Binary Input Output System

Task 1


Name: Abit IS7-E Intel 865PE 800MHz FSB

The biggest and most important circuit board of a computer system. The many components on a motherboard, they are CPU(socket),memory slots, HDD controllers and other socket and slots. Binary input Output System(BIOS),memory, mass storage interfaces, parallel and serial ports, controllers and expansion slots. It handles all memory, system resources and the processor.

Power supply

Name:600Watt power supply

Provided through a power supply unit(PSU) to the computer. It perform (AC) current (110 or 220 V) to direct current(DC) 5V,12V,3.3V. Continuous 5power input is required for the proper Functioning of the system which can be provided through a direct power supply. Surge suppressors, power conditioners and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) are commonly used for regulating the power input to the computer.

Two type of power supply

ATX power supply (24pin power supply)


Name: Intel P4 2.4GHz 512K HT 800MHz FSB

Manages the processing and logical operations of a computer system. The two main components of a process or are the Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU) and the Control Unit(CU).The ALU handles asthmatic and logical operation. The CUCU decodes and executes the memory instructions, processor is also commonly know as microprocessor or Central Processing Unit(CPU).

Memory modules


Storage space in the computer where digital data is stored. The main physical memory is called Random Access Memory(RAM) which allows data to read and written into it. Speed 800MHz, Pin 240.

Storage devices

Name: 3.5” Hard disk Drive (ATA)

Maxtor 120GB 7200RPM ATA

Main Storage devices is hardware device and Store information are permanently store information on a PC. Haft Disk controller pin40

Hard Drive Controllers device

Circuitry that is responsible for the managing transmission of data from the computer to the hard drive and vice-versa.

Display Devices

Name:21” LCD Monitor

Machine, which displays the data and information being entered, retrieved and the results of the processed data from the system. Some commonly used display devices are monitor, liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panel and touch screen.

Adapter Cards

Name: Hercules ATI Randeon9800XT 256MB

Circuit in a computer system, which support a particular device. Video adapters are used to support graphics monitor. Network adaptors allow a computer to communicate with another computer. Also called expansion board, add-ons, add- ins or cards.


Names- RJ-4s LAN

Purpose-To connect the system board and to be used input devices

Characteristics-PS 2





Serial ports are usually called communication port comport etc. Generally one computer can accept up to 4 serial ports (com1, com2, com3 and com4).


Parallel ports must be used eight lines of wire and they can transfer the data as by the rate of eight bits in one time. So, they are only used one data line and their transference rate are five or ten times faster

Fire wire

The fire wire is the fire wire connector and plug most commonly used with PCs.


CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)

CMOS are used very less amount of power and does not generate a high amount of heat also, as it uses both the negative and positive polarity. This features makes it usable in computer system.

Basic Input Output System

Pre-integrated software which determines the actions of a computer which it can perform without accessing the disk. Present in the ROM chip and contains code for various functions and devices.

Post Error Code

1 short beep
Normal POST – system is ok

2 short beeps

POST Error – error code shown on screen

No beep

Power supply or system board problem

Continuous beep

Power supply, system board, or keyboard problem

Repeating short beeps

Power supply or system board problem

1 long, 1 short beep

System board problem

1 long, 2 short beeps

Display adapter problem (MDA, CGA)

1 long, 3 short beeps

Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)

3 long beeps

3270 keyboard card

The errors found in BIOS that occur during the post time can be distinguished into two.

(i) Non-fatal error

Normally, error message can be shown on Monitor Screen such as error which can do boot set up continuously on the compute is graded as non-fatal error.

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(ii) Fatal error

The error which cannot continue boot setup and entirely stops and make a series of beep-code sound. Depending on the BIOS, these short beep – code help the operator distinguish the fault affecting on which part of the machine.

Task 2


The most popular type of motherboards is AT-style motherboard and ATX-style motherboard.

Advanced Technology (AT) :The older form factor standard derived from PC-XT and PC-AT specifications.

Advanced Technology Extended (ATX): A newer form factor standard that has been introduced to overcome problems found in the AT-style designs.

The main components of a motherboard are the CU and its chipset, the system clock, the ROM , BIOS, the RAM, the system bus with expansion slots, jumpers and DIP, power supply connections and communication ports like the serial, parallel, USB and infrared ports.

Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus. This Architecture was originally used in the IBM PC/XT and PC/AT. It is a very old technology used for connecting peripheral device.

Task 2 (ii)

Advanced BIOS Features

This category displays the amount of memory detected by the BIOS. The value of the base (or conventional)memory is typically 640K or more memory installed on the main board. The value of the extended memory is the amount of memory located above 1MB in the main board.


Standard CMOS Features

The Standard CMOS setup screens from various BIOS manufactures all provide the same basic information .They can be used to set the system clock/calendar, establish disk-drive parameters and video display type, and specify which types of errors will halt the system during the POST.

Fig. 2

Task- 2 (iii) a

Print technologies

Impact technologies( Dot-matrix printer)

Non- Impact technologies(ink-jet, Laser printer)

Ink-jet printer

An inkjet printer is a non-impact printer that uses droplets of ink to create image on the paper. Inkjet printer is popular for home user due to its ability to print color. It is cheaper than laser printer but expensive to maintain. Inkjet’s cartridges need to replace frequently and special coated paper is required for high quality photo out.


Common Printer Problems

When a printer has been out of paper, or had a paper jam, or some other condition that keeps it from giving output for several minutes, the lpq command ceases to indicate the particular condition, and simply shows it as “stalled(n sec)”, with n>>1000. So if you see this message, you need to go to the printer itself and find out what is wrong.

On the other hand, when a condition has been corrected, the lpq command may continue to report the condition for about a minute more; so a warning like “No paper tray” when the paper has just been reloaded can usually be ignored. You can likewise ignore the warning “No daemon present” when a job has just been submitted after the queue was empty.


Network cable

A Network is a collection of computers linked to one another allowing information and resources to be shared between them. A network is setup by connecting the various computers through the cables, connectors and connectivity devices such as hubs or switches along with which necessary protocols for enable communication between them are implemented. Any computer can access a network directly by using a network adapter expansion card also known as Network Interface card(NIC) and a network cable.

Types of cable are

Coaxial cable: Contains a central wire which is insulated and on top of which there is a braided wire. Coaxial cables can carry more data and are less prone to interference.

Plenum cable: Has an outer shield made of Teflon which is a fire repellant and which does not produce poisonous fumes when burnt.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)cable: Two cables and switched wires so that the noises of the two separate wire that are cover in a shield of foil, so that data transmission is safer.

Connectors : Some Commonly connectors in a network

Are: BNC, RJ-45,AUI, ST/SC and IDC/UDC.

(ii) Five different technologies are


2. Wi Max

3. IP Star

4. PSIN (dial up)

5. ISDN (digital)


Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) works by splitting the phone line into two frequency ranges. The frequencies below 4KHz are reserved for voice, and the range above that is used for data. This makes it possible to use the line for phone calls and data network access at the same time. This type of DSL is called asymmetric because more bandwidth is reserved for receiving data than for sending data. Asymmetric variations include ADSL standards facilitates interoperability between all standard forms of ADSL.

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The internet connection can remain open while the phone line is used for voice calls.DSL service employs phone wires between the home and the telephone switching center.


ADSL works by splitting the phone line into two frequency ranges. The frequencies below 4 V Hz are reserved for voice, and the range above that is used for data.DSL service is not available in all locations.

2. Wi Max

Wi Fi is used by wireless LANs.

Strength : Mobile PC might be connected to printers, scanners or voice over IP headset. Laptop user would wirelessly connect to a digital project.


To extend broadband wireless connectivity to new locations and over longer distances.

3. IP Star

Strength: can access from everywhere. Low Noise Block (LNB) removes the noise and convert into digital signal.

Weakness: Weak signal is limited power available in orbit satellites tend to broadcast on very lower power. Extremely high cost between$100 to$ 600 million to build .

4. PSIN (dial up)

As the distance between terminals increases ,it soon becomes impractical to use dedicated cabling to carry data .Fortunately ,a very extensive communications network is already in existence :the public telephone network.


The world’s largest communications network is the public telephone system. When computers use this network to communicate with each other it is referred to as dial-up networking (DUP).


Must wait for certain time to convert digital to analog and transmit ion is not binary but analog, so signal may weakness at certain point need exchange to pump up.

5. ISDN (digital Line)

ISDN service offers high-speed access to the ,public telephone system. ISDN service requires digital modems.


The fastest, most expensive ISDN service is broadband ISDN. This level of service provides extremely high transfer rates (up to 622Mbps) over coaxial or fiber-optic cabling.


Two wire system is expended in four wire system thought a network terminator.


5 Networking capabilities of Windows XP




Offer Remote Assistance

Remote Desktop

Task 4

Task 4(i)

10 Windows XP system files

HAL.DLL: Hardware abstraction layer (HAL) driver that holds information specific to the CPU that the OS is running on.

SMSS.EXE: A file that contains information to carry out pre -start functions such as running in boot – time version of CHKDSK called AUTOCHTC.

SMSS.EXE: A file that contains information to carry out pre -start functions such as running in boot – time version of CHKDSK called AUTOCHTC.

BOOT.INI: A text file that contains the boot loader menu that is displayed on the startup screen.

BOOT SECT.DOS: Responsible for loading the operating system other than the default operating

Ntoskrnl.exe: Executive and kernel, executive and kernel with support for Physical Address.

Ntkrnlpa.exe: Extension (PAE), which allows addressing of more than 4 gigabytes(GB) of physical memory.

User32.dll: Core Win32 subsystem DLLs.

Test -4 (ii)

( Fig. 1 )

Microsoft Management Console

Some of the windows 2000/XP management consoles are not loaded when the operating system is installed. However, they are available for installation from the Windows2000/XP CDs. These consoles are referred to as snap-ins. In addition to using the Control Panel, you can access all the installed MMCs by typing selecting Start, Programs, Administrative Tools, or by tying MMC in the Start, Run dialog box. The MMC is a flexible tool that enables you to add snap-in tools(utilities) to create custom management consoles that can be saved and used at any time .Extended discussions of these tools are presented throughout the remainder of the text as they apply to managing and troubleshooting the operating system.

( Fig. 2 )

Event Viewer

System events include items such as successful and failed Windows computer startups ,as well as successful loading of device drivers. Likewise, application events include information about how the system’s applications are performing. Not all Windows applications generate events that the Event Viewer will log. Security events are produced by user actions such as logons and logoffs, file and folder accesses, and creation of new Active Directory accounts.

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Task Manager

To start Task Manager, take any of the following actions:

Press CTRL+ALT+DELETE, and then click Task Manager.


Right-click an empty area of the taskbar, and then click Task Manager.


Interactively install a Plug and Play device

You can use this procedure to install a device that is not currently plugged into the computer, and for which a device driver is not currently staged in the driver store. If a device driver is staged in the driver store, then it is installed with no interaction required by the user, and the Found New Hardware dialog box does not appear.

To install a Plug and Play device interactively when you plug it in

Plug the new device into the computer.

In the Found New Hardware dialog box, select one of the following:

Locate and install driver software. Selecting this option begins the installation process. For more information, see “Additional considerations” in this topic.

Ask me again later. The device is not installed and no configuration change is made to your computer. If the device is still plugged in the next time you log on to the computer, then this dialog box appears again.

Don’t show this message again for this device. Selecting this option configures the Plug and Play service to not install the driver for this device, and does not make the device functional. To complete the installation of the device driver, you must detach the device and reattach it.

Task 5

BIOS is a collection of programmes written in low-level language (mostly assembly language) and it has to carry out the functions necessary for computing the boot during the period between point of the computer power to the starting point of the operation system. There are many thousands of individual error messages; some are more common than others because there are only a few different BIOS companies that are used by the majority of PCs out there today. However, since the exact wording of an error message can be changed by the manufacturer of each system or motherboard, there are a lot of variations. The common problem of error codes and message from the boot sequence are

CMOS battery failed

CMOS checksum error – Default lobed .


The following utilities will help you troubleshoot the most common causes of system problem 1. Microsoft Management Console

2. Disk Defragmenter

3. Control Panel

1. Microsoft Management Console

Microsoft Management Console (MMC) hosts administrative tools that you can use to administer networks, computers, services, and other system components.

For help with specific tasks.

For general background information.

For information about accessibility features.

For problem-solving instructions.

2. Disk Defragmenter

Disk Defragmenter is a system utility for analyzing local volumes and locating and consolidating fragmented files and folders. You can also defragment disks from a command line using the defrag command.

Before defragmenting files or folders.

For tips about using Disk Defragmenter.

For help with specific tasks.

For general background information.

For problem-solving instructions.

3.Control Panel

The Windows XP Control Panel, also offers some additional features and functionality not in previous Windows 9x and NT/2000 versions. In Windows XP, the Control Panel options is included directly on the Start menu instead of a submenu. Under the native Windows XP version of the Control Panel, the applets are organized into nine related categories. The view that display the Control Panel items is referred into as the Category view.


Web Reference

Book Reference

(1)Fundamentals of Hardware and Operating Systems(Operating System Technologies)

(2)Fundamentals of Hardware and Operating Systems(Hardware Service Technician)

(3)Tease’s Practical Guide for Computer Hardware & Peripherals


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