Commitment On Job Performance Management Essay

In every organization job performance and organizational commitment has been given the utmost importance. It is important that every employee of an organization needs to give his best performance, along with highest commitment to organization goals for its success in long term. Pakistan has been considered among the most corrupted countries in the world. The research that we are going to do will concentrate on government and private hospital employees. The health sector of Pakistan has been totally ignored in recent years, the deduction in annual budget of health sector means downsizing of labor and salary cutting. After all these drastic changes the employee performance and commitment will be dramatically affected. The study will help to understand the factors which encourage productive behavior among employees. Also this kind of research has not been conducted on health sector before; the research may provide us with significant results. The primary focus of this research paper is to investigate the relationship between organizational commitment i.e. affective, normative and continuous commitment and employees job performance in health sector of Pakistan specifically government hospital.

The study of employee’s job performance and organizational commitment is of prime importance to the top-level management of the organizations. Somersl & Birnbaum (1998) studied the relationship of career commitment to performance effectiveness and resulted in a positive relationship. Job satisfaction is not the single dependent variable of commitment; it also has various other outcomes in the organizations. Jackof sky (1984), found out that low commitment is leading to high rate of turnover, whereas higher the level of job satisfaction through job security entails high level of organizational commitment which further leads to improved employees job performance (Yousuf, 1997). Job performance has been defined as work performance in terms of quantity and quality expected from each employee (business dictionary). Pioneers (Meyer and Allen1993) of organizational commitment suggest three types of organizational commitment that are, affective commitment which measures an employee’s emotional attachment to, classification with, and involvement in the organization, normative commitment reflects pressures on an employee to remain with an organization resulting from organizational obligations. Continuance commitment refers commitment associated with the costs that employees perceive are related to leaving the organization. Organizational Commitment is seeking the same impacts on women as it is on men, but in some instances women react differently (Chusmir 1984). Connectivity of social group and the style of management can enhance commitment of employees and are considered as an important asset of the company (Nijhof, de jong, and Beukhof 1998). Commitment of employees can be an important instrument for improving the performance of the organizations. The job performance of employees has been (Yu, 1996) defined as work performance in terms of quantity and quality expected from each employee. In most of the organizations the high rate of stress leads to lower satisfaction and in turn produces very low organizational commitment (Elangovan 2001). The higher level of communication in organization led to higher level of commitment and there by increased performance (Chen, Silverthorne and Hung 2005). A study conducted by Chughtai and Zafar (2006), among university teacher of Pakistan concluded that highly committed teachers outperform in comparison with uncommitted teachers. This study primarily focuses on the impacts of low/high commitment towards the employee’s job performance. This study will be conducted on the health sector of Pakistan focusing on employees in private and government hospitals.

Literature Review

(LAWRENCE R. JAUCH, WILLIAM F. GLUECK, RICHARD N. OSBORN, 1978) This study examined the relationships between organizational loyalty, professional commitment, and research productivity of 84 professors at a large Midwestern university. These relationships were examined using multiple linear regressions to test the part of organizational loyalty and professional commitment to the variance in research productivity. The sample for this investigation consists of 84 researchers in the basic sciences at a large Midwestern university. The campus where the research was conducted has some 22,000 student and1, 200 faculty members. Researchers had to meet the criteria for inclusion in the sample: (1) received a grant of at least $5,000 in at least one year of the five-year study period; (2) been a faculty member of the sample institutional at least one year; (3) held the rank of assistant professor or above; and (4) been a member of a department within one of the hard sciences (the disciplines included fields within natural sciences, mathematical sciences, basic medical sciences, and basic biological sciences). Professional commitment is positively associated with research productivity. The greater the professional commitment, the greater is research productivity. The interaction effect was not found to significantly contribute any for variability in research productivity. The data was cross-sectional; it is possible to argue on the basis of the bi-variate relationships that the more productive researchers in the sample became more committed to those professional norms as their output increased.

(Dr. Li Yueh Chen, 2004)This study examines specific employee behaviors associated with transformational and transactional leadership and how they both moderate and mediate effects of organizational culture and commitment. Surveys were distributed to 84 Taiwanese manufacturing and service organizations with a total of 1,451 employees. Of the 57 organizations, 34 organizations are in the manufacturing industry and 23 are in the service industry. A questionnaire combining instruments and demographic questions has been developed specifically for this study. This questionnaire has been translated into Chinese to for the respondents who are citizens of the China. It consists of six parts organizational culture, leadership behavior, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job performance and demographic questions. (1) significant positive correlations between transformational leadership behaviors and organizational commitment and culture, (2) significant positive correlations between organizational commitment and organizational culture and job satisfaction, but no significant correlation with job performance, and (3) significant positive correlations with organizational culture and job satisfaction, but not significantly correlated with job performance. Previous research has looked at specific human resource behaviors associated with the transformational and transactional leadership models as both moderating and mediating effects of organizational culture and commitment. Yet none has examined these relationships in Asian settings. This study, therefore, is unique in that it has helped to fill this gap in an effort to improve our understanding of the role of leadership in the global environment.

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(Muhammad Riaz Khan, 2010) This study investigated the impact of Organizational Commitment on employee job performance from public and private and public sector employees of oil and gas sector in Pakistan. Total of 230 questionnaires were distributed and personally administered among employees of OGDCL, OMV and SNGPL in Pakistan. Filled 153 questionnaires were received. The scale used to measure organizational commitment in terms of effectiveness, normative and continuance was developed by Allen and Meyer (1991) and the scale used for measuring job performance has been developed by Willams & Anderson (1991), using four items on a five point scale. All the results in Pakistani data are consistent with previous literature. All three types of commitments showed positive relationship with employee job performance. Managers working in Pakistani environment and worldwide should pay special attention to background of organizational commitment and all the factors which encourage employee commitment. Many organizations facing productivity problem should get solution of increased employee performance by encouraging commitment.

(Samad, 2011) Examined the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance and consequently studied the effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance. A total of 350 questionnaires were sent out to the managerial staff of the selected companies obtained from the Federation of Malaysian Manufacturer (FMM). The selection of the respondent was based on the simple random sampling method. A total of 292 useable questionnaires were used in the statistical analysis. The independent variable of this study is organizational commitment. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) was employed based on a developed instrument by Mowday et al. (1982). The questionnaire which contains 15 items based on the 7 point scale ranging from 1 for strongly disagree to 7 for strongly agree was used to measure organizational commitment. The moderating variable is job satisfaction which measures the various components or facets of Herzberg’s job satisfaction theory mainly on motivational and hygiene factors. The dependent variable of the study is job performance and was measured through an adapted instrument developed by Hind and Baruch (1997) which measured job performance on evaluation from immediate manager or supervisor, self rating and self-rating as compared to peers. The response options for these items were also based on 1 to 7 point scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The result indicates that organizational commitment is related to increased job performance and that job satisfaction moderates the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance. The study revealed that western management and organizational theories could be valid in a non-western setting and the findings found in a certain society might be evident in a different society.

(Muhammad Usman Qaisar, 2012) Examine the impact of three components of organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative commitment) on the performance of police officers in Pakistan. Organizational commitment among employees is an important aspect as a result of which they perform better. A survey questionnaire was designed for data collection. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect the data quickly and economically. The questionnaire was divided into two parts; Part-I inquiring demographics of the respondents and Part-II inquiring organizational commitment and job performance. Organizational commitment was measured using scale developed by Meyer et al. (1993) and employee performance using three items scale developed by Teseema and Soeters (2006). Total of 200 questionnaires were distributed among low ranked police out of which 155 were completed and usable questionnaire. The findings indicate the simultaneous effects of organizational commitments on job performance of police officers is significantly positive and those officers who have strong commitment in all three dimensions can perform better. These results are in line with some of previous studies (e.g. Suliman and Lles 2000; Khan et al., 2010; Mehmud et al., 2010) who found positive impact of three components of organizational commitment on performance in different work settings. However, results also contradict with findings of few researchers who found that continuance commitment among employees correlate negatively with their performance (e.g. Meyer et al.’s 1989; Cropanzano et al. 1993). This research was carried out without any funding/financial support; therefore data was gathered only from ICT Police. Hence, results cannot be generalized for all LEAs in Pakistan. Future researchers should draw large sample size and collect data from officers of provincial police departments as well as from other LEAs to enhance external validity of the research.

(Shaw, Delery, & Abdulla, 2003) The relationships among affective organizational commitment, guest workers status, and two dimensions of individual performance (Overall and helping) were explored in a unique international setting. Much of this research was aimed at establishing the link between organizational commitment and employee turnover, a relationship that receives considerable empirical support (Mathieu and Zajac, 1990; Meyer et al, 1989; Morrow, 1993). Specifically, the research was on the relationship between organizational commitment and two dimensions of employee performance. The sample size was 226 for this study was collected from employees and supervisors at two commercial banks in the U.A.E. A member of the research team contacted the top management of the bank and was granted permission to distribute questionnaires to bank employees and their corresponding supervisors. Affective Commitment to the organization was measured using Cook and Wall’s (1980) organizational commitment questionnaire. The results showed that the guest workers in this study varied in their nation of origin, it was important to establish that there were no subgroup differences on the key variables in this study. Results provided strong support for the interactive dynamics between organizational commitment and guest worker status in predicting performance dimensions, but there was only partial support for the disagreement perspective. Finally, it could be argued that the respondents did not understand the results and conclusions should be limited by this possibility. Certainly, future research that addresses this limitation or includes multilingual questionnaires like (Abdulla and Shaw, 1999) would be useful.

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(Sutanto, 1999) This study investigates the relationship among organizational commitment and job performance among employees in an organization. Organizational commitment was in context of how much they believe in and feel good about the organization and what it stands for, and intends to do what is good for the organization and job performance on achieving organization’s goals. Committed employees give a big contribution to organizations because they perform and behave on achieving organization’s goals. Organizational commitment refers to the psychological attachment of workers to their workplaces (Allen and Meyer, 1990; O’Reiily & Chatman, 1986). After conducting a larger project to all 1803 members of may 1993 graduating class of large northwestern university, Becker et al. Found that commitment to supervisors was positively related to performance and was more strongly associated with performance that was commitment to organizations. In another survey of two companies, whose 418 and 430 employees, founded to have significant correlation between employee performance ratings and commitment score in all categories, and also the correlation between performance and commitment for managers and operational employees grouped, separately were significant in all categories. There is positive and significant relationship between commitments to supervisors becomes a good predictor to performance than commitment to organizations. Committed employees have a vital role in organizations for its surviving and its competing in the rapidly changing world. Efforts should be done to internalize the values of supervisors and organizations through socialization and team building are very important.

(Gunlu, Aksarayli, & Percin, 2010) The aim of this paper is to identify the effects of job satisfaction on organizational commitment for managers in large-scale hotels. In addition, to examine whether there is a significant relationship between the characteristics of the sample, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. It should be noted that job satisfaction is a key factor to maintaining high performance and efficient service, which will directly increase the productivity of the organization. Mowday et al. (1979) underlined a concept named as attitudinal commitment, whereas Price and Mueller (1986) defined it as behavioral commitment. Another approach was that of Meyer and Allen (1991). They suggested that organizational commitment was a multidimensional three-component model. Most of the research has treated job satisfaction as an independent and organizational commitment as a dependent variable (Gaertner, 1999; Jernigan et al., 2002; Lok and Crawford, 2001; Mowday et al., 1982). The data was collected through structured questionnaires that were administered to large-scale hotel managers in the tourism industry. The regression analysis results suggest that the job satisfaction components; intrinsic, extrinsic and general; have a significant relationship with normative and affective organizational commitment. According to the findings, normative commitment obviates affective commitment by the effect of seasonality. Managers working in city and/or independent hotels feel affective commitment more when compared with the others. For future research being conducted in the tourism industry, it is desirable to adapt Meyer and Allen’s Three Component Model of Organizational Commitment and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire to the characteristic. In addition, cross-cultural researches comparing job satisfaction and organizational commitment of managers in different tourism destinations should be encouraged.

(UYGUR & KILIC, 2009) The investigation studied the level of organizational commitment and the job involvement of the personnel at Central Organization of Ministry of Health in Turkey. Organizational commitment is defined as the overall strength of an employee’s identification and involvement in an organization. The way for employees to be satisfied with the organization in which they work can be said to be as crucial as providing goods and services (Çöl, 2004). In this research they took the positive effects of organizational commitment. Organizational commitment has become an issue of great importance to be dealt with, because it helps to increase employee performance (Shore & Martin, 1989; Meyer et al., 1989; Meyer et al., 1993; Meyer et al., 2002; Siders et al., 2001; Jaramillo et al., 2005) and helps to minimize turning up late to work, absenteeism, and leaving. Job involvement is related with the work motivation that a person has with a job (Bashaw & Grant, 1994; Hackett et al., 2001; McElroy et al., 1995; Blau, 1986; Blau & Boal, 1987; Balay, 2000). The research employed a questionnaire survey as the main tool to gather data. 210 subjects, selected randomly, were distributed the questionnaire forms. The first part of the questionnaire contained the questions related to the demographic attributes of the employees. The second part employs a 15-item scale (Mowday et al., 1979; Mowday et al., 1982) to determine the level of organizational commitment. In the third part, a job involvement scale, designed by Kanungo (1982) and developed by Karacaoglu (2005), was employed to find out the level of job involvement. The study revealed that there is a moderate positive correlation between the organizational commitment and job involvement levels of the employees working for the Central Organization of the Ministry of Health. Firstly the respondents tend to response positively to most of the question related to their firm. The population for research was restricted to specific group and cannot be applied to the general population.

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(Suki & Suki, 2011) The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of gender on employees’ perception of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Gender plays an important role in creating individual attitudes towards the workplace and in interpreting the meaning of these attitudes. The presence or absence of numerous attributes, originating internally from within the employing organization, influences an individual workers attitude concerning his or her job and his or her commitment to his or her organization (Herzberg, 1996; Steers, 1997). Job satisfaction is associated with the affective response to the immediate work environment (Norris and Neibuhr, 1983). A random sample of employees from various industries in Labuan was selected. A total of 130 questionnaires were used for the analysis. The job satisfaction instrument used in this study is adopted from the Hackman and Oldhana (1947) scale. The scale consists of 15 items. Organizational commitment was assessed using a measure developed by Modway, Porter, Steers and Boulian, (1947). Regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between a single dependent and several independent variables. The result of the data analysis showed that the employee’s gender has no significant effect on his or her perception of job satisfaction. Investigation of the study confirms that men or women have the same level of organizational commitment. Employers normally expect that people with the higher level of job satisfaction will have higher levels of organizational commitment. Organizations can rely on the demographic characteristics of employees such as gender to understand employees’ commitment to organization but it would not provide an exhaustive indication to accurately designing any policy or incentive in relation to employees for adoption.

Research Hypothesis

The following proposition (hypotheses) is developed.

H 0. There is not a positive significant relationship between organizational commitment and employees’ job performance?

H 1. There is a positive significant relationship between organizational commitment and employees’ job performance?

H 0. Affective commitment is not positively and significantly related to employee’s job Performance.

H 1. Affective commitment is positively and significantly related to employee’s job Performance.

H 0. Continuance commitment is not positively and significantly related to employee’s job performance.

H 1. Continuance commitment is positively and significantly related to employee’s job performance.

H 0. Normative commitment is not positively and significantly related to employee’s job Performance.

H 1. Normative commitment is positively and significantly related to employee’s job Performance.

Theoretical framework

The relationship between independent variable, Organizational Commitment and dependent variable, Job Performance is shown diagrammatically in figure “A”. The independent variable, organizational commitment has positive or negative impacts on job performance of the employees, as the literature suggests that organizational commitment and job performance are significantly correlated.

The schematic representation of the two variables is shown in following

Organizational commitment

􀂷 Affective

􀂷 Normative

􀂷 Continuance

Job performance

Variables

The variables under study are organizational commitment as independent variable and employee’s job performance as dependent variable. Commitment has been further disintegrated into three parts affective, normative and continuance. Meyer and Allen (1993) defined commitment as the employee’s feelings of responsibility to stay with the organization: feelings resulting from the internalization of normative pressure exerted on an individual prior to or following entry. While the job performance of employees has been (Yu, 1996) defined as work performance in terms of quantity and quality expected from each employee.

Expected Findings

Organizational commitment

Job performance

Positive

Khan & Zia-ud-Din (2010)

Affective commitment

Job performance

Positive

Khan & Zia-ud-Din (2010)

Continuance commitment

Job performance

Positive

Khan & Zia-ud-Din (2010)

Normative commitment

job performance

Positive

Khan & Zia-ud-Din (2010)

Organizational commitment

Job performance

Positive

, (2003)

Organizational commitment

Performance

Positive

Sutano (1999)

Research Methodology

The primary focus of this research paper is to investigate the relationship between organizational commitment i.e. affective, normative and continuous commitment and employee’s job performance in health sector of Pakistan focusing on employees of government and private hospitals.

An exploratory study will be undertaken and perhaps the best option available as it will help to expand the existing knowledge and to investigate the relationship among organizational commitment i.e. affective, normative and continuous commitment and employee’s job performance in health sector of Pakistan focusing on employees of government and private hospitals. Primary data will be taken by extensive interviews of employees of several government and private hospitals in Punjab. Questionnaire will be prepare on the basis of information collected through qualitative research i.e. from the main article I am going to replicate with the intention of investigate the relationship among organizational commitment i.e. affective, normative and continuous commitment and employee’s job performance in health sector of Pakistan focusing on employees of government and private hospitals. The time frame of this research work is from September 2012 to April 2013.

A survey will be used to gather the primary data in which questionnaire will be used as a research instrument. Target population for this study will be employees of different private and government hospitals in Punjab Through questionnaires they will be asked about association among organizational commitment i.e. affective, normative and continuous commitment and employee’s job performance. For this, a convenient sampling technique was used with a sample size consisting of a total of 100 to 120 respondents.

Questionnaires will be filled by these 100 employees who will lead the foundation for this research. After getting a response from distributed questionnaires, statistical techniques in the form of charts, graphs and regression analysis will be used to further analyze the responses and to come up with the findings of the research by using different statistical software like SPSS.

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