Artificial Intelligence In Mobile Learning Information Technology Essay

As with the development of mobile wireless networks which improved its communication equipment allows to study anywhere and anytime. Mobile learning came into existence became the popular way of learning which made our lives easy and modern. Mobile learning (m-learning) has many advantages in terms of interactivity, portability, easy operating and targeted users, which attracted many learners. At this situation, Artificial Intelligence came into existence in which it has to provide lots of information regarding Mobile Learning. “A mobile connected society creates new training challenges” (Rosenberg, 2001) and it can be accessed outside from traditional classrooms. The mobile and wireless devices enable us to communicate in various ways. As access cost to mobiles through the internet is reducing, we have easy and inexpensive way to communicate through the mobiles. The rapid advent of communication started right from simple SMS to video calling using the smart phones which provide both telephone and internet services. These smart phones integrate online information; manage data, image, voice, and text communications.

Mobile learning can be explained in different point of views. These views can be divided into three categories as follows. The first point of view is that mobile learning is a form of Distance learning. The next point of view is that it is the expansion of e-Learning. And the third point of view is that it is a new technology which has a way of learning with mobility situations. With the advent of this technology has got so many opportunities for learning by devices such as PDAs, mobile phones and laptops. Collectively, this delivery type of learning is called m-Learning. We can think it as a subset of e-Learning (which is a type of learning from web). According to Kristine Peters (2007), this emerging mobile technology i.e. m-Learning is mostly placed within the e-Learning which links directly to the ‘just enough, just in time, just for me’ model of flexible learning (from Figure 1).

A mobile learning technology uses wireless mobile communication technology and wireless equipments such as mobile phones, PDAs and so on for accessing the resources and services of education system. The goal of mobile learning system is that students could learn anything at anytime, anywhere and anyway. Mobile learning’s uniqueness lies in providing anywhere and anytime learning environment in which learners can learn at their convenient time and place. Mobile learning supports the situational learning and provides the real live in learning. It also provides the support for the informal learning which plays an important role for the learners to be competitive at their work.

Artificial intelligence is nothing but machine (computer) intelligence which uses artificial methods to attain intelligence. It is to simulate artificial intelligence on machine or to make machine to be intelligent like human. It is based on computer science and various theories but there is no precise definition for artificial intelligent at present. However, it is a research on science, design and for the systems to simulate intelligent capabilities like human. The research is carrying out with applications on artificial intelligence which is an interdisciplinary. Technically, it is related to psychology, biological science, system science, cognitive science and so on. It had a very great achievements and developments on various areas such as pattern recognition, programming, intelligent robot and knowledge processing. Now research on artificial intelligence would be by three ways:

Mobile learning had a great influence on traditional education system which has got very important significance. It has changed not only the deficiencies of traditional education system which has limited by time and space, but also made teaching in a very interesting manner. This made learners to become more enthusiastic on mobile learning but also attracted a large number of people to practice mobile learning. Anybody can practice mobile learning as it can be achieved by anybody, at anytime and anywhere. But at present, it is still in the early stages of development which it has many practical problems in applications.

Mobile learning is an emerging theory which is in development of these three technologies: computing power, communication and intelligent user interfaces development. As mobile learning is learning from wireless devices such as mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), laptops and computers, it uses specific technology which is different from other forms of e-Learning. But when considering mobility from the learner’s view it is the technology which goes everywhere at anytime. Examples such as a doctor updates his medical knowledge at anytime on his hospital rounds, students can revise for exams while travelling in bus or students can improve their skills in language while travelling anywhere. All these examples show the formal or informal way of learning while they are travelling i.e. On moving. With this, we can define mobile learning as any kind of learning when the learner is not at fixed place. Learner has advantage of opportunities to learn by mobile learning.

Mobile devices include both hardware and software features. The main focus is on base Operating System software as it encapsulates hardware implementation for the application to support ubiquitous learning. According to Dochev and Hristov (2006), mobile devices can be classified as four types: Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), Smart Phones, Cell Phones, Tablet PC and Notebooks. Now we would discuss about their device characteristics below:

According to Dochev and Hristov (2006), Figure 2 shows the basic project architecture elements. Learning Objects, learning tasks, learning expositions, learning communications and administrative functions are stored in Common Store which are used to access both mobile and desktop computers. Filtering applications filters objects according to the filtering criteria from the common store. Criteria may include whether that object can technically be implemented on a mobile device or whether it may be useful for a mobile learner. An object selected based on technical criteria may determine whether it is reasonable or not. For example, to download very large files to a mobile is not reasonable but downloading of audio lectures is quite reasonable. As downloading of audio lectures is quite useful it can be implemented in the mobile learning environment. The arrows in Figure 2, common store objects can be considered reasonable technically and suitable in either the m-learning or the e-learning environments or both. After filtering objects required for environments, it needs to render each object filtered according to its learning environments considering the browser capabilities and device limitations.

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The architecture had shown here serves as a base for Ubiquitous learning by using various tools and environment. This architecture supports both connected and disconnected scenarios. In connected scenario, learner can be connected to permanent internet connection and requests for required learning objects. But in disconnected scenario, learner first connects to internet, downloads a content required in local memory and then disconnects from internet. After downloading the content required, user connects again to internet to synchronize these stored data with local data on the central server. This type of interacting through data is called “download on demand” and the control of synchronizing is learner’s responsibility. This disconnected scenario is important because the usage of “Wi-Fi hotspots” is becoming very popular but it may not cover the places where learners want to learn. The disadvantage is the user may not use all material required for learning when disconnected or the data transmission cost is quite high.

Mobile Intelligent Teaching Expert System (MITES): It provides teaching environment intelligently. It forms an open interactive teaching system by simulating teaching by experts, professors using advanced methods such as AI technology and media of mobile for the teaching. By using this system, students can acquire knowledge through mobile devices. This system can teach according to the knowledge and learning abilities of the student which achieves best teaching mechanism and also adaptive to individualized teaching. “MITES is a technology based on thinking science, cognitive science and artificial intelligence, educational psychology and other disciplines knowledge” (Dochev and Hristov 2006). The MITES role is to acquire cognitive learning model, to make learners to adopt individualized learning and make their learning faster and effectively by analysing the study characteristics and processes. MITES systems have the following characteristics of intelligence:

Mobile Intelligent Decision support System (MIDSS): According to Dochev and Hristov (2006), the basic components of this system include database, model base, method base, man-machine interface and intelligent components. These components can be classified into two types of system structure. They are four base structure and fusion structure. MIDSS shows very strong potential growth and very good future in the mobile learning application systems. This system provides learners with the data, information and materials necessary in decision making. This system helps to reach goals, decision making in identification of problems and to establish the decision-making model with a range of options and provide evaluation of programs with human-computer interaction feature. It compares and determines the good support for the effective decision making.

Mobile Intelligenct Information Retrieval Engine (MIIRE): Learners would find information through network in mobile learning. So, the service of retrieving the quality information is very important in support services. In mobile learning, Mobile Intelligent retrieval would be there to support the intelligence engine. The search engine which exists has server-side software’s which do not have intelligence and high accuracy retrieval. Retrieval engine requires input string format. But if we move that search engine to mobile client and make it enable for self-analysis and understand the learner’s interest, it would have some degree of intelligence which collects information based on user’s interest in internet. MIIRE is important in personal navigation system which is based on Java have some definite self-learning functionality. This self-learning functionality collects and records the browsing capabilities of users. Different users use different navigations allows users to access necessary resources accurately. The technical point of view is that intelligent engine is the important technology for developing this mobile intelligenct information retrieval system.

Mobile Intelligent Induct-learning System (MIIS): It is a services support system. A support service is an important element in mobile learning. For effective development and implementing projects using mobile learning, it is necessary to establish, maintain an effective flexible and strong support services system. Support services is aiming to create the best learning environment so that students can easily access a range of resources quickly which acquires success by accepting the full range of learning services. Intelligent Agent, a major application in the field of distributed artificial intelligence area, reduces the complex software usage and implements tedious tasks which maximize the efficiency, Agent Mobile Intelligent Guidance System can guide the different learning development and implementation strategies and provide personalized guidance. The guidance is focused and looks forward for automatic issues generated and practices them. The correct planning is through feedback for adjusting the content and learning progress has a diagnostic function, analysing errors and improving them. This strategy makes more in order with user’s own knowledge and cognitive characteristics.

Intelligent Hardware Network (IHN): According to Dochev and Hristov (2006), the meaning of intelligent here means “operational intelligence” and “service intelligence”. The intelligence which maintains, manages and runs the mobile network system is called Operational Intelligence. The intelligence in which mobile network system provide users with field of information processing knowledge or provides some decision support is called Service Intelligence. Mobile network is the mobile learning in terms of its hardware. With the development in human society information and by increasing network popularity, mobile learning by web requires not only integration of multimedia information but also the providing high-level of processing information with regard to processing knowledge power. According to the present situation, it is a predictive option by using the IHN to create the mobile networks more intelligenct.

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This is very important layer in mobile learning system. The mobile learning services are encapsulated in this layer. This layer is responsible in dealing the requests of presentation layer application and makes logical result estimation. If this result of logical estimation is legal then the system gets data from databases, deals with that data and provides the results back to the presentation layer. According to Yi Jin (2009), “there are nine function modules in this business logic layer of mobile learning system which includes system management module, course learning module, mobile educational training module, teaching management module, education information collecting module, outdoor tasks supporting module, Q&A module, mobile educational Blogs module and mobile educational game module”. (Yi Jin, 2009).

This layer is interface which is interactive between users and system. This layers responsibility involves dealing dialogs between users and system. The client includes mainly two kinds: intelligent mobile phones and PDA (Pocket PC), each is composed by its hardware and software. In the case of Smart Devices, the modules using application programs is the client software which uses client application programs of mobile operation systems equipment and browsers. Users would often visit mobile learning system server by browsers and return back data according to the requests. “This communication between users and results is implemented by XHTML, WML and JavaScript in browsers” (Yi Jin, 2009). This presentation layer provides different user interfaces for students, instructors and administrators.

Learning services are provided for mobile users by mobile learning systems through mobile terminals. That is the reason why mobile learning system should have the characteristics of mobility and provide mobile learning functional systems following the principles and theories of mobile learning. According to Yi Jin (2009), mobile learning system was designed into eight feasible functions which includes course learning, teaching management, collecting education information, mobile educational training, outdoor tasks supporting, Q&A, blogs of mobile education and mobile educational games. In addition, student log in the system through registration and logging in the management of all modules of the system by instructors and administrators through the function of background management. These are the two functions which belong to system management module. Here we describe the modules as below: (Yi Jin, 2009)

Mobile learning system has three kinds of users: students, instructors and administrators. First, registration and authorization of user’s is done and managed by this module. Next, the responsibility of instructors and administrators is to manage the whole mobile learning system through this module. According to the implementation of technologies, the system consists of smart device application programs and the browser programs of web applications. Instructors would login the system for managing the system background, also manages students information and students learning resources. Instructors upload tests and resources for managing the information of teaching and answering questions. But the administrators would have very high level authorities for setting and maintaining of the system more in addition to the functions of instructors.

Course Learning Module

Course learning module is the main functional learning system in mobile learning system. The main aim of this mobile learning system’s course module is to offer learning same as E-learning system, but as the mobile learning is done by mobile terminals for carrying out the activities of learning, we would consider fully the methods required for mobile learning which are spontaneous, portable and individualistic. We would also consider its hardware and software qualities of mobile terminals which help to design for learning courses on mobiles whose content can be divided into smaller ones. But the main method of information representation is displaying text with some pictures and animations. That’s the reason we should consider when choosing the kind of mobile learning resources like E-books, Electronic dictionary, plan of E-teaching, etc. “The functions of course learning includes mobile learning resource online browsing, mobile learning resource local operation and download of learning resource” (Yi Jin, 2009). The instructors and administrators can upload resources required for mobile learning and manage them by deleting and modifying authority of access.

Teaching Management Module

This module is also an important module in learning systems of mobile. In the mobile learning system design, it provides the functions below:

These are the functions provided for students: courses selection through online, plan of students, evaluation of teaching, backing up the data and receive teaching activities notices.

Functions provided for instructors: applying for new courses, managing the information of students in selection of courses, receiving the information of system, managing the teaching evaluation and applying the mechanism of transceiver in managing teaching information.

Functions provided for administrators: They have the function of visiting and managing teacher’s applications after logging in the system. Managing the courses existed, managing and issuing information to student about their courses selection and about news of the system.

Administrator’s function also includes the managing of student grades, to backup their scores and activities of teaching information.

Mobile Educational Training Module

As mobile terminals are portable in mobile learning systems, learner’s can utilize their full time in learning. The mobile learning features are more suitable for learning, testing and practice so that’s why this module is called mobile educational training module. The mobile learning system provides the following functions in this training module:

Functions provided for students include providing the facility for online testing and practicing them, giving feedback response with scores attained, recording grades obtained and information of learning process.

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Functions provided for instructors as well as for administrators include setting up of tests and uploading them for practice, analyzing grades and information of learning process and trying to make improvements for learners.

Outdoor Tasks Supporting Module

This supporting module supports best outdoor tasks in mobile learning system as they are portable in communication, location and picture functions. That’s the reason why this outdoor tasks supporting module is excellent in mobile learning systems. The function of this module is suitable mainly for fields such as the investigation for the collection of information in biology, archaeology and geography. In biological field, it can be used for recording of propagation case which can be pictured, uploaded and stored. In geographical field, it can be used for complex terrain explorations which are used to carry out research plans and communicate it to outside easily. In archaeological field, we can record the time, place, volume, temperatures, pictures and various types of information by using this module.

Question and Answer Module

Q&A module is also the crucial function module in mobile learning system. Real-time and intelligence are the main features of this module. This module is also portable and communication oriented function of mobile devices.

Functions provided for students include the following: (Yi Jin, 2009)

The students can ask their questions in problems for teacher at any normal time by using mobile terminals which is not necessary for them to ask questions at particular place in particular time. This scenario gives rise to real-time question with real-time answer.

Automatic replies are given as there are possible questions are already uploaded in the question database along with their answers. Whenever a student uploads a question, system searches a answer related to that question and if it founds the system feedbacks those answer to the user automatically.

Browsing questions and answers. Students can browse through existing questions and their answers in the system and improves from them

Functions provided for instructors and administrators include:

Instructors answers to students if they have any emergency problem through the phone or short messages.

The instructor browses to answer the student’s question and stores them in database along with the answers.

3.4 Problems involved in Mobile Learning using Artificial Intelligence:

Now we look into two main problems in mobile learning using artificial intelligence. There are technical problems and development of soft tools.

Technical problems:

Mobile learning using artificial Intelligence needs a good environment for mobile learning; the technology needs to be fast and accurate for its success to achieve mobile learning. But this learning type is still facing technical problems and may continue in the future. 3G wireless technologies is the new way of communication technology in the wireless field. But it requires maximum transfer rate with its growth in mobile wireless technology had a striking mark in the new generation and progresses than before. The wireless network popularity has been raised to new problem in internet charge, which cannot be solved overnight. The average customer is not capable of accessing internet; due to the very high cost using wireless access of internet. This made problem for their interest in wireless internet access. The equipments in mobile communications are the important elements which would affect the mobile learning development in the future. Even though mobile development equipments are growing rapidly, their support for learning using mobiles is still not enough.

Development of soft tools:

As mobile learning using artificial intelligence is still in preliminary stages in development, soft tools required for mobile learning using artificial intelligence are very scarce. Most of the tools used now are for other applications, some of them are used for personal management of knowledge. These tools have become very complex which led to greater inconvenience in applications. Only educational institutions are the best choice for promoting of learning through mobiles in the future. But the most effective solution for this nature of mobile learning is cooperation. Government, manufacturers of mobile devices and support of educational software developer’s are all needed for the development of the mobile industry. That is the reason why development of tools could meet the artificial intelligence in mobile learning needs. The researches on this have led to wide range of applications in various fields. The development of artificial intelligence is so fast and its application in mobile learning would bring a new world of learning which makes easier for learning.

4. Conclusion

Mobile learning makes combination of technology and education. As usage of mobile phones and other communication mobile devices has been spread continuously, its value in mobile learning in education is verified. “Learners will break restrictions of time and space” (Jiugen, Ruonan, Jianmin, 2010). In this fast moving generation, spread of wireless technologies provides the base for mobile learning. But there are some problems in integration of learning and government to implement this mode of learning. However, we believe that constant progress in science and technology along with the combination of wireless technology in education promotes mobile learning.

As existing researches on mobile learning application systems are still at the starting phase and because of time limits and personal capability, there are many limitations in mobile learning system. All are the directions to work in the future on them. The theory of mobile learning is not accurate. As a result, more precise work should be carried out on these theories and descriptions. We believe that it would be gradually implemented well in future researches. Researches must be done on the areas such as uncompleted implementations of functions and the tests. Ultimately, we can conclude that our future is very challenging but also bright in the case of mobile learning application.

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