An Introduction to Photosynthesis
Assignment 1 –
1. Photosynthesis-Every plant goes through different type of plant processes, which mainly effects growth and development of a plant. The photosynthesis process is very essential part of a plant. It happened in the green plants containing chlorophyll. It also uses water, carbon dioxide and sunlight to make food in the plant.
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How the photosynthesis is related to other internal process (respiration, water and nutrient uptake, fruit development etc)
All the plant processes are interrelated to each other. The food which is made by the photosynthesis process, respiration takes energy from it. It breakdown the food which is through photosynthesis process.
Defective Photosynthesis Symptoms – In this process sunlight is very important. If the defective problem on plant photosynthesis, the colour of the leaves will change. Plant also become pale. Plant growth stop and looks dull.
The rate of photosynthesis is affected by these factors:
Light intensity — More light high rate of photosynthesis
water supply — Good water supply also help for the growth
Carbon dioxide availability – it is also very important in this process. The rate of photosynthesis affected by the oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Temperature — suitable temperature is also required for photosynthesis.
Heat- Heat has also an affect on the rate of the photosynthesis.
2. Respiration- After photosynthesis, the second process occurred is respiration. In this process it takes energy from the food, which is produced by photosynthesis. This process doesn’t require any sunlight because it can happen anytime. In the simple words respiration means breakdown of food, this is produced by photosynthesis.
Defective Respiration Symptoms- if defective problem on plant respiration, In poor respiration, we can see affect on the new growth. New growth will be look dull. Apart from this less vegetative growth occur.
How the Respiration is related to other internal process (, water and nutrient uptake, fruit development etc)
This process is also related to the photosynthesis. Because in this process the breakdown of food which is produced by photosynthesis occurs. So it also plays a key role in the other internal plant processes, which helps the plants for a better growth.
Temperature– At low temperature the rate of respiration is very low. At the same time high temperature does not have any significant effect on the rate of respiration.
Starvation– The plants have low starch have low rate of respiration. So this is also main factor for respiration.
Respiration decreases with decreased available oxygen. Under circumstances where no oxygen is present, like in poorly draining soil, anaerobic respiration occurs. The rate of respiration for most plants peaks around the normal oxygen level in the atmosphere
3. Translocation- The next plant growth process is known as translocation. In this process more water is pulled up from the root of the plants via xylem. This process is very essential for the health of the plant.
How the Translocation is related to other internal process (respiration, water and nutrient uptake, fruit development etc)
Translocation is important process because in this process water pulled up through the roots to xylem. It also helps in the nutrient uptake. So this process is also related to the photosynthesis as well as nutrient uptake
Defective Translocation Symptoms- If translocation rate is low then we can see this affect on the growth of the plants. Low rate transpiration leads to plant in a stage where plant is not healthy and leaves are drops and plant affected by plant diseases.
Temperature- Temperature also plays a key role in the growth of plants. At high temperature the rate of translocation is low. So balance of temperature is very important to increase the rate of translocation
Light- Light has play an important roles in the life of the plants and all other plant processes such as photosynthesis, respiration etc.
4.Nutrient uptake-: nutrient uptake means take the nutrient from the soil for the plant growth and development. Nutrient uptake occurs with the active transport. It needs the energy. Nutrient uptake absorbs the important nutrient like NPK. NPK is very important for plant growth and cell division.
How the Nutrient uptake is related to other internal process (respiration, water and nutrient uptake, fruit development etc)
Water moves up the plants through the xylem and some micronutrients, which are in the water. With the help of this plant produce chlorophyll, which is produced by photosynthesis process as food
Defective Nutrient uptake Symptoms- If the defective problem on plant Nutrient uptake, the colour of the leaves will change. If the nutrients are not available to the plants, fruit development of the plant is also affected.
- As for the first class of these factors, for example, we must consider the nutrition characteristics of the species and varieties to be grown.
- These special features include the morphological characteristics of plants, the ratios of their shoots and roots and also the characteristics of their root development.
- Other factors that we must not overlook are the specific nutrient requirements and nutrient dynamics.
- Different plants also differ in their temperature requirements, which naturally also affect their nutrition processes.
5. Photoperiodism: Basically it means physiological reactions of the organisms in the plants. This means the growth of the plant affected by the length of night. Short day plants needed short days and long nights for their better growth. On the other hand, long day plants needed long days and short night for good growth. Sun flower is one of the examples for long day plants. There are day neutral plants are also one of the category of the plants. They can flower any time of the year tomatoes are example of the plants.
Defective Photoperiodism Symptoms- If the defective problem on plant Photoperiodism, Plants will never produce the flowers. I other words, by defective photoperiodism plant will never go to its flowering stage
How the Photoperiodism is related to other internal process (respiration, water and nutrient uptake, fruit development etc)
It plays a key role to promote flowering in the plants. Some plants require periodic exposure to introduce flowering. It helps the plants to provide environment, which is suitable for flowering. So it leads the plant towards fruit development.
Factors-There are several types of factors which affect the process of the photoperiodism. Temperature is one of the factors which affect this process. Apart from this, moistures also play a key role in this process. Excess of moisture or lack of moisture can affect the process of photoperiodism. Soil structure also plays a key role in water uptake. So it’s directly effect on the growth of the plant. Apart from this, other biotic factors also affect this process.
6. Vernalization- This is a stage in the development of many plants, most notably bulbs, fruit trees, and nut trees. This stage involves exposure to cold temperatures for a set period of time, followed by a period of increased photosensitivity which allows the plant to start producing flowers. There are a number of reasons why vernalization is important to plants, and it is also useful to be aware of when forcing plants to bloom indoors or to bloom earlier than they usually do.
Defective Vernalization Symptoms- If the defective problem on plant Vernalization, if the no vernalization occurs in the plants, plants will never produce flowers.withot flowers we cannot expect fruit formation in the plants.
How the Vernalization is related to other internal process (respiration, water and nutrient uptake, fruit development etc)
Basically, vernalization is a process of flowering in the plants. So it has directly affect on the fruit development of the plants.
Factors-The most important influence of temperature on flowering time is the vernalisation response. Many plant species, such as winter cereals, must go through a prolonged period of cold that winter conditions before flowering occurs
Definition: A period in which a plant does not grow, awaiting necessary environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture, nutrient availability. This is a time when plant go into sleep mode after its production season. Kiwifruit is one of the best example for this. After producing fruits in spring season it goes into dormancy stage in winter season.
How the Dormancy is related to other internal process (respiration, water and nutrient uptake, fruit development etc)
Dormancy is a important stage of the plants. It helps in the all other plant processes fruit development, flowering etc.
DefectiveDormancy Symptoms- If the defective problem on plant Dormancy, Plant will not produce new growth and not available for next year.
Temperature- Temperature has a great affect on the dormancy. In the high temperature, some plants can’t survive in its dormancy stage. So it’s important that the suitable temperature available for the plants.
Climate- Climate is also a key factor for dormancy, too much rainfall or too much cold environment can affect the dormancy stag of the plants.
Basically it means lifecycle of the plants. In this process plant goes through all the stages of lifecycle such as seedling vegetative etc. All living organisms have a definite life span. A plant, be it annual or perennial has a vegetative growth phase after germination. The formation of flowers or development of reproductive structures marks the arrival of reproductive phase. The plant becomes mature by this time.
Defective Senescence Symptoms- If the defective problem on plant Senescence, The plant will look dull .
Environmental factors, primarily photoperiod (daily length of darkness) and temperature, play important parts in governing senescence and death in plants. In annual plants, death is the natural conclusion of development; thus, conditions accelerating development automatically advance senescence..
9. Fruit development
Fruit has its beginnings in the pollination process. This process is the transfer of pollen from the male to the female part of the flower. The male is referred to as the anther, while the female is called the stigma. This process not only occurs inside the same flower, but the pollen is also spread to neighbouring flowers by the wind, animals and a variety of insects. Grains in the pollen erect a tube on the flower that travels all the way down into the female part of the plant. The female part of the plant is at the base of the pistil, which houses the developing pollen tube. The pollen tube will react with a ovule in the female part of the plant to fertilize an egg. The egg and the ovary develop together, and a sheath or protective layer is formed around a seed. The ovary itself becomes the actual fruit produced by the plant. Depending on the number of eggs per ovule, multiple ovaries can become fruits. In some flowers, there is only one seed or one ovule, producing only one fruit at a time. Each fruit contains a protective layer, water, nutrients and a seed. Some fruits will have numerous seeds that can be planted and harvested.
Defective Fruit development Symptoms- If the defective problem on plant Fruit development, the size of the fruit is not good, or drop, the fruit discoloration can occur.
How the Fruit development is related to other internal process (respiration, water and nutrient uptake, fruit development etc)
As we all know that all plant processes, interrelated with each other. Fruit development very much depends on the flowering process.
Following are the factors, which affects in the fruit development process. Such as Low temperature, early season fruit, Chilling sensitivity, the potential for physiological disorders, increased moisture loss, relatively higher temperatures.
Plant growth regulators
Hormones are chemical substances produced in small amounts in one tissue and transported to another tissue where they have an effect. They are chemical messengers which regulate growth. There are five important hormones which are found in nearly all seed plants and these coordinate the growth of the plant as a whole. Many of the effects of the external environment on development are mediated by the distribution of these hormones within the plant.
5 different type of plant regulators
The main function of auxin is to help plants grow. Auxin stimulates plant cells to elongate, and the apical meristem of a plant is one of the main places that auxin is produced. Auxin is manufactured in shoot tips, embryos, fruit and young leaves. Auxin promotes the elongation of shoot tissue cells. Auxin is the hormone involved in geotropic responses of shoot tips to gravity.
The presence of cytokinin will stimulate the differentiation of vascular tissue (eg xylem). Cytokinin stimulates cell division. Buds which are inhibited by apical dominance may be ‘released’ by cytokinin. Cytokinin delays the ageing process and senescence, in leaves.
Gibberellin is an important hormone in stem elongation. Many dwarf plants are the result of diminished gibberellin in the stem. Gibberellin also promotes bolting (Bolting is when agricultural and horticultural crops prematurely produce a flowering stem (or stems) before the crop is harvested), rapid elongation of the stem
Early and late maturity in Potatoes
Potatoes vary in size, shape, colour, texture and time to maturity. Maturation time is the most important variable, because potato tubers grow best when soil temperatures range between 60 and 70 degrees.
Early Maturity: Early varieties that mature in less than 90 days are good fits for any garden. Creamy, round ‘Irish Cobbler,’ purple-skinned ‘Caribe,’ and prolific ‘Red Norland’ fall into this group, along with ‘King Harry,’ which is resistant to Colorado potato beetles.
Midseason varieties mature in 100 days or so, and include ‘Yukon Gold’ and ‘Red LaSoda,’ which is often the top-producing potato in warm climates.
Late Maturity: Late varieties need 110 days or more of growing time, but they typically produce a heavy set of tubers that keep well in storage. ‘Butte’ is an all-purpose brown-skinned potato that performs well when grown in the Midwest; ‘Katahdin’ and ‘Kennebec’ rule in the Northeast.
In order to achieve our desired predetermined result we should do different type of horticulture activities. We should control pest and diseases. Apart from this, we should control the weeds. For example: in order to get out of season production we should grow our crop in greenhouse. We should maintain hygiene. In order to achieve early maturity we should grow early maturity new varieties. We should modify the soil as well as use fertilizers to increase the growth and production of the crop. Good irrigation and good air movement also give a boost to the internal plant process. It helps in the plant growth and production or crops.
2.1Describe how you achieve Early maturity in any chosen crop
Chosen crop- Tomatoes
In order to achieve early maturity of the Tomatoes crop, we can use early variety of the plants. These plants belongs to special; category of the plants, which can mature early than normal growing plants. So we can achieve early maturity of the crop by growing early maturity variety plants of selected crop.
How to achieve early maturity: If we want to achieve early maturity in tomatoes than we have to grow early maturity verities of the tomato plants. In this way we can achieve early maturity in our selected crop
2.2 What is late maturity and how you achieve this in any crop.
Late maturity: Late maturity means that delaying the plant process to achieve late maturity of the plant. For doing this we have to control the internal processes such as photosynthesis, water uptake. In order to reduce photosynthesis we should grow our crop or plant in a shady environment.
How to achieve late maturity- In order to achieve late maturity in the plants, we should promote more vegetative stage of the crop. It can be done through by the use of nitrate fertilizer, which helps the plant to increase vegetative stage.
2.3 Describe what out of season production and how you achieve in chosen crop
Selected Crop- Tomatoes
Out of season production means that grow our crop in a season when conditions are opposite to grow the crop. For example producing tomatoes whole year by growing them inside a glasshouse. In the glasshouse we can control the environment, less chance of pest and diseases. It can possible through using new varieties of crop or plants. In the glasshouse more sunlight and suitable temperature available for the plant which help the plant to grow quickly and produce the products.
2.4 Describe how you can achieve production outside normal growing climate areas.
In order to achieve production outside normal climate, we have done some practices to achieve our goal. We can take example of Tomatoes. Tomatoes are commonly grown in summer. So, in order to achieve production in cold climate we have to use certain techniques which are mentioned below-
Glass house Production- In order to grow tomatoes in colder climate, best way of growing tomatoes is inside a glasshouse. Its provide suitable temperature for the plants. Apart from this, we can also grow early maturity variety of the plants.
In order to grow tomatoes in open field in cold climate we should cover our young plants. And we have to select area for planting which is surrounded by shelter.
2.5 Define crop yield and how you achieve optimum yield of any crop
Yield- Yield is refers to the amount that how much production achieve through manipulating the plant processes. For example produce crops or plant products in of season. For example 200 kg/per hector potatoes has been increased by achieving early maturity of the crop.
How to achieve optimum yield-
Trimming- pruning and trimming is very important because with the help of pruning we can encourage the plants for new growth.
Irrigation- Proper irrigation is needed for good growth of the plants. So it’s very important for internal plant processes.
Pest and disease control- we should control pest and diseases in the crop. In this way, we can achieve optimum production of our crop.
2.6 Describe storage characteristics of any crop
Chosen crop- Potatoes
The storage means that keep the potatoes for a long period of time in a control environment. To store the potatoes we should keep them in a cool store. We should also maintain a suitable temperature to avoid humid conditions. Apart from this, we should also have an eye on the moisture of the cool store. In this way, we can store the potatoes for desired time, without any diseases and pests.
Chosen Crop- Kiwifruit
In order to achieve predetermined results in kiwifruit crop. We have to perform certain activities. These activities are different and also done in different seasons. After harvesting the crop kiwifruit goes into dormancy stage. So this is the time when we have to start our activities.
Pruning- In the process of pruning we cut the old kiwifruit canes, which are used to produce fruit in previous season. In this process we use different type of tools such as loppers, secateurs etc. After cutting down the old kiwifruit canes new canes are put on the wires and tied them with plastic clips.
Vegetative Stage (summer)- After the pruning kiwifruit started to develop new leaves and buds in summer season. This is the time when, kiwifruit go through variety of activities such as bud thinning, tipping, zero leaf cutting, male plants pruning, girdling etc. In this season kiwifruit plants are in their vegetative stage and flourish with leaves and new shoots. Summer pruning also done in this season. Basically this is the process of cutting down the fruitless shoots from the plants.
Pollination- When both male and female kiwifruit plants started to produce flowers. It leads to the next process which is known as pollination. It can be done by two methods. But most of the kiwifruit growers use bees to promote pollination in plants. Honey bees took the pollen from the male flowers and put on the female flowers. The other method of pollination is spraying the pollen directly into the female plant flowers.
Fertilisation- After the process of pollination, the next process is fertilisation. Basically this is process of fruit formation. Pollen goes into the ovary with the help of pollen tube which help in the fruit formation.
Harvesting- When the fruit is completely developed and fulfil all the requirements of quality check, which is conducted by the pack house. After that fruit is ready for harvesting. In the process of harvesting the workers pick the fruits and loaded into the plastic or wooden bins. After that these bins are loaded into the truck and these trucks go into the pack house for packing.
Storage and packing: Harvested kiwifruits store in cool store house. These cool stores are under the supervision of the pack house. The cool store staffs maintain a suitable temperature and environment for the plants. The packing of the fruits also happen in the pack house after packaging of the fruits in trays the kiwifruit is ready for export to the other countries by the companies.
Question – 4
Briefly explain the factors which influence the following plant processes
- Early maturity- In simple words the meaning of the early maturity means achieve early growth of the plants by using an early maturity variety of the crop. Following are the factors which influence early maturity.
Light- Light is important for every plant. If the less light is available for the plant. The growth of the plant will stop. Because light is very important for the photosynthesis, which is a food making process of the plants.
Temperature- High temperatures cause increased respiration sometimes above the rate of photosynthesis. This means that the products of photosynthesis are being used more rapidly than they are being produced. For growth to occur photosynthesis must be greater than respiration.
Variety selection- The selection of variety is very important part for early maturity. So it’s important to select a good early maturity variety of our selected crop.
Seed sowing- Seed sowing is also a factor which influence early maturity. So its important sows the seeds in a correct depth. Because deep seed sowing can delay the germination of the seeds
Fertilizer- fertilizer is also an important factor. By using too much fertilizer it can lead the plants towards long vegetative stage. So while growing early maturity we have to use suitable fertilizers and avoid those fertilizers which delay early maturity.
- Late maturity- Late maturity means that encourage our plants for a long vegetative stage it can be done by fertilizers, pruning etc. Flowing are the factors.
Climate- Climate has also a affect on the plants too much cold or too much warm climates can also affect on the growth of the plants.
Fertilizer- Nitrogen fertilizers are commonly used to prolong the vegetative stage of the plants. So it’s important to put nitrogen fertilizer to get late maturity in our crop or plants.
Pruning or trimming – Pruning and trimming of the growing shoots also allows the plants to produce new leaves. So it’s also a key factor to get late maturity in the crops.
Planting season- Planting season is also a key factor to achieve late maturity of the plants. So it’s important to plant the seeds in a suitable season
Light- Too much light or less light can also affect the late maturity of the plants. Because light plays a important role in photosynthesis.
- Out of season production- Out of season production means produce the products in environment which is against the normal growing conditions. Following are the factors which influence Out of season production.
Humidity- Humidity is important factor in out of season production of a crop. Too much humidity can affect the plant growth.
Temperature- it’s important to maintain suitable temperature for the plants inside the glasshouse or plastic house because too much temperature can damage the plants.
Greenhouse or plastic house growing- it’s important to grow out of season crops in a plastic house or greenhouse.
Pest and disease control- We should control the weeds and pests.
- Production outside normal growing climate areas- Production outside normal conditions means growing crops in conditions which are adverse to normal growing conditions.
Water- Good and control water supply should be available for the plants in order to produce production in outside normal climate.
Light- Light is also a key factor. So before growing the crop we should know that suitable light is available for the plants or not.
Irrigation- Good irrigation system is also necessary for production outside normal growing season.
- Yield- Yield simple meaning is that production. It refers to the overall production of a crop from a piece of land. Following are the factors.
Temperature -High temperature have affect on the plants. It can reduce the quality of the fruits.
Light- If the too much sunlight available to the fruits, it can cause burning spots to the fruit.
Pest and disease– Pest and disease control is also very important, good pest and disease control can result as a high production or yield.
Irrigation– Good irrigation system has also a important role in the production. Good water management also increase the production of the crop.
- Storage Characteristics- Storage characteristics means that suitable environmental conditions to store vegetables and fruits. Following are the factors.
Moisture- It’s important to maintain suitable moisture in control suitable moisture in control environment because too much moisture can poor the quality of the stored fruits.
Temperature- Temperature is also factor of a cool store. So it’s important to maintain a suitable temperature for stored products.
4.2 How would you use planning to determine which influence will be altered and by what amount to be manipulated that plant growth to meet predetermined results.
- Cultivation- Cultivation is very important before growing a plant or crop. Because in this process we break the upper layer of the soil. It’s beneficial for the crop because with help of cultivation we can have good drainage, good water holding capacity and good soil aeration.
- Seed sowing – After cultivation the next process is seed sowing. We should know about the good depth for sowing the seed. Because if we sow the seeds too deeply it can result delay of the seedling stage.
- Irrigation- After sowing the seeds good water management or good irrigation is very important. Too much water or less water can also have a effect on the growth of the plant. Excess of water can cause result poor soil structure.
- Pruning training- In vegetative stage pruning and trimming of the plants is very important because it helps to promote new growth and also help to remove dead parts or infected by any pest or disease.
- Weeding – Removal of the weeds also a important part. Because weeds can grow faster than our crop and also increase the insect activities.
- Pest and disease control- pest and disease control is also needed because they can damage or kill the crop. So we need to use suitable insecticides or herbicides.
- Harvesting- Last and final stage of the crop is harvesting. For harvesting a crop we can use machines as well as labour also. The time of harvesting is vary according to the crop.
Name of the plant-Potatoes
The seed potato needs to be prepared before planting. This takes 4 – 6 weeks. Lay the potatoes out in a single layer in a warm, sunny sheltered spot. The potatoes will turn green and sprouts will appear from the ‘eyes’ of the potatoes. These eyes will grow into shoots. When the shoots are 3 – 4cm long, the potatoes are ready to plant. Just prior to planting, remove all but 3 of the thickest and healthiest sprouts.
Plant seed potatoes after frosts have passed in early spring through to early summer. Seed potatoes are planted in furrows about 150mm deep. Plant each seed potato at least 250mm apart from each other. Lay the sprouted seed potato so that the sprouts are pointing up in the furrow then cover with soil, taking care not to damage the shoots
As shoots appear above the ground at about 50 – 100mm, begin mounding the soil around the plant. Mounding is essential as it prevents greening of the tubers and protects the tubers from insects. Continue mounding until the potatoes start to ­ ower and growth slows down. Potatoes require regular feeding throughout their growing season – use a potato fertiliser or a good general fertiliser and always water in well. Potatoes aren’t entirely disease and pest free, but with a little bit of attention you can reduce the risk. When watering, water between the mounds, not on the foliage. Do not plant potatoes in the same place each year. Avoid planting potatoes where tomatoes have been planted the previous season. Mounds should be kept weed free.
Environmental control- The weather, weeds, pest insects and diseases can all impact on the success of your garden. Mounding will help protect your potatoes from the elements. Carefully hoe around sprouts to keep your crop weed free. When watering, water the soil not the foliage to avoid blight. Be vigilant and stop unwanted insects and diseases from ruining your plants.
Notes provided by tutor