Computer Hardware And Software

Why is selecting computer hardware and software for the organization an important for management decision? What management, organization and technology issues should be considered when selecting computer hardware?

If you were a manager in a company that operates in many countries, what criteria would you use to determine whether a new system should be developed as a global application or local application?

Introduction

Management information system (MIS) is a system that provides information needed to manage an organizations in a proper way. Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business, which cover the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making.

The first question is all about selecting the computer hardware and software for the organization. Besides that, the question requires to discuss the consideration of what management, organization and technology issues when selecting computer hardware.

The second question is discussing about the criteria to determine whether a new system should be developed as a global application or local application.

QUESTION 1

Computers consist of two main elements, which is hardware and software. Hardware is a comprehensive term for all the physical parts of a computer, as distinguished from the data it contains or operates on. Components of hardware are printers, motherboard, floppy disk; CD-ROM. Software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions to a computer on what to do and how to do it. It can also be said that software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. As we can see, all organizations are computerized nowadays. All are using system technology in order to make their work done or make it in more advanced. Regarding that, organizations need to use the proper hardware and software according to their business and requirements. So basically, hardware and software plays an important role in management decision.

First of all, the organization should hardware and software which is suitable for the business. This also means, organizations must choose the suitable software, depends on their needs. Organization need to know what kind of software they are going to use and what is the needs of hardware. Each computer should complement the user and the software that is being used. For example, a theatre wants to have a ticketing system. By right, they should be using VB.Net. There is no point for the organization to use any other programming language to create. As for hardware, organization should make sure that the hardware that is being used meets the requirements of the system.

Business is all about making profit. In this case, cost is very important as well. Organization should be very considerable on this aspect, the cost of software and hardware components are increasing day by day. The organization also should consider alternatives that provide similar functionalities. Computer software contains of sets of instructions written in computer language to address particular tasks. There is no need of installing unwanted hardware and software on a particular computer. Each department in organizations needs different kind of software. For example, accountants use accounting software which is all about calculations and all, while Human Resources software treats payroll, personnel and other employee issues.

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In order to produce a quality product, organization should use the original or legal hardware and software. Useful tools and information from the software company can benefit our organization’s use of purchased software. For example, if we are using Windows then we will need to register our Windows software in order to be able to download important service packs and updates. The pirate ones is not secured as the system will be hacked easily, and the quality level does not reach the original ones. Furthermore, pirates’ software and hardware disable the wokers to complete their given task completely. Besides that, the organization should consider whether the hardware and software they bought or download is from a recognized source. As mention above, the price of software and hardware is increasing as day’s moves on. However, to perform in the best a quality way, company should spend. It is also important for organization to purchase hardware and software with warranty and guarantee because they got to make sure that the the hardware and software that is being used in the system can last for a longer period..

For next is IS strategy and it plan an organization uses in providing information services. IS allows business to implement its business strategy. IS also helps to determine the company’s capabilities. Four key of IS infrastructure components are key to IS strategy. These key components are sufficient to allow the general manager to assess critical IS issues.

What

Who

Where

Hardware

List of physical components of the system

Individuals who use it

Individuals who manage it

Physical location

Software

List of programs, applications and utilities

Individuals who use it

Individuals who manage it

What hardware it resides upon and where that hardware is located

Networking

Diagram of how hardware and software components are connected

Individuals who us it/individuals who manage it/company service obtained from

Where the nodes

are located ,where the wires and other transport media are located

Data

Bits of information stored in the system

Individuals who use it

Individuals who manage it

Where the information resides

Information systems strategy matrix

The second part of the first question is management, organization and technology issues should be considered when selecting computer hardware.

The first factor is Performance. Performance of a system mainly depends on hardware. In performance, organization should decide what they really want the hardware to perform.

Next factor is the cost. Cost should be very carefully considered because before purchasing any hardware, there should be a budget fixed so that the organization does not overspend.

Hardware compatibility can refer to the compatibility of computer hardware components with a particular CPU architecture, bus, motherboard or operating system. Hardware that is compatible may not always run at its highest stated performance, but it can nevertheless work with legacy components. An example is RAM chips, some of which can run at a lower (or sometimes higher) clock rate than rated. Hardware that was designed for one operating system may not work for another, if device or kernel drivers are unavailable. For example, much of the hardware for Mac OS X is proprietary hardware with drivers unavailable for use in operating systems such as Linuis. Besides that, hardware and software costs a lot of money. But however, hardware needs to be sufficiently powerful to meet the demands that will be placed on it by the users. Management issues help our identify, communicate, monitor and resolve project issues. The project issue management process will help us to put in place the steps needed to quantify and report all issues within the project. Many systems fail because their designers make unrealistic assumptions about the ability, motivation, and discipline of the people who will operate it. This isn’t just a matter of one-off analysis. For example, an initially low rate of fraud can cause people to get complacent and careless, until suddenly things explode. Also, an externally induced change in the organization such as a merger or acquisition can undermine control.

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QUESTION 2

As a manager in a company that operates in many countries, I would determine to use new system to be developed as a global application. Global business plan is all about developing and managing the business all over the world. This is like starting a new business around the world.. This business plan prepares a business to change its operations internally. It’s also used externally for solved an investment capital that will be used for development.

As per my determination, I would use the feasibility study. Feasibility studies aim to uncover the strengths and weaknesses of the existing business or proposed venture, opportunities and threats as presented by the environment, the resources required to carry through, and ultimately the prospects for success. To tell it more simply way, the two criteria to judge feasibility are cost required and value to be attained. For example, a well-designed feasibility study should provide a historical background of the business or project, description of the product or service, accounting statements, details of the operations and management, marketing research and policies, financial data, legal requirements and tax obligations. Basically, feasibility studies precede technical development and project implementation.

There are few common factors. Those are as per below:

Technology and system feasibility

The assessment is based on an outline design of system requirements in terms of Input, Processes, Output, Fields, Programs, and Procedures. This can be quantified in terms of volumes of data, trends, frequency of updating, etc. in order to estimate whether the new system will perform adequately or not. Technological feasibility is carried out to determine whether the company has the capability, in terms of software, hardware, personnel and expertise, to handle the completion of the project when writing a feasibility report, the following should be taken to consideration:

A brief description of the business

The part of the business being examined

The human and economic factor

The possible solutions to the problems

At this level, the concern is whether the proposal is both technically and legally feasible. For example, some automobiles contain parts connected within small spaces, where most 11-year-old girls (with small hands) could reach between the parts to adjust (or check) the assemblage of components. However, in regions with child labor laws which prohibit employment of 11-year-old children in such jobs, the task might not be legally feasible.

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Economic feasibility

Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the usage of a new system. In other words is known as benefit analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs. If benefits outweigh costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system. An entrepreneur must accurately weigh the cost versus benefits before taking an action.

Cost-based study: It is important to identify cost and benefit factors, which can be categorized as follows: 1. Development costs; and 2. Operating costs. This is an analysis of the costs to be incurred in the system and the benefits derivable out of the system.

Time-based study: This is an analysis of the time required to achieve a return on investments. The future value of a project is also a factor.

Operational feasibility

Operational feasibility is a measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems, and takes advantage of the opportunities identified during scope definition and how it satisfies the requirements identified in the requirements analysis phase of system development

Legal feasibility

Determines whether the proposed system conflicts with legal requirements or not. For an example, a data processing system must comply with the local Data Protection Acts.

Scedule feasibility

There will be a due date for complication each project. Project will fail if it takes too long to be completed before it is useful. Typically this means estimating how long the system will take to develop, and if it can be completed in a given time period using some methods like payback period. Schedule feasibility is a measure of how reasonable the project timetable is. Some projects are initiated with specific deadlines.

Market and real estate feasibility

Market Feasibility Study typically involves testing geographic locations for a real estate development project, and usually involves parcels of real estate land. Developers often conduct market studies to determine the best location within a jurisdiction, and to test alternative land uses for given parcels. Jurisdictions often require developers to complete feasibility studies before they will approve a permit application for retail, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, housing, office or mixed-use project. Market Feasibility takes into account the importance of the business in the selected area.

Cultural feasibility

In this stage, the project’s alternatives are evaluated for their impact on the local and general culture. For example, environmental factors need to be considered and these factors are to be well known. Further an enterprise’s own culture can clash with the results of the project.

Conclusion

As a conclusion, Management Information System is something very important in business world as everything is computerized now.

The first question has a conclusion of considering the importance of hardware and software in all organizations. Organization has to make a good decision before purchasing the hardware and software. Besides that, they should know what kind of required tools they need.

The second questions discuss about the determination of either global or local application. These ensures us to know more about business around the world.

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