Approaches And Methods Of Training Management Essay

Training is a systematic process to develop knowledge, skill and attitude from learning experience to achieve maximum performance in an activity (Buckley and Caple 2007). Learning and education both are different but important for organisations. Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes by experience, reflection, study and instruction. While education is a series of activities which enables to develop knowledge, skills, values and understanding that allow a broad range of problem solving and analysis (Buckley and Caple, 2007). Training plays an effective role in different kinds of learning and development. The rapid change in global environment pressurized all organisations to enhance their focus on customers. That time of producing, conceiving and marketing products dropped as organisations adopted new ways to compete in the market (Capelli et al, 1997 cited in Rod and Collin, 2000).

The successful organisations should have highly skilled and committed employees who can survive in this era of competition. Workers learn to enhance their performance and want to be more competent in their roles. Work place learning is very important after education to develop a long career (Legge, 2005). Organisations can get competitive advantage upon rivals through hiring skilled staff and through better training programs. According to Brookes (1995) organisations have to support training department and the least step is to appoint a dedicated staff in personnel for this task. It is important to make a training policy for the company and allocate specific budget for training. This all points to the fact that training and development is a prime business activity which has serious objectives and requires serious management (Nilson, 2003).

There are a number of benefits for individuals as a consequence of training procedures; relative to the present positions, individuals may see job satisfaction increase as a result of undergoing training (Clements and Jones, 2002). Intrinsic satisfaction may result from being able to perform a task to a higher standard, where as extrinsic satisfaction may come as a result of increased job skills, which may lead to greater earnings, career prospects and promotion possibilities (Buckley and Caple, 2007). An obvious benefit to individuals is the change from their regular work pattern, which can have recreational benefits as well, for example, less boredom and greater variety during work (Buckley and Caple, 2007).

Some of the benefits of training, from an organisation’s perspective included higher employee performance, productivity and possibly acting as a source of competitive advantage. There a number of other potential benefits to organisations of successful training procedures; decrease in wastage and increased productivity; lower labour turnover, saving costs (Rae, 2000); higher customer satisfaction, possibly leading to greater sales; shorter learning cycles for employees, reducing expenditure (Washington, 1995); lower absenteeism and fewer accidents (Buckley and Caple, 2007).

The innovations in technology brought speedy change in business environment. Training plays a critical role for individuals at work to manage careers development and organisational change. Training and learning is a pivotal business function that maximise profit and the company’s long term health (Nilson, 2003, P.2). The implementation of training plan depends on a lot of factors including the proper identification of training need and individual’s recognition for training need (Reid et al, 2004). Proper learning and best utilization of resources equally effect on effective outcomes (Bramley, 1986).

2.1 Approaches to Training

There are a number of approaches to train employees; the systematic approach is widely adopted in the organisations. However, the reactive and proactive approaches to training are still in use by some organisations.

2.1.1 Reactive Approach

The reactive approach to training tends to be an approach adopted predominantly by less developed and/or smaller organisations; this does not tend to involve pre-planning, but can be seen as spontaneous to a certain degree (Legge, 2005). This approach to training turn into action when business performance and productivity falls or seems to drop beyond a suitable level; the organisation then attempts to configure training to counteract this downturn. In comparison, to the other approaches to training, the financial layout is therefore relatively small, since training expenditure is effectively being used when it is needed (Lundy and Cowling, 1996). This approach suits smaller organisations whose finances cannot afford comprehensive training programmes which are systematically planned and administered (Lundy and Cowling, 1996).

2.1.2 Proactive Approach

The proactive approach to training is effective where Organisations are actively seeking ways for training to improve their business performance; when Organisations are looking not only to improve their current training methods, but also opportunities to extend training to wider segments of their organisation. Such an approach tends to be adopted by organisations that see training as important part of their business model and essential to gaining a competitive advantage (Schuler and Jackson, 2007).

2.1.3 Systematic Approach

The Systematic Approach to training is by far the approach which has been given the most attention to in literature and research (Raffe, 2004- Bratton and Gold, 2003). It is also the theoretical approach which most organisations adopt thus it is often argued it is the most logical and most successfully effective in a practical sense (Raffe, 2004). The systematic approach to training effectively revolves around dividing the training process and procedures into stages and sub-stages. McNamara (2008) identifies the stages of basic systematic approach to training which are analysis, design, develop, implement and evaluate.

Analysis: This stage involves the organisation’s needs and identification of training goals, and the strategies to equip trainees with knowledge and skills to meet the organisation’s objectives. Usually this stage also includes the identification of training timings and participants.

Design: This stage involves making training procedures and systems that can allow objectives to be met and a system that learners and trainers can implement to meet the learning goals. This stage involves identifying learning objectives, required facilities, funding, etc. Thus planning skills are utilised heavily here in this stage (McNamara, 2008).

Develop: This stage involves obtaining the necessary resources which will be required to put together the training package designed (McNamara 2008); for example, identifying premises, materials and resources which will be required and progressing to obtain and organise them.

Implement: Implementation stage tends to involve putting the training package designed into practice. It includes a variety of tasks ranging from delivering the training, clarifying training materials, administrative processes and conducting a final evaluation. This phase can include administrative activities, such as copying, scheduling facilities etc.

Evaluate: This stage involves assessing training prior to, during and after its duration. It can also involve a wide variety of tasks from testing attendees on what was taught during the training, to asking their opinions on the training (McNamara, 2008).

2.2 Methods of Training

The training delivery methods can be divided into cognitive and behavioural approaches. Cognitive methods provide information orally or in written form, demonstrate relationships among concepts, or provide the rules for how to do something. They stimulate learning through their impact on cognitive processes and are associated most closely with changes in knowledge and attitudes. The lecture, discussion, e-learning and case studies are cognitive methods. The cognitive methods of training can influence skill development (referenceforbusiness.com).

The behavioural methods allow the trainee to practice behaviour in a real or simulated fashion. They stimulate learning through experience and are best at skill development and attitude change. The equipment simulators, business games, role plays, the in-basket technique, behaviour modelling and, to some extent, case studies are behavioural methods. Both behavioural and cognitive methods can be used to change attitudes. On-the-job training is a combination of many methods and is effective at developing knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Source: www.referenceforbusiness.com

2.3 Types of training

Training broadly categorized into two types i.e. pre-service training and in-service training. Pre-service training is more academic in nature and is offered by formal institutions following syllabuses for certain period to offer a formal degree or diploma. In-service training, on the other hand, is offered by the organisation from time to time for the development of employees’ skills and knowledge.

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2.3.1 Pre-service Training

Pre-service training is a process through which individuals are made ready to enter a certain kind of professional job. They have to attend regular classes in a formal institution and need to complete a definite curriculum and courses successfully to receive a formal degree or diploma. They are not entitled to get a professional job unless they receive a certificate, diploma, or degree from the appropriate institution.

2.3.2 In-service Training

In-service training is a process of staff development for the purpose of improving the performance of an incumbent holding a position with assigned job responsibilities. It promotes the professional growth of individuals. It is a program designed to strengthen the competencies of extension workers while they are on the job (Malone, 1984). In-service training is a problem-centred, learner-oriented, and time-bound series of activities which provide the opportunity to develop a sense of purpose and increase capacity to gain knowledge and mastery of techniques.

In-service training may be categorized into five different types: induction or orientation training, foundation training, on-the-job training, refresher or maintenance training, and career development training.

Induction or Orientation Training: Induction training is given immediately after employment to introduce the new staff members with their positions. It begins on the first day the new employee is on the job (Rogers & Olmsted, 1957). Induction training for all employees should develop an attitude of personal dedication to the service of people and the organisation. This kind of training supplements whatever pre-service training the new personnel might have had (Halim and Ali, 1988) concerning the characteristics of a new employee. According to Van Dersal (1962) when people start to work in an organisation, they are eager to know what sort of outfit they are getting into, what they are supposed to do, and whom they will work with. They are likely to be more attentive and open-minded than experienced employees. In fact, the most favourable time for gaining employees’ attention and for moulding good habits among them is when they are new to the job.

Foundation Training: Foundation training is in-service training which is also appropriate for newly recruited employees. Besides technical competence and routine instruction about the organisation, every staff member needs some professional knowledge about various rules and regulations of the government, financial transactions, administrative capability, communication skills, leadership ability, coordination and cooperation among different institutions, report writing etc. Foundation training is made available to employees to strengthen the foundation of their service career. This training is usually provided at an early stage of service life.

Maintenance or Refresher Training: Refresher training is offered to update and maintain the specialized subject-matter knowledge of the employees. Refresher training keeps the specialists, administrators, subject-matter officers, extension supervisors, and frontline workers updated and enables them to add to the knowledge and skills they already have. Maintenance or refresher training usually deals with new information and new methods, as well as review of older ones. This type of training is needed both to keep employees at the peak of their possible production and to prevent them from getting into a rut (Van Dersal, 1962).

On-the-Job Training: The On-the Job training is ad hoc or regularly scheduled training, such as fortnightly training under the training and visit system .It is provided by the superior officer or the subject specialists to the field staff. This training is generally problem or technology oriented and includes formal presentations, informal discussion, and opportunities to try out new skills and knowledge in the specific field. The administrator or subject specialist of each department must play a role in providing on-the-job training to the staff while conducting day-to-day normal activities.

Career or Development Training: This type of in-service training is designed to upgrade the knowledge, skills, and ability of employees to help them to perform greater responsibilities at higher positions. The career development training is arranged departmentally for successful employees at all levels, for their continuing education and professional development. According to Malone (1984) the extension services that provide the opportunity for all staff to prepare a plan for career training will receive the benefits of having longer tenured and more satisfied employees, which increase both the effectiveness and efficiency of an extension service. Malone (1984) also stated that “career development is the act of acquiring information and resources that enables one to plan a program of lifelong learning related to his or her work life”. The career or development training plays a key role when a junior staff member is promoted at a higher level.

2.4 Effectiveness of Training

It can be difficult to assess how effectively an organisations training processes are (Price, 2007); people often see this will be represented by organisation profitability and its efficiency (Lundy and Cowling, 1996); however, such increases are difficult, since they can attributed to a variety of factors including increases in product demand, economic/political factors and demographic changes. Despite this, it is important that firms measure training effectiveness for a number of reasons.

The most recognisable and frequently used model for measuring the effectiveness of training programs was developed by Donald Kirkpatrick in 1950(Bratton and Gold 2003; Kirkpatrick, 1959; Price, 2007). It has been adapted and changed by different academics, although the basic structure has well stood the test of time (Kirkpatrick, 1998). The basic structure of Kirkpatrick’s four-level model is illustrated below.

Source: (ftknowledge.com)

Fig 2: Kirkpatrick Model for Evaluating Effectiveness of Training Programs

Evaluating each level of the model can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of any particular training program or procedure; despite the progressive level composition of the model, Kirkpatrick (1998) indicates that it is still possible for a training program to be effective at the higher levels while being ineffective at the lower levels; e.g. organisational performance (level 4) may be improving as a result of the training yet employees may not have an optimal attitude or reaction to it (level 1). This view is supported by previous studies (Stokking, 1996). It is necessary to explain and discuss each component of the model in detail.

2.4.1 Reaction

Reaction evaluates how employees felt about the training (Kirkpatrick, 1998). It is necessary for training programme to be effective, that employees have a positive reaction to training. This may be in the form of enjoying or finding training interesting. If employees do not react or have positive attitudes towards the training, it is likely to affect its efficiency (Armstrong, 2006). It is important to evaluate how employees feel about training whether they like or dislike it and what they feel can be add to improve their reactions. Further aspects of this component which may need to investigated, involve assessing whether delegates felt the training was an effective use of their time, whether they felt the training was relevant and were they comfortable with and its different aspects (Kirkpatrick, 1998). This is sometimes done through feedback sheets, where the delegates are given the opportunity to convey their views (Kirkpatrick, 1998).

2.4.2 Learning

The learning is the evaluation of the increase in knowledge prior to and after the training procedure (Kirkpatrick, 1959). The effectiveness of this component is dependent on whether employees learned what they were intended to be taught and to what degree did their knowledge increased. This can be measured through assessments prior to and after a training session taken place, although again a questionnaire can also be given to attendants monitoring whether they personally feel their knowledge has increased (Brookes, 1995).

2.4.3 Behavioural Change

The behavioural change is the extent of applied learning when back on the job (Kirkpatrick, 1998), the implementation of any learning which may have taken place. This is necessary for the organisation to realize the practical benefit of the training undertaken by their employees. Measuring strongly revolves around questioning employees on whether they felt different and more prepared for their job, as a result of their training (Mckenna and Beech, 2002). Furthermore, delegates should also be questioned on the fact whether the change when working is noticeable and whether they have been utilizing the relevant skills learned, as a result of the training undertaken (Lundy and Cowling, 1996).

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2.4.4 Organisational Performance

The organisational Performance is the effect on the business environment, made by their trainee upon completion of their training (Kirkpatrick, 1998). It is typical measure in terms of key performance indicators such as volumes, values and percentages and other quantifiable aspects such as turnover, attrition, quality and profits. The measuring of organisational performance resulting directly from training can be a tedious and complex process. Kirkpatrick (1998) says this cannot be measured accurately without substantial investigation since external factors, away from the training, will have a huge impact on the aspects discussed. Investigating this is limited to questioning senior managerial personnel on the organisations performance in terms such aspects and how much of the improvements/falls can be given to the actual training (Lundy and Cowling, 1996). The weakness with this approach lies in the reliance on honesty of the managerial personnel questioned, as well as their judgment. The ideal would be to involve the wide variety of relevant quantitative figures (Kirkpatrick, 1998).

2.5 Criticism on Kirkpatrick Model

Kirkpatrick’s model for evaluation of training is well-established and in widespread use. Many organisations find it useful and since its publication no better alternative has been suggested. It is however, some criticisms relating to the model itself and the assumptions upon which it is applied.

There are some criticisms of Kirkpatrick’s model for evaluating effectiveness of training that have implications for the ability of training evaluation to deliver benefits in the interests of organisations. These include the incompleteness of the model, the assumption of causality, and the assumption of increasing importance of information.

The model is incomplete: The Kirkpatrick’s model for evaluating effectiveness of training gives an oversimplified view of training effectiveness that does not consider individual or contextual influences in the evaluation of training. A broad stream of research over past two decades (Ford & Kraiger, 1995; Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001; Tannenbaum & Yukl, 1992) has documented the presence of a wide range of organisational, individual, and training design and delivery factors that can influence training effectiveness before, during, or after training. This research has led to a new understanding of training effectiveness that considers ‘characteristics of the organisation and work environment and characteristics of the individual trainee as crucial input factors’ (Cannon-Bowers, Salas, & Tannenbaum, 1995).

The contextual factors such as the learning culture of the organisation (Tracy, Tannenbaum, & Kavanaugh, 1995), organisational or work unit goals and values (Ford, Quinones, Sego, & Sorra, 1992), the nature of interpersonal support in the workplace for skill acquisition and behaviour change (Bates, Holton, Seyler, & Carvalho,2000) the climate for learning transfer (Rouiller & Goldstein,1993), and the adequacy of material resources have been shown to influence the effectiveness of training process. The Kirkpatrick’s model assumes that examination of these factors is not essential for effective evaluation of training.

The assumption of causal linkages: Kirkpatrick’s model for evaluating effectiveness of training assumes that the levels of criteria represent a causal chain such that positive reactions lead to greater learning, which produces greater transfer and subsequently more positive results. Although Kirkpatrick is vague about the precise nature of the causal linkages between training outcomes, his writings do imply that a simple causal relationship exists between the levels of evaluation (Holton, 1996). In one of Kirkpatrick’s more recent publications he stated that “if training is going to be effective, it is important that trainees react favourably” and that “without learning, no change in behaviour will occur” (Kirkpatrick, 1994), research, however, largely failed to confirm such causal linkages.

Incremental importance of information: Kirkpatrick’s model for evaluating effectiveness of training assumes that each level of evaluation provides data that is more informative than the last (Alliger & Janak, 1989). This assumption has produced the perception among training evaluators that establishing level four results will provide the most useful information about training process effectiveness.

Although there are some criticisms upon Kirkpatrick model for evaluating training effectiveness but this model is well suited in addressing the objectives of this research, which significantly focus on assessing if training problems exist, as well as training effectiveness and identifying potential improvements within bank.

2.6 Problems of Training Evaluation

There are many problems which exist and can occur that can hinder the training process; these can vary strongly dependent on factors such as organisation type, training type, etc (Schuler and Jackson, 2007). To point out some of the common problems of the training process, the researcher has opted to use the components of Kirkpatrick’s model.

Reaction: The common problem is that training may be boring, uninteresting and negatively seen by the employees; a positive reaction perception of training in the view of employees is important to the effectiveness of training. As with development aspects in general it is usually necessary for people to enjoy them or at the very least not dislike them, to be impressionable (Noe, 1998).

Learning: The learning styles of employees can strongly affect the how much they can learn during training sessions. Honey and Mumford (1989) identify four styles of learning which outline ways to which an individual may be favoured to learning; these are activists, reflectors, theorists and pragmatists.

Behavioural Change: Behavioural Change can be affected in numerous ways; this is the aspect which determines the extent to which the practical benefit of training is realized. The common problem which can prevent behavioural change being realized is that of a lack of relevance (Kirkpatrick, 1959). If the training undertaken by employees is not relevant to the skills required in their job then they are unlikely to change to a more effective way of working. The other main problems of effective behavioural change lie in the ability of the individuals to transfer any new skills they have learnt during training (Gibb, 2007).

Organisational Performance: Training however successful at variety of levels may not necessarily translate into improved organisational performance; the variety of external factors affecting an organisations performance as well as individuals performance, can mean that even if the training is perfectly designed it may not lead to greater performance on a business level (Rod and Colin, 2000). There is fact that many training programs are focused on informing trainees as opposed to directly intending to improve their job performance (Gibb, 2007).

3.0 Research Methodology

To obtain maximum output researcher has to devise an appropriate research strategy which will be beneficial for accurate results while analysing the data. Author elaborates the research methods and approaches which will be used in this investigation.

An effective research can only conducted by using relevant strategies out of many and each of them can be used for exploratory, descriptive and explanatory research (Saunders, 2007). According to Deetz (1996) different modes of research allow us to understand different phenomena and for different reasons. The methodology chosen depends on what researcher is trying to do rather than a commitment to a particular paradigm (Cavaye, 1996). The methodology used must match the particular objectives of research. Different phenomena may require the use of different or a set of methodologies. By focusing on the phenomenon under examination, rather than the methodology, researchers can select appropriate methodologies for their enquiries (Falconer & Mackay, 1999).

3.1 Research Paradigms

The term “paradigm” is introduced by the Thomas Kuhn, he characterizes a paradigm as: “An integrated cluster of substantive concepts, variables and problems attached with corresponding methodological approaches and tools” (Kuhn, 1962).In the past century, different paradigms have introduced due to the remarkable growth in the research. There are two main paradigms to verify the theoretical propositions, i.e. positivism and anti-positivism.

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Positivism comprises on usage of natural science approach. Researcher prefers to work along with an observable social reality which results in making law similar to natural scientists (Remenyi et al, 1998,). This is useful for quantitative research with logics. An important factor of positivism approach is that research can go as far as possible and in a value free manner (Saunders, 2007).

Although positivistic paradigm continued to influence educational research for a long time in the latter half of the twentieth century, it was criticized due to its lack of regard for the subjective states of individuals. It regards human behaviour as passive, controlled and determined by external environment. Hence human beings are dehumanized without their intention, individualism and freedom taken into account in viewing and interpreting social reality. According to the critics of this paradigm, objectivity needs to be replaced by subjectivity in the process of scientific inquiry. This gave rise to anti-positivism or naturalistic inquiry.

Anti-positivism emphasizes that social reality is viewed and interpreted by the individual according to the ideological positions they posses. The anti-positivists believe that reality is multi-layered and complex (Cohen et al, 2000) and a single phenomenon are having multiple interpretations. Positivism emphasizes objectivist approach to studying social phenomena and gives importance to research methods focusing on quantitative analysis, surveys, experiments etc. Similarly, anti-positivism stresses on subjectivist approach to studying social phenomena attaches importance to a range of research techniques focusing on qualitative analysis like personal interviews, participant observations, account of individuals, personal constructs etc.

Other research paradigms further exist in the form of Interpretivism and Realism. Interpretivism is based on beliefs of people and interprets the meaning which they perceive. This emphasises creating research among people than objects. The interpretivist approach is significant if research is conducted in the fields of marketing, organisational behaviour and human resource management (Saunders, 2007). Realism comprises on the fact that reality is independent of the mind. It is totally based on reality rather than idealism. The underlying assumption of realism is that senses show us reality and that is truth. In other words, objects have their existence and that’s the reality (Saunders, 2007). Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are utilized when adopting a realism stance (Maylor and Blackmon, 2005).

The researcher sees combination of both Interpretivist and Realism stances the most appropriate way to approach this study. The interpretive stance is essential to establish the effectiveness of training activities within the bank while the realism philosophy is important to allowing the other research objectives to be met. According to Easterby Smith it is rare for research to be conducted from a single philosophical perspective, a combination of stances is mostly needed to allow research objectives to be met (Easterby Smith et al, 2002).

3.2 Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Both qualitative and quantitative methods are to be used in this research, thus it is important that both of these to be discussed.

Qualitative Methods: Qualitative research methods look more at human perceptions of issues. They tend to offer an insight and deeper, broader understanding of matters, rather than more clinical, concise quantitative approach (Collis and Hussey, 2003).Such methods uncover meanings and the variety of human response. Because they view issues with a social context methods tends to be unstructured and possesses an element of authenticity (Jankowicz, 2005). The qualitative methods which researcher intends to use primarily are semi-structured interviews.

Quantitative Methods: Quantitative methods look at facts and figures that can be measured in some way to achieve a quantified, or generalized in terms of their relationship with each other (Collis and Hussey, 2003).The techniques in this type of research include experiments (in which a hypothesis may be tested out under controlled conditions), surveys and questionnaires. The questions are closed ended and structured interviews.

3.3 Primary Research

Primary data is collected data, which has specifically being done to answer questions passed by the current research objectives. There are many means of obtaining primary data such as observation, surveys, interviews and questionnaire. The researcher intends to use questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation for primary data collection in this research.

One of the main advantages of primary data is the availability of up to date data so the credibility of the data usually cannot be questioned (Collis and Hussey, 2003) while the major disadvantages of primary data collection is that it can be a difficult process, especially in terms of time consumption as finding participant, setting up the actual research process and then analyzing the results usually takes up a lot of time (Collis and Hussey, 2003).The primary research could also be expensive especially if a large sample is being used.

Questionnaire: Questionnaires are used for descriptive or explanatory research. The questionnaire is a popular technique to collect the data. Questionnaire plays a vital role with standardised questions interpreted in the same manner by all respondents (Robson, 2002). Respondents have to respond some set of questions which is significant to collect responses from a huge sample before the start of quantitative analysis. The most important factor in questionnaire is to make such a questionnaire which fulfils all requirements of data collection for research (Saunders et al, 2007). The questionnaires are of two types comprises on open and closed ended questions. In open questions respondents give answer in their own way which is a time consuming process as well; Whereas in closed ended questions there are few answers available to respondent to tick the relevant answer and provide relevant data (Saunders et al, 2007).

The researcher will distribute a closed ended questionnaire among the employees of Bank Alfalah Ltd, Islamabad branch as it is feasible and less time consuming accurate data collection method.

Semi structured interviews: An interview is that where researcher speaks directly to respondent. An interview is a meaningful discussion among two or more than two people (Joseph et al, 2007). Interviews are especially helpful in obtaining data for sensitive issues. Researcher can obtain reliable and valid data through interviews. Interviews can be formalised and using standardised questions to every respondent as well as informal and unstructured discussion. Researcher intends to conduct semi structured interviews of the selected employees of Bank Alfalah Ltd Islamabad branch.

Observation: Observation is based on to record, describe, analyse and interpret people’s behaviour. This enables researcher to not only shares experience but also feels it (Gill and Johnson, 2002). In this method researcher becomes member of sample group and monitors the activities of that group closely. In this research the observation method will give the researcher a real look of the occurrences at the Islamabad branch of Bank Alfalah Ltd. It will be easy to uncover problems, facts and elements which have been missed by the employees with the help of personal observations.

3.4 Secondary Research

Secondary research can provide backdrop to primary research, act as a substitute for a field research, or be used entirely to meet research objectives (Collis and Hussey, 2003). In order to investigate the objectives of this research, a range of secondary resources will be used. This included journals, websites, databases and significantly books, which have so far been used to compile the literature search. Secondary sources will also be used in the findings, where data collected will be analyse by comparing to perspectives from literature.

There are many advantages of secondary data. Some secondary data may meet objectives without primary data. It is usually more time and cost saving to search out secondary data sources than it is to mount a primary research process (Jankowicz, 2005). The disadvantage that comes with secondary research is that the data researched for another purpose may not answer the required objectives. Another drawback in using secondary data is that it may not be as up-to-date, accurate and consistent as required.

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