A Selecting Computer Hardware And Software Information Technology Essay
MIS management information system is the combination of software and hardware to process the information. The general terms of system in computer that can be providing the information such as finance, managing and business operation, and it also base upon the technology application to solving the business problem by the MIS.
MIS might be gathering, process and manage the information. Such as example, MIS system can be helping the customers to online buying or order the ticket and withdraw cash by automated teller machines. And normally MIS also might be the support website for the product, because it will automatically return the information to end user while the user is giving initial input that provide.
The MIS system typically having their own staff to who’s to function it, maintain the existing system and implementation the new technologies with the company. MIS always management the oriented and keep in view for every level of management and gets the desired information. MIS having several usages for it, example like integrate, useful for planning, decision making for manager, provide high accurate, efficiently and update the result. MIS refers to how the different components are actually tied up together, as every organization company to make long term and short term plan with the information help (sales, production, capital investment, stocks or management).
MIS can be consider the system that provide people with either data or information relating to an organization operations. It support the activity of employee, owners, customers, and other key field of people in the organization enviroment.
Answer of question 1
For the management decision, selecting and managing the right term of organization hardware and software asset in IT infrastructure that is a manager for organization should be know. Beside it, manager need to understand the costs and capability of various hardware and software of technology, together with thier advantages and disadavantage of building and owning these assets of renting them from outside services.
The decision of manager is a most important challanging role. Because the IS are helpfully for the manager to communicate and distribute the information . the decision making are classify by organizational level, they hare various thing is strategic decision making, management control, operational contol , operational contorl and knowledge level decision making. Each of them having their term to apply in managing by organization.
Computer hardware and software technology can enhance an organizational performance. So the computer hardware and software selection part must base on an organizational and business requires. Next, to considering how better of the technology meshes with the organization culture and structure as well as information-processing requirement. Computer hardware and software technology services provided from outside vendors must be suitable into their organizational computing plans.
Hardware is a equiment in a computer base on information system. Hardware are wide variety of available in today techonology marketplace(hundre of different general purpose computers, printers, and display devices exist nowadays). Software is the program application system in a computer. There are various types of hardware associated with computer information system. Software include both computer programs and their accompanying documentation. All program on computer system having two catagories ( aplication software and system software). Application software include user-oriented program written in programming languages, also include the programs, software package, and tools which is need for specific ussage, end-user-oriented tasks as billing, word processing and database management and etc. And the other one is system software, consist of ‘background’ program that enable application software to run smoothly on a specific set of hardware. Manager need a working knowledge of operating system, languages translator, and utility programs. Operating system (OS) is a main for system software.
After the explaination for hardware and software in computer, organization have a range for the computer processing technology option to choosen. There are including workstation, mainframes, servers, PC and network computers, also having many of different ways of configuring/setup the hardware components to build a system. Beside that, firms able to make a selection for alternative operating system(OS) and software system tools. The key of technology decision are includes the appropriateness of hardware or software, their problems is an address and compatibility with other component of the firm IT infrastructure.
Choosing or selection and use of computer hardware and software technology can have profound impact on business performance. Computer hardware and software can represent very important for organizational assets and it must be properly for managed. Nowdays, the most important issues for managing hardware and software technology asset is understanding the lastest of technology requirement for the electronic commerce and the digital firm, manager should determining the totally cost of ownership (TCO), also determining whether to own and maintain the technology assets or select an external technology services provider for IT infrastructure firms used. And then the software application is the primary concern together for accomplish the task of end user. There are many of the languages and software tools can be use to develop an application software. As a manager should be understand what are the software toosl and programming languages are suitable use in their organization objective.
Secondary, the process of predicting when a computer hardware system become saturated to ensure that adequate computing resources are available for work of different priority and that the firm have enough computing power for its current and future needs. Manager and IS specialists now need to pay more attention to hardware capacity planning and scalability than they did in the past. Capacity planning is the process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated. It considers factors such as the maximum number of user that the system can accommodate at one time, the impact of existing and future software application, and performance measures such as minimum response time for processing business transaction. Capacity planning ensures that the firm has enough computing power for its current and future needs. Although capacity planning is performed by information system specialist, input from business managers is essential. Business manager need to determine acceptable levels of computer response time and available for the firms mission critical system to maintain the level of business performance they expect. New applications, mergers and acquisitions, and changes in business volume will all impact computer workload and must be taken into account when planning hardware capacity.
Scalability refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a large number of users without breaking down. Electronic commerce and electronic business both call for scalable IT infrastructure that have the capacity to grow with the business as the size of a web site and number of visitor increase. Organizations must make sure they will have sufficient computer processing, storage, and network resource to handle surging volumes of digital transactions and to make such data immediately available online.
Otherwise, electronic commerce and electronic business are placing heavy new demands on hardware technology because organization are replacing so many and paper-based processes with electronic ones. Much larger processing and storage resource are required to process and store the escalating number of digital transaction flowing between different parts of the firm and between firm and its customers and supplies. Many people using website simultaneously place great strains on a computer system, as doing a hosting large numbers of interactive web pages with data-intensive graphic or video.
The purchase and maintained of computer hardware and software is one of the series of cost components that managers must consider when selecting and managing hardware and software technology assets. The actual cost of owning technology resource includes the original cost of acquiring and installing computers and software. Such like administration cost for hardware and software upgrade, maintenance, technical support, and training, even utility and real estate costs for running and housing the technology.
Answer of Question 2
Information technology is a powerful business driver for encouraging the development of global system application and global value chains, where the firm can be coordinate commercial transactions and production with other firms across many different locations throughout the world.
Managers are responsible for devising an appropriate organizational and technology infrastructure for international business. Choosing a global business strategy, indentify the core of business process, organizing the firm to conduct business on an international scale, and developing international information systems architecture, these all the important key for management decision.
After this, the cultural, political and languages diversity magnifies different in organizational culture and standard operating procedures when company operate internationally in various countries, these differences create barriers to the development of global information system that transcend national boundaries.
Then, the main technology decision in building international systems is finding a set of workable standards in hardware, software, and networking for the firm international information system infrastructure and architecture. The internet and intranets will increase used to provide global connectivity and to serve as a foundation for global systems, but many companies will still need proprietary systems for certain functions, and therefore international standards.
There are 4 main of global strategies form the basic for global firm organizational structure. These are domestic exporter, multinational, franchiser, and transnational. Each of these strategies is pursued with a specific business organizational structure.
The domestic exporter strategy is characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activity in the home country of origin. Nearly all international companies begin this way, and some move on to other forms. Production, finance/accounting, sale/marketing ,human resources ,and strategic management are set up to optimize resource in the home country.
The multinational strategy concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production , sale, and marketing operations to units in other countries. The products and services on sale indifferent countries are adapted to suit local in other countries. The organization becomes a far-flung confederation of production and marketing facilities in different countries.
Franchisers are an interesting mix of old and new. On the one hand, the product is created, designed, financed, and initially produced in the home country, but for product-specific reasons must rely heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resource. Generally, foreign franchises are clones of the mother country units, but fully coordinated worldwide production that could optimize factors of production is not possible.
Next, transnational firms are the stateless, truly globally managed firms that may represent a larger part of international business in the future. Transnational firms that have no single national headquarters but instead have many regional headquarters and perhaps a world headquarters. Transnational firms take the globe, not the home country, as their management frame of reference. Few companies have actually attained transnational status, but Citicorp, Sony, ford, and other are attempting this transition.
The way to indentify this core business process is to conduct a work-flow analysis. When understand the business process of a firm, you can rank order them, which can decide processes should be core application. Centrally coordinated, designed, and implement around the globe, and which should be regional and local. At the same time, by identify the critical business process, the really important ones that have a long way to define a vision of the future that should be work toward.
To implementing a global system requires an implementation strategy. Typically, global system has evolved without a conscious plan. The remedy is to define a small subset of core business process and focus on building systems that to widely dispersed foreign unit to participate in the development and operation of the system, and carefully to maintained overall control.
The maintainance part for application, it will making the system changes the course of it useful life(It can be mean maintaining hardware and software.) . Maintaining the system contantly modernizing the application system to keep it functioning smoothly and fine. There are four general approaches use for maintance should be know as a manager. There are Corrective maintaince, Adaptive maintaince, perfective maintaince and Preventive maintaince. Choosen a right way for maintaince is very helpful and important for manager in feature.
For the global culture, it is create by television and other globally shared media such as movies that permits different cultures and people to develop common expectations about right and wrong, desirable and undesirable, heroic and cowardly. The collapse of the eastern bloc has speed up the growth of a world culture enormously, increased support for capitalism and business, and reduced the level of cultural conflict considerably. These general cultural factors leading toward internationalization result in specific business globalization factors that affect most industries. The growth of powerful communications technologies and the interest in consuming similar products that are culturally approved.
For the hardware, software and telecommunication pose special technical challenges in an international setting. The major hardware challenge is finding some way to standardize the firm computer hardware platform, when there is so much of variation from operating unit to operate unit and from country to country. Manager need to think carefully about where to locate the firm computer centres and how to select the hardware suppliers.
The major global application that are user friendly and that truly enhance the productivity of international work teams. Overcoming these challenges require the system integration and connectivity on global basis. The development of global systems base on the concept of core system raises question about how the new core systems will fit in with the existing suite of application developed around the globe by different division, different people, and different kinds of computing hardware. After a hardware platform had chosen, the question of standards must be addressed. Because all site use the same hardware will not guarantee common, integrated systems.
Compatible hardware provides a platform but not the total solution. It also critical to global core infrastructure is software. The development of core system for software part, entirely new interfaces must be built and tested if old system is kept in local area which is common. The interfaces can be costly and messy to build. If want to build new software, build the software that can be realistically used by multiple business units form different countries given these business units are accustomed to their unique business process and definitions of data.
Besides the integrating the new with old system, there are problems of human interface design and functionality of system. For instance, to be truly useful for enhancing productivity of global workforce, software interface must be easily understanding and mastered quickly, and presuppose common languages (often English). But international system penetrates deeper into management and clerical groups, common languages may not be assumed and human interfaces must be built to accommodate different languages and even conventions.
The successful of developing and international application system , is need the experience in developing an ordinary domestic system as well as good. Manager should organize the value and adding activity along the line of advantages. Likes, sale marketing function must be located where they can to performance with better. And develop and operate system unit for each level (regional, national and international), should be develop and operate the international telecommunication and system development for it.
In conclusion, the MIS system is very important use for the situation of management, organizational and business field. Selecting a right software, hardware, strategy and planning costing and definition the core of business , indentifying ,implementation and understanding the global environment can be affect the success for the develop and business marketing. It ofen change the organization as well as thieir products, services, operating procedure and driving into a new behaviour pattern for the organization.
Although of it, the advantages MIS they may cause the company is able to highlight, understood their organization strength and weaknesses, and then due to the presence of revenue report and their perform record. The identification of these aspects can help the company to improve their business processes and operations. The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities. Information is considered to be an important asset for any company in the modern competitive world. The consumer buying trends and behaviours can be predicted by the analysis of sales and revenue reports from each operating region of the company.Order Now