefulness of data sources; therefore, the quality of collected data must be consistently accurate and maintainable.
Provide overall product management oversight with respect to non-functional requirements, such as: accuracy; reliability; maintainability; affordability; privacy; and security, etc.
- From administrative department can be accessible each children’s records every time they require.
- Data should be accessible for use with commonly available analytical tools(eg. Oracle database) 1.3 KPIs measures for accessing children’s records as described in.
- Reliability 2.1 CSA system is needed to design easy to use and match with user requirements.
- Responsibility 3.1 Authorized person to access detailed children information must be able to support administration/response as well as to monitor children for progress.
- Safety and Efficiency 4.1 Secure information is needed to prevent by the ways (encryption) from central office to branch or branch to central office. The data between central and branch essentially networking service security is required to think.
- Automated reporting tools and pre-defined report templates should be supported to ensure consistency and quality.
Critical Evaluation Of DSDM Toolset
Report for CSA
From : Jack (Project Manager)
To : CSA organization
Subject : Critical Evaluation of DSDM toolset
Title : Development of the Management Information System for CSA
Author : Jack (PM)
Date : 18/8/09
Authorisation : Project Board of Trustees
Distribution : CSA organization
1) Critique of DSDM toolset (2000)
//There are many consideration upon a case tool used in implementation of DSDM. CSA organizations alter in how much must easy accept or construct in the job training.An organization that is used to the authorization responsibility and trading in a way taking precaution to problems and that a lot carefully with the relation to customers already works very on the project will often find it is similar in many ways to that what is made currently, but that happened some hardness, terminology common and useful tools to the project.To the other hierarchical organizations much with concentrating narrow onto a contract details, will have to make attention approximately introduction, the location of the project adapted and initially taking care outside in more than a method for project phases.
The power tools utilized in Rapid Application Development are Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE) tools. The RAD methodology uses both computerized tools and human techniques to achieve the goals of high-speed and high quality.
//Depending on the user participation, that is one of the RAD method happens choosing users to get more agreement and effective way described in User involvement at stages of system life cycles.
Purchaser of a RAD tool environment should think carefully before buying.
- Show understanding of the key issues relating DSDM toolset
- Valuate the tools used
- Show evidence of research
- Produce a well structured essay
- Identify benefits and drawbacks with relevant examples
Examples from case study(DSDM tools)
Peter Jackson (Area Manager) used Microsoft Excel as he went on a course. The only problem is that it takes a white to find individual pieces of data which is always annoying when we are trying to fill in the returns for Julieanne (IQ Officer, Administrative Services Department )’s KPIs. It can often take a couple of days getting all that data together.
In current position, there is no standard way that projects record information about users of their services. Some projects record their data using a paper based system whilst others have created simple databases or spreadsheets to help maintain records. One or two of the larger projects have invested heavily in IT and building their own databases to meet their requirements. We don’t want is to get distracted with providing projects with a system to manage individual young people’s cases, records of interviews with the young person and so on. That would be far too complex at this stage.
// DSDM supports that the RAD only it is adapted to determines kinds of applications with functionality to customer interface, has a group of customers easily defined, they are not too complex and have fixed requirements that are not too much details.
DSDM supports that RAD is not adapted to applications in real time or emergency-critics to applications where requirement works. It must completely be specifies before that all programs are written.Therefore, RAD would only appear to the part of address of collection of applications.
Disadvantages of the DSDM:
- It is involved the progressive development of requirement.
- Focus on RAD can lead in order to reduce in lines of code.
- Complete engagement of the requirement to the DSDM processes.
- Meaningful Participation of the customer for requirements
- Requires In an expert team developed in the commerce that represents IT.
Ethics of people for change
Successful change requires a number of things. We now face the problem of using different databases in different departments. So It is not easy to managed Objectives have to be set and attained; an existing system being analysis.
Questionaire (Effective User Communication)
This tool takes the form of a questionnaire in which the applicability of an iterative approach to functional areas in the organization is checked. The Organization Filter (KPIs) is intended as a ‘thermometer’ with which to measure the situation with regard to iterative development in a company or unit at a particular moment. It is intended only as a diagnostic instrument.
The aim of the CSA is mainly to develop in the matter of children and to control each region and areas centrally and secure.
The use of KPIs is to measure each student behavior, project performance progress.
o Incremental and iterative development necessary to converge on an accurate business solution.
We can take the form of a questionnaire, similar to the CSA project requirements. We look at the organization and/or the organizational unit as a whole. We serve to map the project risks, while KPIs is an instrument with which to map the situation in the organization concerned.
This section contains the complete CSA questionnaire, with an accompanying
Explanation for every questions. The questionnaire is divided into eight areas for
- Users (Children Support)
- User management (CSA Centralized management)
- Organization (CSA Organization Structure)
- Culture (CSA culture)
- IT staff (CSA IT staff)
- IT management (CSA IT Development)
- Management organization (CSA management)
- Techniques (Standard use of method and database)
There are a number of questions per area, intended to provide a picture of the
organisation’s receptivity to an iterative approach for each area. Although the areas follow one another in the questionnaire, this sequence does not have to be followed. However, the questions within an area follow a conscious order, from general to specific.
Critical Analysis of how the tools used(DSDM tools)
RAD technique (Even though many criticize the RAD approach as being overly ad hoc in nature, it must be remembered that the reason for its popularity throughout the 1990s was that it was perceived as providing significant customer value — that is a working prototype was generally considered of much greater value to the typical business customer for whom using dataflow diagrams, entity-relationship diagrams, and other formal documents produced by a heavy methodology (DSDM, XP, Scrum).
Difficulties of RAD
- May be used as an excuse for hacking a solution resulting in:
- Poor understanding of environment and business requirements.
- Insufficient testing and subsequent unforeseen problems.
- Poor documentation and difficulties with enhancement.
- Client and user commitment.
- Changing user requirements.
Selecting a set of CASE tools to support modeling, prototyping, and code re usability, as well as automating many of the combination of techniques. This is the sign of conceptual model to provide support the components of functional and non-functional of project.
A technique where a component that is produced to assess whether or not the system will be fit for purpose. A prototype need not be complete and tested with respect to all its related functional and non-functional requirements, the aim is to try out some aspect of the project to prove its ability to meet the needs of the Users. Examples include architectural prototypes to prove some new technology and user interface prototypes to try out the user interaction with the system.
Critique of prototyping include the following:
- Client can be seen this as final product.
- May lead to insufficient analysis due to the ease of development.
- Difficult for developers to discard and start creating the final product from scratch.
Cost estimation tools, or model-based estimation techniques use data collected from past projects combined with mathematical formulae to estimate project cost. They usually require factors such as the system size as inputs into the model. The main model-based techniques include COCOMO, SLIM, RCA PRICE-S, SEER-SEM, and ESTIMACS. These estimation models produce an estimate of the cost, effort or duration of a project based on factors such as the size and desired functionality of the system.
The work breakdown structure (WBS) of the project or a piece of work into its component. Projects can be resource-constrained (limited by the type of people, monetary or hardware resources available) or time-constraint (limited by the deadline).
When management fails to participate in the preparation of the estimate, and does not monitor the accuracy of the estimate, this is believed to contribute to the estimate being
inaccurate. Inaccuracy also occurs when management does not refer to the estimate when conducting performance reviews of estimators and other project personnel.
Causes of Inaccurate Estimates in Systems Development Estimation inaccuracy can also be caused from a lack of procedures and policies on how to deal with failures and avoid repeating mistakes by learning from past experiences.
The estimation process can be impacted negatively by these pressures resulting in time or cost constraints.
Software managers may over-report causes of inaccuracy that lie outside their responsibility, such as customer-related causes. Project managers therefore have to be aware of the implications that political factors can have on IS development estimation.
DSDM Charts toolset// Charts toolset as it was required to show what tasks are critical that are important when activity goes.
There are activities of sequence in or some are parallel tasks that are not dependent on the completion of task more or less at each stage before next stage of project begins. We can start other tasks after one stage ends .Tasks from Pert Charts were shown as the critical path by the view of estimation of time at each stage of project. It is slightly view of how to estimate the length of time to be shortened and to prevent taking long time activities.
JAD (Joint Application Development) Analysis
A forum for knowledgeable and empowered staff from business and IT to make decisions and produce products through consensus, controlled and enabled by an impartial facilitator. Also known as a ‘’Facilitated Workshop”. Also known as facilitated workshop, for user participation matter.
Workshop Leader who organizes and conducts the workshops for Joint Requirements Planning and Joint Application Design.
Critique of JAD (Joint Application Development)
Using workshops, instead of interviews, to gather requirements and review design.
Analysis of case materials shows significant critique is attached to the efficacy of the JAD sessions. Analysis suggests that a lack of proactive leadership towards the JAD workshops, and of the management of people’ activities within the JAD sessions would have facilitated more
focused productivity towards development objectives, promoted a shift away from former
cultures to acceptance of new working behaviours.
The new integrated team-working environment of a RAD-type approach meant that people experienced uneasiness in the team workshops. People found it difficult to present their ‘thinking’ in front of their colleagues and this was a key concern for the developers, the cultural issue is that organizational people felt they were answerable to their line manager; consequently they were apprehensive about expressing their views. Several of those interviewed on the organizational side were reluctant to voice options in workshops if their managers were also present, they did not feel on an equal plane, and therefore did not contribute effectively.
Critique of Prioritization(MoSCoW approach)
MoSCoW is an acronym where the capital letters stand for Must have, Should have, Could have, Won’t have this time. These provide a technique for prioritizing requirements.
As the case indicates, the MoSCoW (a DSDM technique) appears not to be very suitable for this situation due to the difficulty of prioritizing requirements. The same holds for timeboxing, for which
there must be a fixed date for the project, or for an increment, or for an iteration.
Critique of MoSCoW
- Time to make not enough all.
- Resources in order to make not enough all.
- Lack or money or lack of people.
Critique of TimeBoxing Analysis
Development slots fixed in allocated time and resources; variable in implemented functionalities; Time box content & priorities is negotiated at each Iteration.
Implementing time-boxed development that allows development teams to quickly build the core of the system and implement refinements in subsequent releases.
A period of time with a fixed end-date in which a team produces, checks and agrees a deliverable (partial or complete) or set of such deliverables. DSDM has an overall time box for the project which contains nested time boxes for day-to-day management and control.
The timeframe is not subjective to change, rather functional requirements are prioritized within the timebox and less essential features may have to wait to be included and built into future iterations. RAD has been criticised for being fairly unstructured approach and there is no commonly defined framework for its completion.
Disadvantages of TimeBoxing// Customers enable to agree the products delivery covered from timebox to finish end date.If it seems that the expirations could be lacked, the deliverable would have to be de-scoped, to eliminate more than insufficient priority that is it must have and be able while to have requirement it can slip the timeline bases identically.The continuous negotiation of that what is important is to develop and is worked to with and is comes agreement . DSDM shows timeboxing nested timeboxes for example it nested timebox more than two to six weeks inside the timebox.
Configuration management tools
For high criticality systems, additional measures to ensure good communications and improved controls are needed. Additional project management controls should be used around risk management and a wider use of Configuration and Change Management tools, along with increased testing effort. These steps attempt to increase project communications, actively mitigate risks and detect issues and tolerance exceptions earlier in the project.
Agile methodology analysis// While our teams continue to adopt and to regulate the agile development to the inside of their organizations so we can face the challenges of coordination and control of the multiple groups, the positions and the plans continue to increase.
The plan complexity more reinforced that is why the agile atmospheres embrace programs and the priorities changing in real time.Consequently, the requirement of the senses to easy control this complexity inside the context of single, constant structure is critical to elevate the value and the happened one of our agile activities of development.The procurement way that uses the agile methods to give to the competent suppliers a small with of the characteristic in order transporting and seeing that what supplies.
Show evidence of research -risks
Identify benefits and drawbacks with relevant examples
During this phase the new system will be phased-in in a parallel manner (alongside the old system), whilst users endure final training and testing ensuring system adequacy, eventually leading to the old systems develop.
While the system is being constructed, we use the CASE toolset to accomplish detailed design and code generation, must be poised to move quickly. At the end of the development cycle, the Cutover Team, which handles training and cutover, must be ready to move quickly.
CASE tools can often check for consistency between different design diagrams and documents, thus improving quality control. Reviews involve supervisors or managers formally assessing the quality of design artifacts produced by a systems designer in order to identify errors in the designs. Walkthroughs involve a group of peers informally examining design documents in order to identify and discuss possible improvements. Hopefully this should be an egoless environment since all the staff involved will be at the same level within the organisation, and staff may be more willing to admit errors and make corrections.
The researcher has to choose a research approach that is appropriate for his or her problem at hand. The research approach has to include at least the research strategy (such as experiment, survey, archival analysis, history or case study, the research design (which experimental subjects are selected and how are treatments assigned to the subjects), data collection procedures (what to measure and how to measure it) and analysis methods (such as regression analysis).
If a research project is undertaken as a critique on development practices the research question will most likely differ from a research project that is motivated to improve the state of development practice. Different research motives will result in different research questions for the same problem domain. The research approach chosen by the researcher is not only influenced by the properties of the research problem, but also by the researcher’s notion of knowledge.
In the study the duration, effort and satisfaction of 60 DSDM projects using facilitated workshops have projects that used the previous method, which use one-to-one interviews to gather the requirements. For small projects, one-to-one interviews were found to be more efficient, whereas for larger projects the efficiency of one-top-one interviews is surpassed by DSDM’s facilitated workshops. Other quantitative effects were not found, and subjective ratings of stakeholders do not indicate a preference for DSDM projects either.
Prototyping will strongly aid learning and communication, both for users and developers
There is also strong evidence that user satisfaction levels will be higher
-Estimation, management and control procedures appear to be confused areas within the prototyping area.
-There seems to be little evidence that supports the view of Boehm (1984) that software produced using prototyping leads to improved maintainability.
-Little evidence from this experiment to back up the claims made by other work that suggests that software built using high levels of prototyping and communication is more reliable and maintainable.
A large number of CSA’s customers are outside the UK, highlighting a difficulty in applying DSDM in developments with external customers. DSDM is typically deployed in IT departments with internal business customers, thus ensuring the end-user involvement which is critical to success. With external customers, and particularly those at a geographical distance, such involvement is more difficult to achieve.
For the purposes of the experiment, CSA has chosen to apply DSDM on developments that extend its MapLink tool, enabling it to use the company’s marketing department as the customer. In future, once CSA has proved to its satisfaction that with the right level of user involvement DSDM can work, it will begin to propagate the method to its customer base.
- Author -Jennifer Stapleton
- Joost Schalken
- Jeremy Reece – School of Computing
- DISS 725 – System Development: Research Paper 1, SDLC on a Diet, by Ronald G. Wolak, [email protected]
- About the author
- Stapleton, J. DSDM – Dynamic Systems Development Method, 1997, Addison-Wesley, London.
- “Jack Be Nimble, Jack Be Quick” – Sue Bushell, CIO Magazine, 2002
- “Agile Methodologies: Survey Results” – Shine Technologies Pty Ltd, 2003
- “Crossing The Chasm” – Geoffrey A. Moore, 2002 edition
- “Agile Software Development” – Alistair Cockburn, 2002
- DSDM Manual Version 4.2 – DSDM Consortium, 2003
- DSDM White Paper: “How to get Senior Management Buy-In to DSDM” – DSDM Consortium, 2000
- DSDM White Paper: ”Introducing DSDM into an Organization” – DSDM Consortium, 1998
- DSDM White Paper: ”Organizational Suitability Filter” – DSDM Consortium, 1998
- IDEA GROUP PUBLISHING
Book Name -Dynamic Systems Development Method
Vrije Universiteit, Department of Computer Science,
De Boelelaan 1083a, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
University of Wolverhampton
email: [email protected]
Mike Griffiths has been a user and contributor to DSDM since 1994. He has been involved in
managing agile projects and introducing of agile methods into many enterprise environments
since 1996. Mike welcomes feedback on this article and can be reached at QuadrusDevelopment Inc via [email protected]
This chapter appears in the publication, Journal of Database Management, vol. 16, Issue 4
edited by Keng Siau © 2005, Idea Group Inc.
701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Suite 200, Hershey PA 17033-1240, USA
Tel: 717/533-8845; Fax 717/533-8661; URL-http://www.idea-group.com
10.Sun StorEdge 5210 NAS Quick Reference Manual
11.Alessandro Donati ,Head of Control Technology Unit TOS-OSC,European Space Agency , European Space Operations Centre, Darmstadt, Germany