Classical Management Theory Behavioral Management Theory Management Essay
The different two theories of management are classical management theory, behavioral management theory. The classical management theory focuses on discovering the best way to manage and perform tasks. The behavioral management theory recognizes employees as individuals with real human needs, in the part of work groups, and parts of a society. The quantitative management theory makes use of quantitative skills to help planning and controlling everything in the organization.
Classical versus Behavioral Management Theory
The classical theory is preceded the behavioral management theory, different on a number of basic aspects. One of the characters of the classical management theory is that it was devised to raise efficiency and productivity. For finding the best way to control workers, employers would improve most of scientific solutions, such as training employees and standardizing methods on a task and the classical management theory produces new managerial methods devised towards efficiency, such as competence standards and creating records.
The classical method focused on ignoring the motivations and accomplishing results. The behavioral management theory speaks to this taking into description employee’s behavior and expectations. One of the characters of the behavioral management theory is that for more sufficiently achieving success, it is critical to distinguish the human relations in a company. Studies show that employees when given privileges and attentions, it would make better, therefore let the company to achieve better results.
Classical Viewpoint in the three parts:
Scientific management – It is defined as the make use of the scientific method to describe the “one best way” for a job.
Important Contributions – Frederick W. Taylor is well-known as the “father” of scientific management. Taylor’s effort at the “Bethlehem Steel companies” motivated his interest in developing efficiency.
Taylor wanted to create a psychological revolution among workers and managers by identifying clear rule for developing production efficiency. He defined four principles of management. His “pig iron” research is probably the most generally cited instance of scientific management. By his principles of scientific management, Taylor could define the one best way. Taylor achieved reliable developments in productivity in the part of 20%. He acknowledged the task of managers to control and plan of workers to perform as they were instructed.
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) – It was the first generally known management theorist. His “Taylorism” or “scientific management” was a main contribution to the business operations. The general idea of his studies is known below :
a. Taylor improved scientific management to answer the problem of laziness by workers-intentionally working under full capacity.
b. Taylor pioneered the “time-and-motion” study, where by a work duty is broken down in its a variety of motions, is better by eliminating needless motions, and the motions timed to decide best daily production.
c. Through his 4 principles of scientific management, Taylor supported scientific study of the work to discover the best work way rather than relying on usual methods from one worker to another.
d. Taylor effectively implemented the theory at “Bethlehem Steel” in two well-known studies relating pig-iron handling and shoveling.
e. Although actual and probable misuses or abuses of scientific management appeared, Taylor’s burly support of science remains his main contribution to the management theory.
Henry L. Gantt (1861-1919) – 1 of Taylor’s nearest connections is best identified for his Gantt chart, a graphic assistant to preparation, controlling and scheduling. His other interests built-in an exclusive pay incentive structure and the common responsibility of the business. (RussJulianne, 2012)
Durable Effects of the Behavioral Management Theory
The growth of the “behavioral management theory” has had an amount of durable effects on the all business operations. One of the major benefits of the behavioral management theory is the human relationships movement in the researches it would study the behavior of organizations in place of work settings. The researchers decided that it’s important to raise communication and interpersonal relationships in a workplace, rather than focusing singly on mindless manufacture. One of the major goals of the human relationships movement was to produce an efficient workplace without sacrifice the motivations of the workers. The “behavioral management theory” is faulty in that it ignored outside environment, assuming that the outside environment was fixed. Besides, expectations studies would explain that satisfaction only plays a part in exact situations. Nevertheless, the durable effects of the “behavioral management theory” can be seen in the completion of human relationships practices in the businesses today.
“Four people show up as near the beginning advocates of the OB move toward. That includes Robert Owen, Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, and Chester Barnard.
1. Robert Owen, a successful Scottish businessman, proposed a utopian workplace.
2. Hugo Munsterberg created the field of industrial psychology-the scientific study of individuals at work to maximize their productivity and adjustment.
3. Mary Parker Follett was a social philosopher who thought the manager’s job was to harmonize and coordinate group efforts.
4. Chester Barnard, president of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, saw organizations as social systems that required human cooperation.
a. He believed that managers’ major roles were to communicate and stimulate subordinates to high levels of effort.
b. He also introduced the idea that managers have to examine the environment and then adjust the organization to maintain a state of equilibrium.” (zainbooks, 2008)
Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) – He brought to management the standpoints of social work and supporting science. She acknowledged the consequence of the functioning of organizations, not just persons, the “principle of power with rather than Power over” in management worker relationships. Argument resolution through combination, e.g. finding a key to an argument that would convince both parties. The accomplishment of integrative union, where the group operates as a practical entire, with the variety of interconnected pieces working together efficiently to accomplish organizational purposes.
Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) – He improved the “Theory X and Theory Y” dichotomy about the theories managers make about employees and how these theories effect behavior.
a. “Theory X managers” tend to suppose that employees are lazy, need to have little ambition, be forced, and are paying attention on safety needs. The managers then treat their inferiors as if these theories were correct.
b. “Theory Y managers” tend to suppose that employees do not naturally dislike their work, have the ability to be innovative and creative, are competent of self-control, and normally have higher-level needs that are not often met on their job. The managers then care for their inferiors as if these theories were correct.
c. Employees tend to work better or worse to expectations. (business.com, 2011)
How the Managers Use Classical and Behavioral Management in the organization?
To comprehend why scientific management was shown as an important improvement, they need to watch the times in the Gilbreths, Taylor, and the scientific management supporters lived.
1. It was significant because it could increase countries’ values of making workers more efficient and productive.
2. It was significant to keep in mind that a lot of the techniques and skills developed by the “scientific management practitioners” are still applied in organizations.
The Behavioral Science Use – It gives emphasis to scientific study as the base for developing theory about “human behavior in organizations” that can be used for developing useful plans for managers.
1. The importance is on developing useful skills for managers. Dislike “Scientific Management” from the Classical Era, the answers in behavioral study are often difficult to discover with statistical certainty. That the scientific advance should not be effort but that does not mean the answers of such an advance are less useful.
2. The example is the proposal of improving act by set the goals the personal purpose to be achievable is not so easy.Order Now