Advantages And Disadvantages Of Network Media Information Technology Essay

Im a student of IADCS accessed by NCC Education at Myanma Computer Company in Yangon. Ive to study four core subjects and four elective subjects. In Enterprise Networking Assignment, we have to do handing over and sit exam to achieve that diploma.

This assignment is intended to develop some of the heart features of the network and communication to point up the theoretical and practical understanding of the tools and techniques connected with enterprise networking. The tasks in this assignment can be more explored in categorize to acquire advantage of the additional sophisticated features of the network such as telephone system, two-way communications and network topologies.


Firstly I would similar to be grateful NCC Education for improving computer knowledge by preparing this assignment. Thanks also to my lecturer, U AUNG ZAW MYINT for his excellent management in a practiced effect. And also, special gratitude to my colleagues with their support made this assignment successfully. Finally, I wish to widen a deepest thanks to my parents who confident me to come to an end this assignment effectively.

Task – 1

How the topologies oerate

In networking terms, topology refers not only to the physical layout of its computers, cables, and other resources, but also to how those components communicate with each other. A network’s topology has a significant effect on its performance and growth potential. There is another terms that fit into topology scheme are “Ethernet” and “token ring”, these are sometimes referred to as LAN topologies. The media access method Ethernet uses in a shared-media environment (a logical bus). Token ring networks have a physical star topology but function as a logical ring. All network designs today are based on three simple physical topologies: “bus”, “ring”, and “star”.

Bus network topology consists of a series of computers connected along a single cable segment. If this cable fails, the entire network crashes.

Fig 1-1 Bus Network Topology

Computers connected to form a loop create a ring topology network. A typical single-ring network fail if one computer in the ring fails, but a dual-ring network can operate around any such failure.

Fig 1-2 Ring Network Topology

A star network topology describes computers connected by cable segments to a central connection point (hub). Star topology doesn’t specify how signals should travel from computer to computer, only that cables connect computers to a central device.

Fig 1-3 Star Network topology

Advantages and disadvantages of network media

Media Types





pair cable)

least expensive,

easy to install,

widely available and widely use

can over only a limited distance,

susceptible to interference





reduced crosstalk,

limit the effects of external interference

more resistant to EMI than Thinnet

or UTP

more expensive than UTP

difficult to work with,

can over only a limited distance,

more fragile than UTP cables



less susceptible to EMI interference than other types of copper media

Less bandwidth than fiber

Installation expenses are lofty,

Difficult to work with,

is not supported for some network standards (eg. Token ring),

more susceptible than fiber optic cable




is not susceptible to EMI

resistant to interference as any media can get,

can transmit through longer distance

The most expensive form of cabling,

expensive to install ,

difficult to terminate


I want to recommend setting star network and twisted pair cable (UTP) for the following reasons.

Star topology is the relative ease of troubleshooting because all computers connect at a central location; an administrator can quickly and easily isolate network problems involving a single device or cable segment without affecting other devices.

Twisted pair (UTP) cable is the common use for star network topology. In UTP cabling, category 5 (cat5), category 5e (cat 5e), category 6 (cat 6) are by far the most popular types. UTP is particularly prone to crosstalk. It is used for telephone system and two-way communication. UTP is common in most office buildings and other work environments.

Task – 2


Internet services

The internet services provide for Communication, Information and File transmission all around the world. The following appliance are the most commonly use for internet services.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) -responsible for transferring e-mail.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) -use for file transfer and manipulation services

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) -use to transfer Web pages from a Web server to a Web browser.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)- use to access linked documents on the World Wide Web that are located on a secure server.

Post Office Protocol (POP3): specifies how e-mail clients can identify itself to the server and request that mail messages be made available to the user.

Connection speeds

The connection speeds that are suitable for the above services are as follows:




100 Kbps


28 Kbps(mail)

Video conferencing

just 384 Kbps

File transmission

over 1 Mbps

Examples of ISP in our country

Myanmar Post and Telecommunication (

Myanmar Post and Telecommunication offers a variety of access services from dial-up connection (low speed, low cost) like Internet Dial-Up Account or Pre-paid Access Kit to different kind of Broadband Services (high speed, additional voice options) like Broadband Wireless, ADSL or IPSTAR. Depending on your locality, your current telephone line connection, your budget and your requirements, Myanmar Post and Telecommunication can advice you which Access Service will suit you best. To adapt the Access Services even more to your personal wishes you can choose out of different user plans for each service.


By any way, we have to choose Myanmar Post and Telecommunication because it is not only the only ISP in Myanmar but also a Government Association.

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It aims that

To rapidly build up the market by taking advantage of high capacity satellite and broadband wireless technologies

To ensure network flexibility supporting multiple service type ranging from basic voice to advanced multimedia streaming.

To provide complete communication service to anybody, anywhere in Myanmar by achieving 100% network converge nationwide.

Task – 3

Task- 3

Method for Two-way voice communication

A full-duplex is data transmission in both two directions at the same time. Land-line is a good example of full-duplex communication in a telephone networks since they allow both directions of callers to speak and be heard in the same time. Examples: Telephone, Mobile Phone, etc. A half-duplex system supports the communication for two directions, but only one caller can speak at a time. If one caller transmits the signal, another caller must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting. Antennas are of one of the type of trans-receiver that transmit and receive. Examples: “walkie-talkie” style two-way radio.

DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)

DECT is not only used mostly in house/miniature office systems but also accessible in various PBX systems used medium and enterprise businesses. This system can be utilized for cordless phones. Voice applications are usually common nowadays. Data applications be, but have been covered by Wi-Fi. 3G cellular (WCDMA) is absolutely full with both DECT and Wi-Fi for not only voice but also data. DECT operates on different frequencies: 1880MHz, 1900MHz, 1910MHz, 1920MHz, and 1930MHz.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)

GSM has been continually improved to offer platforms that distribute broad range of mobile services. Where the industry started voice calling, there is a powerful platform able to mobile broadband and multimedia services. Its system is now utilized for 219 countries and more than three billion people are using it. GSM is the industry standard for mobile voice and data. GSM is one of the cellular technologies that used to transmit the signal and data services. GSM activates on four different frequencies; 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900MHzs. This phone system uses transmission of digital and there is a maximum power output of 2W.

Legal Requirements

In our country, MPT (Myanmar Post and Telecommunication) supports mobile communications plan and agree to DECT (Digital Enhance Cordless Telecommunication) technology.

Allocation of frequencies for two-way voice communication

In the radio-telephone system, there was one central antenna tower per city, and perhaps 25 channels existing on that tower. This central antenna meant that the phone needed a powerful transmitter — big enough to transmit 40 or 50 miles (about 70 km). It means that not many people will use radio telephones — there just were not enough channels. The brilliance of the cellular system is the division of a city into small cells. This allows extensive frequency reuse across a city, so that millions of people can use cell phones simultaneously.

There are different frequencies operate with the Federal Communication Commission use in DECT and cordless phones.

43-50MHz (base: 43.72-46.97MHz, Handset: 48.76-49.99MHz allocated in 1986 fir 10 channels, and later 25 channels, FM system)

1.7MHz (1.64MHz & up to 5 channels, AM system)

900MHz (902-928 MHz, allocated in 1990)

1920-1930MHz (DECT Cordless Phone)

1.9 GHz (DECT Phone Standard)

5.8 GHz (allocated in 2003 due to crowding on the 2.4 GHz band).

2.4GHz (recently MPT allow)

Licensing Requirements for two-way voice communication

As Newtown Fire Department is one of the Government Association, it will not need licenses for communication. In our nation, Myanmar, the national radio communications controller “Ministry of Defense” control the reunion of radio frequencies. Radio frequency licenses are not usually issued free of charge and the cost of the license can be different greatly depending on country and type of usage. Operating within FCC rules and conventions is the liability of the actual end user. The FCC can fine organization up to $10,000 per day for failure to comply with the rules and conventions! Licensing is an essential piece of the conundrum, and as vital as any other detail when renting 2-way radios.

operate on channels with a bandwidth of 12.5 KHz or less (narrowband)

disappointment to comply 1,2031 deadline may result in annulment of license

must be capable of operating in 6.25 KHz mode

activate on 25 KHz channels

Costs of setting up and operating system


Type of Description


KIRK 7010 Handset

Includes battery, excludes charger and power supply

€ 250,00

KIRK 2010 Handset, EU Version

Includes battery, charger, power supply, belt clip and belt clip connector

€ 92,00

KIRK 4040 Handset

Includes battery, excludes charger and power supply

€ 274,00

Handset accessories – Power Supplies

Type of Description


Power Supply EU for KIRK 5020, 5040, 6020, 6040, 7010, 7020, 7040 handsets

€ 15,00

Power Supply EU for KIRK 4020, 4040, 4080 handsets

€ 10,00

Handset accessories – USB Cables

Type of Description


USB Cable for KIRK 5020, 5040, 6020, 6040, 7010, 7020, 7040 handset chargers

€ 15,00

Handset accessories – Chargers

Type of Description


Charger for KIRK 4020, 4040 handsets

€ 15,00

Charger for KIRK 4080 handsets

€ 31,00

Charger for KIRK 5020, 5040 handsets

€ 15,00

Handset accessories – Safety Lines & Connectors

Type of Description


Safety Line with Connector for KIRK 4020, 4040, 4080 handsets

€ 15,00

Safety Line Connector for KIRK 4020, 4040, 4080 handsets

€ 2,00Licensing

Type of Description


KWS600v3 Multi Cell License

€ 206,00

KWS6000 User License, up to 30 users

€ 0,00

KWS6000 User License, up to 150 users

€ 736,00

KWS6000 User License, up to 500 users

€ 1.656,00


Type of Description


Premier Service, One Year, KIRK 2010, 4020, 4040, 5020,5040 handsets

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€ 18,00

Premier Service, Three Years, KIRK 2010, 4020, 4040, 5020, 5040 handsets

€ 42,00

Premier Service, One Year, KIRK 4080 handset

€ 48,00

Premier Service, Three Years, KIRK 4080 handset

€ 116,00

Limitation of each method

Limitations of DECT

By using large varies of base stations to support building, it communicate with public telecoms network.

32 Kbit/s of net bit rate, that low for data communication.

With good range (up to 200 meter insides and 6 kilometre spending directional antenna outsides, data rates of approximately 500 Kbit/s. DECT emerged one time to be a better unusual to Wi-Fi.

DECT activates in 1880-1900 MHz band and defines 10 channels. Each base station framework offers 12 duplex communication channels with one time fit occupying any of channels.

Interference-free wireless operation to approximately 100 meters outdoors. Operates clearly in common crowded domestic radio traffic situations. For example, generally resistant to intervention from Wi-Fi systems or video dispatchers, Bluetooth equipment, baby monitors and other wireless devices.

Limitations of GSM

Data transfer rates will reach up to 171 kbps with General Packet Radio Service which not only splits the mobile call into packets but also allows each phone to use several channels.

Technical limitations force a set of maximum cell site range of 35 km of GSM

Data speeds up to 9.6 Kbit/s are available.

Wavelength: 10 Meter and above, frequency range: 890-915MHz (mobile transmit) and 935-960MHz (base transmit).

External Interference: There is another transmitter outside the network such as TV transmission, Railway Station frequency, and microwave links.


I want to recommend setting DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) for two-way voice communication for the following effects:

Several handsets can be use in each base station and each phone line socket. This let several cordless telephones to put in the region of house, all in action with the same telephone jack. There are a battery charger stations in the add handsets instead of a base station. The extra handsets do not need extra telephone sockets or extra transceivers.

Capability to make internal (intercom) calls between handsets.

Broaden series talk-time, sometimes available to 24 hours.

Matrimonial cordless telephone, employing a solo base station to attach one or more handsets to the civic telecoms net, which is now accessible.

Civic access, employing large numbers of base stations to offer elevate ability construction or inner-city area treatment as part of civic telecoms net.

Unlike the GSM standards, does not identify any internal facets of the preset network itself. Connectivity to the preset network which might be of a lot of separate types is made through a base station to come to an end the radio link, and a gateway to attach calls to the preset network.

Task – 4


Telephone System available in our country

Telephone system is one of the important parts of requirements for Fire Department. Satellite phone are required for a serious incident such as a major terrorist attack or war and then line phone and PBX system are needed. For this department, four line phones are needed at least and four satellite phones for Chief Fire Officer and three watch officer. For each firefighter, the extensions of line cordless phones are required to call form the center via two way voice communication.

Line Phone

A telephone line is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. These refers to the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user’s telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. There must be wires to connect with line phone. These wires connect with Local exchange via trunk lines. These wires were generally copper, although aluminum has also been used, and were carried in balanced pairs separated by about 25 cm (10″) on poles above the ground, and later as twisted pair cables. Nowadays, modern lines may run underground, and may carry analog or digital signals to the exchange, or may have a device that converts the analog signal to digital for transmission on a carrier system. Moreover there are connecting with jacks RJ11 jack for the departments and homes.

Private branch exchange (PBX) system

PBX is also an exchange system for telephone. This exchange will serves for Fire Department to communicate easily and cheaply within the Department. It makes connections among the internal phones and then connects them to PSTN (public switched telephone network) by using trunk lines because there is incorporation with phones, fax machines, modems, and more. The extension is used to communicate with each other. The PBXs’ advantage was cheap for internal phone calls Now PBX became popularity and it started the services such as hunt groups, call forwarding, and extension dialing etc.

The advantages when using the VOIP PBX system:

Free internal calls

Allow virtual incoming numbers to breaking long distance barriers and virtual call centers on anywhere.

Easy and quick implementation within the existing PBX infrastructure can be gained with inexpensive Analogue Telephony Adapters that will convert signals from your existing mostly analogue phone lines into VoIP extension.

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Dependent on internet connection

damageable in the case of power outages

for emergency calls, the system cannot be used

a) The main equipment that are needed for Fire Department

The system components for PBX station are the following.

Cabinets, vaults, closets

Another housings

Wires for interconnection

The PBX’s switching network.

Microcomputer that use for data processing and control.

Many cards such as Logic, switching and control, power and

Related equipments for PBX operation.

Phone Handsets and stations called lines.

Telco trunks to communicate public phone network at the outside.

The operator is allowed by switchboard to control incoming call.

For electricity, High performance UPS (Uninterruptible power supply)

b) The features of PBX system

The following are main features in PBX system.

To dial other extensions

To dial outside lines

To make an enquiry call to another extension whist connected to an external call

To transfer the external call to the extension where an enquiry call had just been made

c) Cost of equipments and installation

Equipments Costs

Installation Costs

For each Line Phones, Fire Department will pay $1,600 and PXB installation is $ 2,000. The services charges are estimating $ 800. So totally amount, four line phones and PBX station and services charges are almost $ 9,200.

d) Costs of Operating for monthly


Type of Description






Phone Bill for four lines and extensions monthly

PBX Operator Salary

Bill services for phone company

PBX equipment maintenance services

$ 350

$ 200

$ 25

$ 75

Total Amount

$ 650


For Fire Department, telephone system is one of the important parts of requirements. Line phone and PBX system are needed. And then, satellite phone are required for a serious incident such as a major terrorist attack or war. For this department, four line phones are needed at least and four satellite phones for Chief Fire Officer and three watch officer. For each firefighter, the extensions of line cordless phones are required to call form the center via two way voice communication.

Task – 5


If the Newtown has no electrical power or fixed telephone lines being broken, there should be an emergency using of appliance. We can use not only mobiles, walkie-talkies, and satellite phones but also generators which has the voltage of over 6600kva.

Satellite Communication

Satellite communication can be extremely useful for the users who are situated in vastly remote areas, and cannot access a broadband connection. Satellite receivers on the ground consist of satellite telephones, mobile reception, direct-to-home (DTH) satellite equipment, equipment in aircraft and handheld devices.

Two-way voice communications are available.

Data rates: 64 Kbit/s.

The satellites provide a relay link to the home land earth station from the mobile terminal.

Mobiles communications (GSM)

Two-way voice communications are available.

Can transmit 10 meter and above. Frequency range: 890-915MHz (mobile transmit) and 935-960MHz (base transmit).

It is ideal for emergency services and all kinds of personal communications.


Two-way voice communications are available. Hand-held transceivers can use to communicate between each other, or to vehicle-mounted or support stations.

Maximum range is around 2 miles (3kilometers).

Frequency range: 49 MHz band (shared with cordless phones, baby monitors, and similar devices) as well as the 900 MHz band..

Task – 6


Report for Fire Department

To Mr. STER BERD November 14, 2010

(Chief Officer, Fire Department)

Newtown, Green Road, No. 1111 B.


(Network Engineer)

Network Department, Red Links Company

Pyay Road

Report Title : Recommendation from the view of network engineers for Fire Department

The Fire Department has been restructured and is opening a new headquarters building in the Newtown. I have to demonstrate an understanding of the network requirements for a new headquarters including a computer network, telephone system and two-way voice communications with staff on call in fire engines and fire department cars.

Firstly, I think star topology is suitable for network design. Because star topology can be management easily and locate problem easily and then it is more expand than Bus and Ring topology. Moreover, in my opinion, I think UTP is more able to use for star topology. Due to cheap, easy installation and widely available and widely use.

Secondly, I suggested about the internet connection requirements for the Fire Department. Our age became the age of internet. For Fire Department, it is needed to know the information of fire and to be contact easily. Therefore, I described Internet services, required connection speed and Internet services providers (ISPs) and its prices for requirements.

And I said the methods could implement for two way voice communication. There are two kinds of it such as full duplex and half duplex. I had estimated of cost for setting up and operation system including licensing costs and equipment costs. I suggested the limitation of each system.

Moreover, I explain the telephone systems available in our country for single-site organization like Fire Department. In the section, I explain the line phone, PBX for extension and satellite phone. The main equipments, features, costs and costs operation the system are explained.

In this section, if there is an event of a serious incident such as a major terrorist attack or war, I suggested how can work the operation of Newtown having no electrical power and fixed telephone lines being broken.




(Network Engineer)

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