ASSIGNMENT ON LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Assignment Topic-2:

‘Leaders are born, not made’. Discuss the statement with reference to leadership framework currently in us in organisations.

Introduction:

The establishment of relationship between followers and leaders that focus on real changes and outcomes that reflects through shared purposes is basically leadership. Leadership also involves in creating change not only in maintaining status quote. Another leadership important feature is to bring people and make them understanding to come together around a common vision and to bring change about desired future. In many aspects, the importance of leadership is vital without it families, communities and as well as organisations would go down apart. In other sense, the way of improving efficiency, morale, customer service and performance is the critical aspect of leadership. It is also essential for the organisations to handle critical situation and lead that effectively and only a good leader with good leadership ability can lead team successfully. There are different styles of leadership basically it is way the person deals with that in order to stay alive in his or her position. These are authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire. In authoritarian leadership style, leader holds all the power and responsibilities. In this style, employees are assigned to specific task by the leader and expect to get it done orderly. In laissez-faire leadership style, leader gives power to employees. There are two or more alternative decisions taken by leader, employees can choose any of them from there it depends up to them. In democratic leadership styles, leader gives more importance on employees and tries to encourage them and shows attention to individuals.

Current structure of leadership:

A good considerate of leadership requires a gathering of ideas and we regrettably cannot fallback on a simple theory to explain it. We will have to discuss that how leadership can fit within the organisation instead of engaging in conversation. The organisations have a structure to work form through reaching an agreement about leadership. Organisation must have to be comprehensive for everyone to become a leader. Leader’s need to be relational, it would only be possible because of the reason there is a ‘spiritual’ side to leadership. Leaders must have strong spiritual convictions and beliefs to establish a base for their personal value systems. This translates into relinquishing one-self to others and it works best when the leader is compelled to work on things that represent his or her deepest values. These values can be moral – based on values that are outside the organization or ethical – values within the organization. Therefore, leaders must be very much grounded in dealing with values -struggling with a tension between change and stability – what works and what does not work. [1] 

Arguments in support of ‘Leader’s are born not made’:

Historically there are many leadership approaches that linked with different theories of leadership. It can be discussed through nature verses nature deliberate. The Great man theory and Trait Theory represented the best nature argument related to above statement.

“Great Man” theory of leadership:

1900’s: This is the earliest theories of leadership. At that time most of the researchers believed that ‘leaders are born, not made’. In Great Man theory, describes that the main secrets of a great leader lies in being born great. It gives importance on the study of all the great leaders who were great, may be they are from aristocracy or from the lower classes but they had the opportunities to lead. By finding out those people who did great things such as Nepolean, Hitler, Curchill if we go further back then Lord Krisna, Gesus and Hazrat Mohammad were very easy to point out them. According to ‘Great Man’ theory, it considers that leaders must have inherent capacity for leadership that leader’s are born not made. This theory often depict great leaders are brave, mythic and intended to rise leadership when needed.

Leaders must have some qualities like good commanding power, cleverness, good character, courage, self-possession; fierceness and expressiveness by born that can’t be possessed through learning or through particular taught programmes.

Trait Theories of Leadership:

1900’s-1940: Trait theories are similar to “Great Man” theories in some ways. It assumes that leaders must possess general traits or personal features that they get by born and common to all and create them better matched to leadership. In Trait Theory of leadership just tried to find traits of well-known leader that were frequent. Sometimes Trait theories recognize exacting personality and behavioural features shared by leaders. This approach was based on the scheme that is individuality and personal intrinsic worth that distinguish successful leader form everyone else. In 1994, Yukl conducted research on traits and skills and linked to organisational effectiveness. These were: energy and pressure patience, self-possession, inner locus of control, emotional maturity, worthiness, supremacy inspiration, reaching orientation, need for affiliation.

Arguments opposite to Leader’s are born not made:

The other leadership theories explain social and contextual perspective like Behavioural Theories, Situational Theories, and Normative theories, transactional and transformational Theories. The Behavioural theories assume that leaders are made not born. Mainly Behavioural theory focuses on leader’s action not upon internal state and mental qualities.

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Behavioural Theories of Leadership:

In this theory mainly focus on behaviour of leaders in the direction of the followers and this became a leading mode of leadership approaching within the organisation. Diverse patterns of manners were grouped together and categorized as styles. These activities of management through training became very famous. Basically these styles are-

Task concern: Here leaders give important on objectives accomplishment through high level productivity, and ways to manage people and activities for achieving those objectives.

People concern: Here leaders focus on their followers as people – what their needs, interests, what their problems, how it can be development and so on. They are not simply units of production or means to an end.

Directive leadership: This style is considered by leaders make decisions for others – and desiring all the followers or subordinates will pursue that directions.

Participative leadership: Here leaders take part in decision-making by sharing among others. (Wright 1996: 36-7)

Situational Theories of Leadership:

In situational theories of leadership gives more importance on the different situations like where the task to be accomplished, fit surrounded by personalities, power and perceptions. Effectiveness of leadership relies on those situations. These situational theories are also called Contingency theories because this Theory is reliant upon the requirements or the status of the situations.

The Hersey Blanchard Theory:

This situational theory developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard and it focuses on activity and operational environment of the organisation. Their main approach was that followers will always get favour from the leader about their willingness to do the job. In this approach leaders have to understand about the followers properly and have to identify their stage of development and according to that apply the leadership style. With taking help from Ohio State studies and develop four leadership styles that is available for managers-

Directing or telling

Coaching or selling

Participating or supporting

Delegating

Directing or telling: Job responsibilities is defined by the leader and inform to followers about when to do that and where to do it and how can it be done.

Coaching: It’s a two way communication here leader gives supportive direction to followers and sometimes ask for ideas or suggestion from followers as well.

Supporting or participating: The leader and follower share in decision accordingly to achieve a maximum values like what will be the best to compete with high worth job

Delegating: Followers get little support from the leaders.

Implications of this theory: one problem is that it does not matter how hard leaders try but they are against to change from one style to another.

+

Supportive

Coaching

Supportive behaviour

Delegating

Telling

Directive behaviour

+

Figure: Different styles

1960’s-70: In Contingency/situational theory argues-what leaders perform that can be determined by that situations and that behaviors must be related with that environmental situations in hand. A good situational leader can only apply different leadership styles with the changing situations. The best action taken by the leader depends on of the leader depends on a range of situational factors. How the model works simply to achieve results:

Identification of detailed job and task

Asses present performance

Corresponding leader response

Different leadership styles could influence by the wide range of variables depending on the different environmental situations and it creates an impact on leader behaviour, in which leader can function. There are some critical contingencies like organisational volume, complexity in task, maturity of worker and so many others. According to situational theory, situational factors are limited and vary according to that contingency and specified behaviour of leader can only work in certain kind of situations not for all.

There are three most prominent theories of contingency-

Path-Goal theory

Feidler’s Contingency theory

The Vroom-Yetton’s model

Path-Goal theory:

In this theory according to House; 1971: mainly focus on leader’s motivational function and it can be enhanced by increasing individual payoffs to subordinates for work goal achievement, gain personal satisfaction by escalating opportunities. According to these theories key occupier is that the effectiveness can be measured through the behaviours of different leaders that will be influenced by situational variables.

Fiedler’s Contingency theory:

In 1971, Feidler proposed clarification on that how group performance can be affected through the relations of leadership orientation, group setting and job characteristics. Leader’s situation can measure though various extents like relationships between leaders and members, structure of job and position power.

The relationship between leader and member: This refers to how the leader is liked by the group members. When good relationship exists between leaders and members then all are get high satisfaction in work and organisations values is achieved through individual values. If the relation is going badly then there is lack of common trust. Another important term group cohesiveness, it is very difficult to make all the employees work together when it low.

The Vroom-Yetton’s model of leadership:

This model is widely used in the development of leadership in corporate centre and also gets enough support from practitioners. The most important aspects of this model is that legitimates both the autocratic and democratic leader behaviour and matching that is suitable in meticulous situations. This model also provides fruitful information about what would be the perfect time of using groups or opposed to personality decision making.

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This model has some limitations like leaders are always have to take decision in choosing of leadership styles, it considers each decision in term of situation but it does not depend on previous factor.

Transactional Theories:

This approach of leadership was most popular at that time and this is defined by Gibson, Ivancevich and Donnelly. It has some similar features with situational theories. It’s a kind of leadership where leaders find out what the need of followers to achieve organisational performance as a means of rewards. In this theory has several assumptions like it motivates people through reward and get punishment for the cause of mistakes, followers know what they have to do according to direction for the purpose of getting rewards. Sometimes they use management by exception techniques. The transactional leader sometimes use Path-Goal theory as a framework but leader take all the responsibilities for setting goals, mission for gaining effectiveness.

Transformational Theories:

Followers are motivated and inspired by the transformation leaders and to achieve results more than desired. This is the most recent theories of leadership. This leadership ability based on different personality factors like charisma, person attention and rational recreation. There are several effects of transformational leadership defined by Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio (1994) .These are as follows:-

Motivating others to involve them in work from new perception

Consciousness about what the mission of the organisation

Developing ability of other’s to achieve performance at exceeds level

Involved in determining the benefits of the organisations by motivating the beyond their attention as they could have.

Theory X and Theory Y of Leadership:

In 1960, Douglus and McGregor described this leadership theory that the activities of leaders are based on their thinking and considerations about the individuals at work. He also described the behaviour of leaders in two contrasting sets of bliefs.These are theory X and Theory Y.

The assumptions of Theory X:

Average individual do not like work and avoid if they can

Individual need to keep pushing for achieving desired objectives by directing, controlling and threatening through giving punishment

This approach can take actions

The assumptions of Theory Y:

People will work in their own responsibilities and control according to how they are committed.

In common people have some qualities like creativeness and imaginativeness

The average individuals are not only accepted but look for objectives.

Charismatic Leadership:

This theory is defined by Max Weber and mainly focuses on leader’s charismatic characteristics. Through these characteristics leaders influence the followers and they can change anything. It is not possible to access these qualities by ordinary people generally they are extraordinary. They are like magic leaders they got special power to handle complex situations.

Leadership models:

Leaders how they act and the way how they do that can be understood by the help of Leadership models. There are two models: the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid. [2] 

Four Framework Approach

In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal (1991) propose that leaders exhibit leadership behaviours in one of four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic.

According to this model, leaders can be place into one of these four different frameworks and there are times when one approach is proper and times when it would not be. It also describes that styles may either efficient or inefficient depending on situations. It would be better not to rely on one of the four different approaches. It can explain by an example, for the period of major organisational change; Structural leadership style is more preferable than symbolic leadership style; when an organisation need strong growth at that time symbolic approach is far better than structural approach. So we need to be aware about using these approaches and its limitations.

Structural Framework

In structural framework, leaders are focuses on arrangement, strategy, environment, execution, experimentation, and alteration. It also describes the leaders as a social architect and their leadership is design and analyse.

Human Resource Framework

In human resource framework describes the effectual circumstances of leadership; the leader is a vehicle and servant whose leadership style is sustain, advocating, and empowerment. In other ways for an inefficient condition of leadership, the leader is a soft touch, whose leadership style is abandonment and deceit. Human Resource approaches leaders have faith in people and share their belief; they are perceptible and available; they empower, increase involvement, support, share their information, and move in decision making along into the organization.

Political Framework

In political framework, the leader is a campaigner, whose leadership style is alliance and building which best describes an effective leadership situation. In a useless leadership situation, the leader is a hustler; leadership style of leader is manoeuvring. Political leaders make clear what they desire and what they can get through assessing the allotment of power and interests; they assemble linkages to other stakeholders, use wiles first, and then use negotiation and oppression only if necessary.

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Symbolic Framework

In symbolic approach gives priority on leadership style that leaders use for inspiration as an efficient situation. In other sense of inefficient leadership situation is leaders are fool and their styles of leadership is like smoke.

Managerial Grid

In 1985 according to the Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid, also recognized as the Leadership Grid describes two axes. Vertically it describes concern for people and horizontally describes concern for task. Both of these axes have range from 0 to 9.

Majority of people plunge somewhere close to the centre of the two axes – Middle of the Road. People can notch up on the extreme end of the scales by going to the extremes. There are four types of leadership styles by reaching to extremes; that is,

Authoritarian – strong on everyday jobs, puny on people related works

Country Club – strong on people related works, weak on everyday jobs

Impoverished – weak on everyday jobs, weak on people related works

Team Leader – strong on everyday jobs, strong on people related works

Authoritarian Leader

People who get this ranking are very much task related and are rigid on their workers. These types of leader always expect people to get work done about what they exactly said with no issue or debate.

Team Leader

These types of individual lead positively and influence all the team members to reach in highest potential, both as team members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as efficiently as potential, while also working diligently to make stronger the bonds between the various members. Productive teams are lead by them successfully.

Qualities of people in leadership positions:

There are three levels of leadership positions in an organisation. These are strategic level, operational level and team level. A good leader should possess some good qualities to handle this position effectively and tactfully. These are as follows:-

Good character

Good personality

Devotion

Self confidence-this will help them to identify subordinate’s talent basically that will help the business to go up

Good communication capability- it is very important for any business to run effectively without this it is impossible

Good learner-it will help them to develop

Risk taking ability

Problem solving capability

Relationships-this qualities need to maintain positive relationship in all areas

Creative minded-this qualities help them to bring any change when there is esteem needs in order to sustain in the business for achieving high level of success

Positive attitudes

Servant leadership-decision making ability through considering the opinion attractiveness with business vision by stimulating the followers

Bravery

Innovative

Good motivation power

Leadership development initiatives:

There are several practices which describe the best leadership development initiatives.

Firstly, the good commitment between top leaders and managers and be highly regarded, associated with business strategy and resolute on the right business issues. Secondly, through the identification of successful leadership competencies. Thirdly, leadership development is more important than training of management. If leaders are effective in organisation then all levels of people in organisation steered up. Fourthly, need to apply leadership all levels of management. Fifthly, leadership development programme must include ongoing approach like assignments for development, meetings with overseas counterparts, case studies etc. Finally, the successful incorporation of talent management. [3] 

Examples of Starbucks company leadership:

In the history of Starbucks growth Howard Schultz was the greatest leader. In 1982, when Starbucks was going to decline after introducing in the market. At that time Howard Schultz was get appointed as a new CEO for Starbucks and accelerated the whole to become a global brand worldwide. In my opinion he just transforms everything within a short time. He made people understand that selling a cup of coffee in Starbucks is a lifestyle familiarity, unlike any other café. He applied leadership contingency approach to make changes in organisational settings. Under Schultz’s leadership, the company has achieved a number of milestones. Starbucks was one of the first privately held companies in North America to offer two unique benefits to its partners (employees). He mainly focused on customers and made them understand their needs. [4] 

Conclusion:

At the end we can conclude by summarising on that ‘leaders are born, not made’. In early age of Leadership they thought that leader should posses some special talent in born. That cannot be possessed through learning, or developed though training. They didn’t consider the positions as well as they were only born to lead. In current research on leadership focused on the personality trait of leader that should have. Now in our organisation all the leaders are well educated and properly trained. They have got the knowledge to handle the critical situations. Currently in compared to corporate sector, Most of the organisations now focusing on main diversity initiatives and it can tackle through behavioural approach of leadership. These diversity initiatives can only be implemented through behavioural approach in todays or tomorrow’s in the organisations. The quality of the leader is very important. The success of the company is fully depending on the good quality of the leader.

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