Comparison of new and old Total Quality Management and effects
Explanation of Quality: Quality has been defined in different ways by different people as under:What is the Quality? 1- Transcendent Defination: Quality is absolute,innate &universally recognizable and often loosely related to comparison of features and characteristics of products.
Eg: car (maruti) versus a big car ( Rolls Royce)
2- Product Based Defination:
It is precise and measurable variable and differences in quality reflect differences in quantity of some attributes of the product.
Eg: area,fuel etc.
3- Use-based Defination:
It is fitness for the purpose.
Eg: photo frames, a car etc.
4- Manufacturing Based Defination:
Quality is “conformance to requirements” and conformance measures the extent the product manufactured meet the design specifications.
5- Value Based Defination:
It is value perceived by the customer.such a concept of quality brings both quality and cost in forces.
6- Juran’s View on Quality:
“Quality is customer satisfaction acheived through product features and freedom from deficiencies”.
” Quality of design is the quality specified by the designer on behalf of the customer”
“To produce quality product or service there has to be a proper management or system. Quality is a vital part of production process. Quality management is about controlling activities which must be satisfying purpose of production. There are two main aliments of quality management. “
1. Quality assurance
2. Quality control
1.) Quality Assurance: – “quality assurance in more about earlier stage of product or services which can reduce of chances of defective in product or poor service. There for the center point of attention of quality assurance is product developing and designs stage. Because of perfect attention and process the quality product will be built. Later on this reliable product need less quality control inspection. This process makes strong relation between supplier and customer. This involves perfect information of requirement and delivery of product. “
2.) Quality Control: – “this is the “traditional way” of managing quality. Quality control is concerning check the product after produce. It is mainly looking for product produces except as per requirement and there is not defect in it. These would include more inspection, testing and sampling. This is also quite expensive process; in recent year business have concentrate on quality management and quality assurance.”
Total Quality management:
“Total quality management (TQM) is modern form of quality management. It is about a kind of business Philosophy which emphasizes, education, management and operation designed to continuously improve and maintain quality standard.”
What are qualities attributes & dimensions?
The concept of quality can be viewed from different perspective. Reliance on one concept create problems, it can shift as products move from design to market. David Gravin has given 8 principal quality dimensions:”
1. Performance: “This represents the primary operating characteristics of a product, the operating characteristics depends on each individual preferences likes & dislikes. “
2. Features: These are secondary characteristics of a product. they cannot be easily separated from performance dimensions.”
3. Conformance:” The product or services must be as per condition or requirement. It is develop on basis of its performance and design.”.
4.Durability: “it is based on performance. How long it act and how much it worth before scrape or dead. It can be measure in term or time, money or use. It is related to warranty.”
5.Serviceability:” it becomes very important dimension of quality, and it’s indicates professional behaviour. It can be measure by speed, courtesy and competency of repair.”
6.Aesthetics:” it’s all about look and appearance. Same time it can be brand identity. Fault and defect can be hiding in aesthetics properties.”
7.Perceived Quality: “the brand name or image can get from advertising affect, the poor service or technical support can reduce high quality product low reputation.”
8.Reliability: “reliability is directly contributing to company image and brand. It is related to performance, it’s considering fundamental dimension of quality to end-user. It’s a probability that product does not fail or fix and it has acceptable failure rates.”
Traditional approach of Quality management
Quality in the last 100years has undergone four stages of changes as under:
The first stage is refer to as ” Inspection phase” and it has the following distinguishing features:
Inspection stage employs simple inspection systems.
Teams of inspectors are employed to examine, measure or test a product and compare it with the standard.
It is conducted at various stages of manufacture such as incoming materials, semi finished & final goods.
Poor quality are segregated from the best ones.
Poor products are subsequently scrapped, reworked or sold at lower prices.
Persons are employed to look for faulty works and repair them i.e. 100% inspection.
Stage II-(Quality Control)
The second stage may be appropriately labeled as “Quality Control” and the features are as follows:
Accepting goods ones by rejecting and segregating defetives is replaced by the better ones.
Data on defects is generated from inspection results at various stages.
Sampling inspection plans are adopted for product control thereby replacing 100% .
Statistical quality control (charts) are employed for process control.
Stage II-(1)-(Quality Control)
It has following features:
QC (Inspection based) is substituted by Quality assurance (prevention based).
Emphasis is placed on quality of processes.
Quality planning and quality manuals are preapared with the object to build quality into manufacturing process.
However it pays little or no attention to service industries and soft areas of quality such as delivery,customer satisfaction.etc
Stage III-(TQM-Total Quality Management)
TQM is the current stage in quality and has the following features:
TQM covers all kinds of industries manufacturing as well as servicing.
TQM implementation requires clear and unambigious vision of top management anf gradual removal of inter-department barriers.
TQM places great emphasis on customers.(internal & external)
It belives that goods training based on systemetic training needs identification is essential to attain greater quality.
TQM lays greater trust on business processes and advocated continuous improvemet in every business activity.
Contribution to the Modern concept of “Total Quality Management”.
The concept of QC as a distint discipline emerged in the united states in the 1920’s. At that time it was intended simply to control ot limit the creation of defective items in the industrial process, which involved inspection of all goods. The pioneers who carried out these refinements included : Shewhart,Deming,Juran,Crosby.
Several management theories expanded this idea and started using statistics to control processes, to limit variations and improve the quality.
FEATURES OF TQM.
TQM is a cost effective system for integrating the continuous and smooth quality improvement efforts of people at all levels in the industry/organisation to make n deliver products & services which ensures customer satisfaction.
The basic features are:
TQM is a business philosophy based on the customer satisfaction.i.e quality of design & conformance to design.
It cannot be purchased or installed like the other equipments.
TQM imples & believes that quality reduces cost through reduced wastage , greate productivity & top increase sales.
It aims to change the system rather than bringing change within the existing system.
TQM aims to improve both the business process & functional process.
TENETS OF TQM
The tenets of quality movement find their roots in the concern for survival.There are three main quality “GURUS”.
Dr. Joseph Juran:
According to him ,there are no short cust to quality.It does not happen sudden overnight but it needs to be planned.Accordingly he believes 80% of the Q problems originate from /by poor management.
Thus to overcome the quality problems / issues , he has prescribed following measures.
To establish specific goals to be reached.
To plan for reaching / achieving goals
To assign appropriate responsibility for meeting the goals on time.
As well base the rewards on those result acheived.
Dr. W.Edwards Deming:
He believed that QM should be pervasive and not focus on sorting goods products from the bad ones.But he believed that in an organisation each one should share the responsibilities for quality.
He gave some key 4teen points of action to total quality.
(a) Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product & services.
(b) Adopt new philosophy transformations in the management styles.
(c) End/ Terminate the practice of awarding business on price tags.
(d) Drive out fear from organisation
(e) Break down barriers between all departments.
(f) Eliminate / rub slogans ,
(g) work standards based in numbers quotes etc.
(h) Create a proper and transperent structure in the organisation that allows everone to work towards new transformations.
(i) Cease dependence on mass inspection.
(j) Constantly & forever improve the system of product & services.
(k) Imply modern methods of training on jobs.
(l) Imply modern methods of supervision to help the employees on machines to do better jobs.
(m) Delete the barriers to pride of workmanships. Eliminate the rating/ranking system.
(n) Institute a vigorous / speedy programmes for training & education.
Philip B Crosby:
He pramoted the concept of “zero defects” and also pressured or emphasized adherence to requirements and employees motivations.
Quality is conformance to requirements.
The system to be used in prevention/safe side.
Measurement is based on the cost of quality.
The performance standards is Zero defects.
But there are other Gurus of Quality as under:
Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa:
He is serving as the lecturer of engineering at the Tokyo University and as well as a student of Edwards Deming, Ishikawa was involved active in the quality movement in Japan, and also was a member of the (UJSE). He was awarded with the Demings Award, the Nihon Keizais Press Prize, and the Industrial Standardizations Prize for his wordings/information on quality control, and the most important Biggest/Grand Award from the US Society for QC for his educational program on quality control.His book, Guide to Quality Control (1982), is to been considered as a classic just because of its in-depth/full clear explanation of quality tools and its related statistics. Ishikawa is known or considered as the Father of the Quality Circle Movement(QCM).
He presented the use of Quality Circles to:
(1) Improvement in support system.
(2) To respect all the human relations at the workplace.
(3) Gradually increase job satisfaction.
(4) Give award/recognisation to the employee capabilities and use their ideas. Quality Circles are well effective only when the employers/management understands statistical techniques and acts on recommendations from members/employees of the Quality Circles
Armand V Feigenbaum:
Mr.Feigenbaum is still a doctoral/learning student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at the time when he completed the 1st edition of Total Quality Control (1951). By profession An engineer at General Electric during 2nd World War. He used a statistical technique to determine what was wrong/mistake with early/before jet aeroplanes engines. For about 10years he served as a manager of throughout whole world manufacturings operations and quality control at “GE”. & serves as a president of General Systems Company, Inc., Pitts fields, Massachusetts, an international engn firm that creates and implements integrated operational systems for major corporations in the United States of America and abroad. He was the founding/discoveror chairman of the International Academy for Quality (IAQ) and was a past president of the American Soc for QC, which gave him its Edwards Medal and Lancaster Award for his contributions/efforts to quality and productivity. His Total Quality Control concepts have had a very positive (+ve) impact on quality and productivity for many organizations/companies throughout the industrialized world.
Dr. Genichi Taguchi:
He was a Japanese engineer and statistician who explained that what product specification means and how that can be converted into cost effective production.In the middle of 1950s Taguchi was an Indian Statistical Institute visiting professor/not permanent, where he met Mr. Walter Shewhart who was a Visitors at Research Associates at Princeton University in 1962, the same year he received his Ph.D. from Kyushu University and a Professor at Tokyo’s Aoyama Gakuin University and Director of the Japanese Academy of Quality.Taguchi was also awarded with the Deming Application prize in (1960),as well as award for literature on quality.
His ideas contributed in robust design in the area of product development. His different methods like Taguchi Loss Function,Design of Experiments and other methodologies have made major role in the reduction/decreade of variation and greatly improved results on engineering quality and productivity.His methods are also useful in customer statisfaction areas.
He has given 3 main dev points
(1) To design system (keeping in mind the customer/engineering0
(2) To parameter/determine stage (product performance)
(3)Last butnot least was tolerance design (finding the balance between manufacturing costs and loss).
KEY TQM CONCEPTS
Managemat commitment to quality
Focus on the customer
Prevention rather than detection of defects
Root cause corrective action
Employees involvement and empowerment
Synergy of teams
IMPORTANCE OF TQM
It is an integrative management concept aiming at continuous improvement in the good quality & customer service through the participations of all levels.It should be a habit of day to day life n not a matter of chance.
Improving customer satisfaction: TQM aims at providing the best good and services in accordance with customers expectations.
Enhancing Quality: It helps in making better quality products at the lower cost and increase market share and profits of the company/organisation.
Reduction in waste: TQM seekd /looks to the poor /worst quality rather than detecting and correcting defects /faults.This reduces wastage and the related costs are eliminated.
“Total Quality Management is totally different from the old concept of quality because its main focus on service of customer. It is necessary to maintain structured meet the needs and situation of individual company. TQM is ways of thinking about goals, organisation and people ensure that done success in first time. Also TQM helps change behaviours, attitude, through it make better improvement. Total quality management introduce the culture and organisation of company that always try to satisfy their customer with products and service. Company culture requires maintain the quality in every area of it. As discussion of element, we can conclude that TQM in organisation, supervisor is main part of company, which help to develops the management. Leader ship and team work emphasis on production work hand to hand. Be short of communication between department, is burden on the whole TQM environment.”