Comparison of Saudi Arabia and Europe Human Trafficking

 

International Human Trafficking

Introduction

Human trafficking is an egregious example of how globalization can facilitate and grow international crime rings for purposes of economic gains. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) defines human trafficking as the acquisition of people by improper means, such as force, deception, or fraud with a primary goal of exploiting them (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009). With the emergence of globalization, the world has opened up and people are more integrated. As a result, movement across the international borders in Europe and Saudi Arabia has been facilitated by the open trade policies adopted. Also, the rise of industrialization and emergence of multinational corporations in both Saudi Arabia and some of the developed European countries are some of the factors of globalization that have necessitated the need for cheap labor as industrial competition intensified globally. Therefore, it is important to create a comparison of the primary factors that facilitate international human trafficking in Saudi Arabia and Europe to understand the influence that globalization has on the issue.

Research Question

The following research paper will focus on the key question: Does human trafficking have the same characteristics in Saudi Arabia, as it does in Europe? In responding to this research question, the study will focus on various aspects of culture, socioeconomic conditions, politics, and institutional differences between Saudi Arabia and European countries, and how they contribute to international human trafficking.

Hypothesis

The research will be directed towards the following hypothesis: Globalization has led to a set of differences in economic, cultural, technological and political factors in Saudi Arabia and Europe. Consequently, these factors define the individual characteristics of human trafficking in each region.

Importance of the Research Question

The research question is a core concept in unearthing various economic, social, cultural, and individual factors that motivates human trafficking, which is currently a global issue both in the developing and industrialized countries in Saudi Arabia and Europe. By understanding the existing differences in various aspects of human trafficking in Saudi Arabia and Europe, the study will provide a general blueprint on how globalization has contributed to increased cases of human trafficking worldwide.

The research question will guide on global policies that should be enacted in order to deal with the problem of human trafficking, which is already a global threat. Human trafficking is a multifaceted issue, which makes it difficult to alleviate completely. First of all, international human trafficking is the most common form of human trade whereby victims are moved across the borders to other countries. Differences in policies, border regulation legislation, socio-economical issues, and cultures among countries make coordination of efforts to combat the crime futile. Therefore, the research question will enhance our understanding in terms of policies and legislation in Saudi Arabia and European countries, how these policies either prevent or facilitate human trafficking, and what needs to be done about such policies to curb the criminal activity.

Also, the research question outlines the factors that motivate human trafficking in Saudi Arabia and whether the same factors contribute to human trafficking in Europe. Generally, it is known that different regions have specific needs for the victims of human trafficking. For instance, victims of human trafficking in Saudi Arabia are mainly required for sexual exploitation and forced labor. On the other hand, in Europe, human trafficking mainly revolves around the acquisition of people for purposes of forced labor, servitude and slavery and sexual exploitation in equal measures. These differences also complicate global efforts on ending human trade. Therefore, the research question will provide a roadmap to establish the underlying factors in the Saudi Arabia and Europe which dictate the specific reasons for the acquisition of victims of human trafficking. Consequently, it is possible to develop an integrated approach to address this multifaceted issue.

Lastly, this research question is a key influence on policies that will guide consensus building among countries in order to address the growing problem of international human trafficking. Currently, the world is dynamic in various ways and, therefore, issues affecting one country are likely to impact on others. This has primarily been a factor of globalization. Through globalization, business relationships, as well as individual interaction, have increased. Consequently, international crimes such as human trade have, also been facilitated by this integration. With the neoliberalism and emergence of globalization, nations are in a rush to build their individual economies and at the same time disregard policies that influence international relations. Being an international problem with universal threats to human security, human trafficking has negative effects on international relations. It undermines individual and state security because it violates all the elements of human security as a result of coercion and exploitation. These elements include environmental, personal, economic, political, health, community, and food. Therefore, the research question is holistic and will facilitate understanding of international human trafficking from political, economic, cultural, and humanitarian dimensions on the lens of globalization.

Review of Literature

In his study, Rahman (2011) defines human trafficking as the movement of victims usually women and children across borders either legally or illegally. In addition, the victims can either be documented or without any documents, usually heading to unknown destination unaware of the consequences thereof (Rahman, 2011, p. 54). Current forms of human trafficking in both Saudi Arabia and Europe are more subtle compared to several decades ago. In most cases, victims are usually lured by better opportunities, such as jobs. This is the modern day slavery. According to Rahman (2011), human trafficking is a global phenomenon that can be inextricably linked to the current move of globalization in the sex industries that mainly involve women and children. There are differences in demand for victims of sex trade between Europe and Saudi Arabia. While sex trade is linked with human child trafficking in Saudi, Arabia, sex trafficking in Europe usually involve more adults than children.

Globalization and the subsequent free international border movement has facilitated international human trafficking (Liu, 2010). The process has made border crossing especially in European countries very easy. In both Saudi Arabia and Europe, the existing supply-and-demand relationship as a result of globalization has led to establishment of criminal networks which facilitate illegal border crossing as countries enact restrictive immigration policies (Liu, 2010). Subsequently, this has also increased the risks and vulnerabilities of unauthorized immigrants already in the countries to all forms of exploitation (Liu, 2010). Also, Liu (2010) suggests that limitation of immigration through restrictive policies also perpetuate inequality at the global level. Free movement of capital has been enabled by economic globalization. However, states have been using the migration policies as nation-state level gatekeeping instruments by allowing multinational corporation to relocate to low-cost areas (Liu, 2010).

Saudi Arabia is among the Middle Eastern countries alongside United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Cambodia, Venezuela among others that are designated as Tier 2 by the United States Department of States in relation to human trafficking. According to this classification, Tier 2 countries have governments that do not comply with the minimum standards to eradicate human trafficking (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). Increased cases of human trafficking in Saudi Arabia are motivated by various factors of globalization such as easier movement of people into the country according to this report. Currently, Saudi Arabia is a major destination for people from East Africa and South East Asia who either move to the country voluntarily or trafficked for purposes of labor exploitation, or other criminal activities such as forced begging (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). In Saudi Arabia, although globalization is a primary factor for the current trends in human trafficking, the political situation in the country is also a factor that has contributed to increasing cases of human trafficking. According to the United States Department of States 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report, the government of Saudi Arabia is yet to fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). Despite the high number of immigrants in Saudi Arabia who come as domestic servants as well as other forms of exploitation, the government is yet to increase anti-trafficking efforts (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). Therefore, human trafficking in Saudi Arabia is both a factor of globalization and weak government policies, as per the U.S Department of States 2016 report (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016).

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  Globalization has also resulted to economic competition whereby increasing product prices increases the demand for cheap labor as a means of cost reduction. Also, inequalities in economic growth among European countries and Saudi Arabia have resulted to industrialization of some countries while others are underdeveloped (Rahman, 2011). Saudi Arabia is among the Middle East countries that are endowed with resources such as oil and therefore their economy is doing well. On the other hand, the source countries in East Africa where the victims of human trafficking come are usually characterized by poor economic development and high population growth rate. Consequently, commodification of human life has resulted as human traffickers view humans as exploitable resources that are readily available (Liu, 2010). In his study, Liu (2010) asserts that although human trafficking generally has a long history, the criminal network in the human trade has extended to an unprecedented scale as a result of the widening inequality at the global level. With globalization and the rise of neoliberalism, inequalities among countries have encouraged millions of disadvantaged people to migrate (Liu, 2010, p. 2). Liu (2010) further suggests that although poverty and poor working conditions are the historically known causes of irregular migration, the phenomenon is not purely supply-driven both Saudi Arabia and Europe. As an industrialized economy, Saudi Arabia is on the edge of global economic competition. Therefore, most of the sectors of the economy are under intense pressure to minimize their costs and at the same time capitalize on cheap and flexible labor. This form of labor is readily found from migrants whether they moved in the country legally or illegally (Liu, 2010). This is also the driving force behind human trafficking in Saudi Arabia and  Europe whereby industrialization, as well as the emergence of multinational corporations, demand cheap and readily available labor (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009).

Gilbertson (2015) views the phenomenon of expanding human trafficking as an outcome of the industrial changes through the era of globalization. As a result of globalization, the sex industry which initially occupied a marginal position has now taken the central position in the global economy. The industry has grown tremendously in Saudi Arabia and Europe as a result of the huge profit margins, the extensive market demand and the organizational mechanism that is keen on exploiting the demand (Gilbertson, 2015, p. 9). Developing nations in Europe which were initially under the Soviet Union, such as Ukraine and the Baltic states, were left adrift after the Cold War (Gilbertson, 2015, p. 16). Subsequently, organized crime took center stage. This era was also characterized by technological development which promoted cross-border trade, migration covering up and investment opportunities. According to Gilbertson (2015), globalization has affected all aspects of life such as culture, political systems, economic systems among others in Europe. Human trafficking is among the transnational organized crimes that have expanded as a result of globalization. According to Gilbertson, (2015) growth of transnational organized crimes especially in Europe has been fostered by various factors of globalization such as enhanced flow of goods, capital and services, global tourism, increase in human migration and increase in outsourcing manufacturing. Gilbertson (2015) also shows a correlation between the international human trafficking as a transnational organized crime that has been promoted by the law enforcements and individual governments in both Europe and  Saudi Arabia. For a long time, governments have been focusing on criminal groups instead of criminal markets. The existing market demand for victims of human trafficking promotes the human trade despite efforts to eliminate the criminal networks. In her research, Gilbertson (2015) focuses on three key global drivers of trafficking for sex exploitation. They include war, economic instability, and technological advancements. In all recent wars surrounding the recent age of globalization, sex trafficking has been reported, hence, creating a dangerous environment for women and children living in war-torn areas in Europe. Also, the increased mobility of the people and instability in such zones further provide a perfect environment for human trafficking for sexual exploitation (Gilbertson, 2015, p. 22). This is the case in war-torn European countries. In addition, economic instability promotes the emergence of criminal activities and promotes migration.

Globalization and technological revolution has promoted human trafficking in many ways. Gilbertson (2015) also links the expansive human trafficking criminal network in Europe and Saudi Arabia to globalization, which influences technological revolution in term of communication and marketing. Communication and information sharing through cell phones have promoted human trafficking especially for purposes of sexual exploitation (Gilbertson, 2015, p. 27). Also, the Internet has led to an enormous boom in the child pornography industry with latest forms of human trafficking for sexual exploitation taking place online through chat rooms. In Holland and other surrounding Nordic countries, pornography is legal, and this has promoted cases of child trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation (Gilbertson, 2015, p. 28).

In addition, globalization has also facilitated advancements in transportation technology both in Europe and Saudi Arabia. The subtle forms of slavery promoted by human trafficking occur when in the process of searching for economic opportunities, migrants are coerced into work unwillingly (Liu, 2010, p. 2). Liu asserts that international human trafficking is not only an international crime but a process of globalization itself especially in technological perspective. Although globalization has contributed to important gains especially in the areas of trade, communication and transport in Europe, it has also opened up new avenues for human traffickers who are able to easily conduct the criminal activities (Liu, 2010).

In his study, Brewer (2010) acknowledges the research question by linking the process of globalization as an integral part of growing cases of international human trafficking. In this study, Brewer (2010) asserts that in the wake of globalization, interplay of economic, social and political factors in different parts of the world have resulted to what he terms as “global apartheid” which has given rise to a new “fourth world” which is a population comprising of the incarcerated, homeless, impoverished and other socially excluded people (Brewer, 2010, p. 47). This is the group of people who provide most of the victims of human trafficking. The comparative advantage in goods and cheap labor in the third world countries has contributed towards objectifying and exploiting humans for economic ends (Brewer, 2010, p. 48).

Based on the suggestions provided by other scholars in answering the research question, I will consider evaluating the existing connection between the process of globalization and international human trafficking. I will focus on providing evidence why human trafficking is not an outcome of globalization but rather a part of it. This implies that even though different states have the option to enact policies and legislation that can minimize cases of human trafficking, there are aspects of globalization that cannot be adjusted.

First, I would focus on showing the evidence on how globalization has promoted stiff economic, technological, social, and political competition in both developing and industrialized countries. A primary outcome of this competition is increased inequality between nations. As the industrialized countries continue to develop, the disadvantaged countries are forced to bear the repercussions of this economic competition in terms of slower economic growth, high rate of unemployment, low literacy levels and rapidly growing population. Consequently, I will provide a critical analysis on how these factors provide the right environment which facilitates human trafficking as excessive population makes humans exploitable resources.

Also, in answering the research question, I will critically evaluate how political factors such as weak government, corruption and the rise of highly developed organized crimes have led to an increase in cases of human trafficking, especially in the Saudi Arabia. The international community has not yet come into aid of governments with a weak economic infrastructure that can aid in combating this global crime. I will also provide an input on reasons why the weak governments are unable to handle the problem of human trafficking suh as insufficiency of resources, manpower, and technology that is critical in decreasing human trafficking cases in their respective areas of jurisdiction. Also, I wil provide evidence on how human trade has proliferated in European countries where the governments are unable to maintain economic and political stability. Lack of an effective international oversite body to monitor the policies used by individual countries to combat human trafficking also contributes towards the proliferation of the vice in countries with a weak political system. I will also be critical on Weak relations in the international community and this has also contributed towards the spread of the criminal network dealing in human trade in Europe and Saudi Arabia. Failure by countries and international organizations to effectively monitor and address the problem of human trafficking in individual countries has subsequently reinforced it. In my analysis on the factors in globalization that have contributed to the high rate of human trafficking in Saudi Arabia and Europe, I will also focus on the weak relations in the international community and how they have also contributed towards the spread of the trade as well as how failure by countries and international organizations to effectively monitor and address the problem of human trafficking in individual countries has subsequently reinforced it.

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With the world moving towards exceeding its capacity, human beings are becoming the most abundant and exploitable resources. Therefore, when answering the research question, I will provide evidence on how countries with a lower Gross National Product (GNP) are more prone to cases of human trafficking in comparison to countries with a high GNP. Also, the answer to the research question will focus on the economic factors in globalization such as increased demand for cheap labor and subsequent influence on international human trafficking . In addition, I will concentrate on issues such as how globalization has destroyed the barriers between countries hence paving the way for illegal inter-border immigration. Increased amount of consumerism in developed countries lead to a subsequent increase in demand for cheap and exploitable labor.

Part II

Research Methods

In order to carry out the research that will help in answering the research question, I will employ various methods of data collection, data analytical tools and assumed data analysis. Primarily, this section of the research will describe the rationale for the application of the specific procedures and techniques in data collection and analysis for the study. This will be a crucial part of the study that will enable the reader to critically evaluate the overall validity and reliability of the study. Data collection and analysis tools that will be chosen for this study are critical because they will automatically affect the findings and by extension, how the findings will be interpreted. The methods that will be chosen for collection and analysis of the data should be appropriate for fulfilling the overall aim of this study in order to come up with informed rationale on the existing relationship between globalization and aspects of international human trafficking in Europe and Saudi Arabia. Therefore, a large enough sample size will be important for this study to generalize and make informed recommendations based on the findings of the study. In this study, aspects of both qualitative and quantitative research will be applied.

Study Participants

When choosing the participants for this study, it is important to consider the respondents who will provide the best information for this study. Therefore, it is important to think carefully around all the issues surrounding the research question and gain access to the most effective respondents. Secondly, it is important to consider the number of participants who will take part in the study and how they will be selected. The key participants for this study will include government sources who will provide information on policies in place to address human trafficking in Europe and Saudi Arabia. This is because government policies are major drivers of globalization and subsequently, human trafficking. Another group of participants for this study will be identified victims of human trafficking. As study participants, victims of human trafficking are credible sources of vital information regarding the trade such as the methods used by the traffickers to acquire the victims and how they are facilitated in entering through borders. Information acquired from this group of participants will facilitate the research in terms of creating constructs between border policies in Europe and Saudi Arabia and international human trafficking. Identified victims of human trafficking can be accessed through various recovery centers and focused groups. Another group of study participants who can help in answering the research question include voluntary convicted participants in the human trade who will provide information on various factors of globalization that determine demands for victims of human trade as well as how the cartels are connected in Saudi Arabia and Europe. This group of participants will also provide vital information on how border culture, weak institutions among other factors facilitate the business of human trafficking.  There is no age limit for the study participants because the victims of human trade includes all genders, age groups, race, religion and socio-economic classes.

Data Collection

The following research will employ various data collection strategies in order to critically analyze the issues surrounding globalization and how they have contributed toward human trafficking internationally. Both the primary and the secondary data sources will be employed in order to provide a form of analysis on the changing trends in international human trafficking so that the impact of globalization on the vice can be scrutinized. Therefore, the various tools for data collection will be considered in this study. The methods of data collection will depend on their suitability to the target groups and the various issues that require assessment. Also, the tools chosen to collect data will depend on their efficiency in identifying issues such as the outputs and the outcomes of the process. The ability of the instruments of measure to provide similar answers to the same question when administered differently is also a key determinant of the tools to be used in data collection. Various data collection tools have their advantages and disadvantages and, therefore, suitability for the study should be the main point of consideration.

Data Collection Tools

Various methods of data collection critical for the subject include primary data sources from victims of human trafficking. This can be obtained from series of interview, focus groups and case studies in order to obtain first-hand insights into human trade and the similarities in the victims of human trafficking such as countries of origin, economic status and the circumstances surrounding their trafficking. Both qualitative and quantitative data can be collected in relation to globalization and international human trafficking to provide a relationship in between that can guide future approach to the issue.

Quantitative data

Quantitative data is a useful tool in this research for the informed measure of quantities. This can include statistical data such as numbers of victims of human trafficking etc.

Census reports. Census reports are key to globalization and human trafficking studies because it will provide data about every unit in a group of the population. For instance, census reports from various countries can show that age variations among the citizens and also monitor movements of different groups of people both locally and internationally. In addition, through census reports, it is possible to examine the current economic conditions in a given country and how these conditions influence migration of the people.

Administrative data. Various international organizations such as UNICEF, ILO, UNODC collect information on a day-to-day basis on operations and economic trends in various countries. The statistics obtained from these organizations’ annual reports is usually in real time and can be used as an indicator of the conditions on the ground. Administrative data will be useful in this research because it will shows various economic policies operating in different countries influence trade, the emergence of new industries and border movements. This form of data will also provide  insights on changing trends on international human trafficking such as the destinations, reasons for the trafficking as well as data on the most preferred victims for the trade. An example is the 2014 Global Report on Trafficking in Persons by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime which shows a changing trend in human trafficking whereby girls are more preferred than boys as a  result of growing demands in the sex trade. This report also shows the main reasons behind human trafficking in various parts of the world. In Africa and the Saudi Arabi, sexual exploitation and forced labor are the main drivers behind human trafficking. However, in other parts such as East Asia and Americas, forced labor is the primary reason behind the high cases of human trafficking.

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Tracer studies. Tracer studies will be an important tool for data collection in this research because they will include a combination of regular surveys which are used as the core tool. The regular surveys will be combined with an in-depth discussion with samples of the surveys as well as interviewing key informants about the human trade. Key informants can be voluntary informants who can be either victim of the trafficking or traffickers themselves. Government sources can also be used to provide key information especially on the interplay between the economic policies put in place and how they promote globalization as well as other outcomes of globalization such as human trafficking.

Qualitative data.

Qualitative data is critical to this study because it will provide information on the qualities which are not measurable. This includes reasons why a particular group of people is preferred as victims of human trafficking in particular parts of the world as well aa the factors that facilitate human trafficking in various parts of the world.

Interviews. Interviewing is an essential data collection tool for this study. Interviews can be done on the identified victims of human trafficking because they will assist in providing first-hand information about the nature of the trade. Essentially, human trafficking is a very discreet trade and much is not known about it. Therefore, by linking the information obtained through interviews, it wil be possible to link various aspects of the trade to the prevailing economic conditions and globalization in general.

Case studies.Case studies will be extensively used qualitative data collection tools in this research because they will provide a critical analysis of the issue of human trafficking base on specific cases. In this research, case studies involving a particular individual in the trade or country where human trafficking is rampant can provide general insights on the nature of the trade in other parts of the world and how globalization has contributed to changes in the nature of the trade. Besides, case studies also enable movement tracking whereby the identified victims can provide critical information such as the transport methods used by human traffickers, destination, and communication. Case studies also facilitate the process of identifying various agencies that take part in human trafficking.

Literature review for secondary data. Literature materials can also provide credible information on nature on the nature of human trafficking as a result of globalization and also providing a comparison with the earlier forms of human trafficking before globalization. This method of data collection heavily relies on the opinions of the researcher as per their area of study. Through a systematic review of literate, it is possible to identify gaps in research that have not been addressed in relation to globalization as a contributing factor to human trafficking. Various research articles employ different methods of data collection. Therefore, it is also possible to compare the various methods of data collection used and identify the most accurate in terms of the findings.

Assumed Data Analysis

Data analytics refer to various methods of examining raw data in order to draw informed conclusions in relation to the available information. In this study, various tool for data analysis will be used to summarize the information obtained during data collection in order to illustrate various measures that directly or indirectly link international human trafficking to globalization. Data Analysis Planning

During data analysis, it is important to edit the research questions and the alternative hypothesis. The data analysis plan will specify the various statistics that need to be analyzed as per the research question and the assumptions of the statistics. Also, the data analysis plan will provide an appropriate justification as to why the statistics chosen are appropriate. Besides, it is important to justify the sample size and if possible references are made. This is important in the quantitative result where clean, and code dataset is provided for conducting descriptive statistics such as standard deviation, percentages, frequency and mean.

Assumptions of linear regression such as linear relationships between variables, multivariate normality, noncollinearity, non-auto correlation, and homoscedasticity will be  critical tools for assumed data analysis for this research. Linear regression requires two or more variables of metric scale. In this case, globalization and the rate of human trafficking in both Europe and Saudi Arabia provide the two main variables in this study. In addition, regression analysis requires more than 20 cases per independent variable for complete analysis. Linear relationship between the dependent and the independent variables is critical for linear regression. A linear relationship exists between  the process of globalization and the rate of human trafficking both in Saudi Arabia and Europe. Since linear regression is sensitive to outlier effect, it is important to check for outliers. Scatter plots can also be used to test the linear assumptions. All the variables to be used in linear regression should be multivariate normal using a Q-Q-plot or using a histogram and a fitted normal curve as an assumption checker. A goodness of fit test can be used to check the normality of the data.

Multicollinearity can occur in cases where independent variables are dependent on each other. However, one of the assumptions of linear regression is that there is little or no multicollinearity in the data at all. However, it is critical that the error of means be independent fro the independent variables. Similar to other aspects of linear regression, multicollinearity is measurable and be tested using four different criteria namely the correlation matrix, tolerance, variance inflation factor and condition index. In cases whereby multicollinearity is found in the data, deducting the mean score or conducting a factor analysis can solve the problem. Another requirement in linear regression is that there should be little or no autocorrection in the data provided. Failure of the residuals to be independent of each other causes autocorrelation. However, this can be checked by the use of a scatterplot and can also be tested using the Durbin-Watson test.

The last linear regression assumption that will be applied in data analysis is homoscedasticity. This refers to equality in the error terms along the regression. Homoscedasticity will be checked using a scatter plot and tested using the Goldfeld-Quandt Test. This test will split the data in two forms: High and low value in order to show if there is a significant difference in the samples provided. A non-linear correlation can fix the problem of homoscedasticity.

 

References

Brewer, D. (2010). Globalization and Human Trafficking. Retrieved November 23, 2016, from Topic Research Digest: Human Rights and Human Trafficking.:

Gilbertson, M. (2015). Globalization and the Sex Trafficking Industry: Examination of Effects on Regional Value Chain Operations. DigitalCommons, pp. 1-109.

Liu, Y. (2010). The Commodifaction of Human Life: Human Trafficking in the Age of Globalization. Macalester International, 25(11), 1-24.

Brewer, D. (2010). Globalization and human trafficking. Topical Research Digest: Human rights and human trafficking.

Gilbertson, M. (2015). Globalization and the sex trafficking industry: Examination of effects on Regional Value Chain Operations. College of Saint Benedicts and Saint John’s University.

Rahman, M. (2011). Human Trafficking n the Era of Globalization: The case of Trafficking in the Global Market Economy. Transcience Journal, 2(1), 54-72.

Trafficking in Persons Report. (2016). Saudi Arabia: Tier 2 Watch List. Retrieved November 23, 2016, from state.gov: https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258850.htm

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2009). Combating Traffickig in Persons in Accordance with the Principles of the Islamic laws. Saudi Arabia: Naif Arab University for Security Science.

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