Context Diagram Of The System Information Technology Essay

A Context Diagram (SCD) in software engineering and systems engineering are diagrams that represent all external entities that may interact with a system.[2] This diagram is the highest level view of a system, similar to Block Diagram, showing a, possibly software-based, system as a whole and its inputs and outputs from/to external factors.

Context Diagram are diagrams used in systems design to represent all external entities that may interact with a system. This diagram pictures the system at the center, with no details of its interior structure, surrounded by all its interacting systems, environment and activities. The objective of a system context diagram is to focus attention on external factors and events that should be considered in developing a complete set of system requirements and constraints

Context diagrams are related to Data Flow Diagram, and show the interactions between a system and other actors with which the system is designed to interface. System context diagrams can be helpful in understanding the context which the system will be part of.

Context diagrams are used early in a project to get agreement on the scope under investigation. Context diagrams are typically included in a requirements document. These diagrams must be read by all project stakeholders and thus should be written in plain language, so the stakeholders can understand items within the document.

Member

Figure1.1: Context diagram of Soccer Club

Pay fees

Membership

Take payments

Soccer Club

Responsible for orgniging events

Fixture and Fixture

Secretary

Allocate members in to team

Sent invoice

Management

Responsible for training and selecting team

Coach

b) A statement of the aims and objectives of the system:

Aim

Aim of the system to analyse and design a system for a soccer club including the creation of a

prototype user interface, planning for the training of users, where the club is run by an elected committee. Members of the public may apply for membership of the club, and may be playing members or simply social members.

Objective

The main objective of the system is the Soccer Club requires a computerised system to carry out all the tasks above, e.g. member and fee registration, team allocation, creating fixture lists, setting up training sessions and publishing results. And also make a website allowing members access to a diary of all matches and other club events including the results of matches.

c) Data Flow Diagram for the system:

Dataflow diagram

A data-flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the “flow” of data through an information system. DFD s can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design).

On a DFD, data items flow from an external data source or an internal data store to an internal data store or an external data sink, via an internal process.

A DFD provides no information about the timing or ordering of processes, or about whether processes will operate in sequence or in parallel. It is therefore quite different from a flowchart, which shows the flow of control through an algorithm, allowing a reader to determine what operations will be performed, in what order, and under what circumstances, but not what kinds of data will be input to and output from the system, nor where the data will come from and go to, nor where the data will be stored (all of which are shown on a DFD).

1. Membership Process

Log: regi:

1. Login

Member Login from served

Member

Member registration

Regi.form

form

Select Member

2. Allocating Team

New members least are selected

Save all member details

3 Collect fee

All members fee collected

Fixture and fixture

4. Selecting session

Session

Figure1.2: Membership process

2. Management Process

1 Selecting captain

Member Least are selected

2 Selecting team

Two team are Selected

3

Arrange coaching session

Coaching started

Management

Quarrying captain

Least of team

Team list

Figure1.3: Management Process

3. Coaching Process

1 Team allocation

Coach

manage the Training

Coaching management

Member training

Coach

Select Training

Member

Arrange training

2 Training

All Member trained

Training Member

3 Selecting

member and Training selected

Select Training and Members

Member list

4 training

Training to training

Figure1.4: Coaching process

4. Secretary Process

Allocating Team

Training session

Registration .form

1 Training time

Training is started

2 Collecting fee

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All fee are collected

3 Allocate Team

Team are allocated

Trained member

Secretary

Training

Payment

Figure1.5: Secretary process

Problem Identification:

Task 2

data model detailing the data structure required to support the information and process requirements of the driving system including:

a) An Entity Relationship Diagram for the system.

b) Entity descriptions for all entities in the diagram.

c) Appropriate attributes for all entities including primary and foreign keys.

d) Relationships detailing optionality and degree of relationships between entities.

Solution of Task 2

Entity Relationship Diagram

Definition

Definition: An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three different types of information. Boxes are commonly used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes.

Also Known As: ER Diagram, E-R Diagram, entity-relationship model

Examples: Consider the example of a database that contains information on the residents of a city. The ER diagram shown in the image above contains two entities — people and cities. There is a single “Lives In” relationship. In our example, due to space constraints, there is only one attribute associated with each entity. People have names and cities have populations. In a real-world example, each one of these would likely have many different attributes.

Why it’s needed

The first stage of information system design uses these models during the requirements analysis to describe information needs or the type of information that is to be stored in a database. The data modeling technique can be used to describe any ontology (i.e. an overview and classifications of used terms and their relationships) for a certain universe of discourse (i.e. area of interest). In the case of the design of an information system that is based on a database, the conceptual data model is, at a later stage (usually called logical design), mapped to a logical data model, such as the relational model; this in turn is mapped to a physical model during physical design. Note that sometimes, both of these phases are referred to as “physical design”.

There are a number of conventions for entity-relationship diagrams (ERD). The classical notation is described in the remainder of this article, and mainly relates to conceptual modeling. There are a range of notations more typically employed in logical and physical database design, such as IDEF1X.

ERD

TRAINING

TEAM

COACH

FIXTURE

SECRETARY

MEMBER

Payment

Figure 2.1: Entity relationship diagram

Coach

Coach_ID (PK)

Coach_Name

Coach_Address

Coach_Join_Date

Coach_Salary

Coach_Telephone

Team_ID (PK)

Team_Name

Team_Condition

Team_Type

Team

b)

Member

Member_ID (PK)

Member_Name

Member_

Address

Member_Telephone

Training _ID (FK)

Coach_ID (FK)

Team_ID (FK)

Training

Training _ID (PK)

Training _Name

Training _Description

Training _Type

Payment

Payment_ID (PK)

Training _Booking_ID

Payment_Date

Fixture

Fixture_ID (PK)

Booking_ID

Shedule_Date

Fixture_Time

Secretary

Secretary_ID (PK)

Secretary_Name

Secretary_Address

Secretary_Join_Date

Secretary_Salary

Secretary_Telephone

Figure 2.2: description of Entity

c)

Coach

Coach_ID (PK)

Coach_Name

Coach_Address

Coach_Join_Date

Coach_Salary

Coach_Telephone

Team_ID (PK)

Team_Name

Team_Condition

Team_Type

Team

Member

Member_ID (PK)

Member_Name

Member_Address

Member_Telephone

Training _ID (FK)

Coach_ID (FK)

Team_ID (FK)

Training

Training _ID (PK)

Training _Name

Training _Description

Training _Type

Payment

Payment_ID (PK)

Training _Booking_ID (FK)

Payment_Date

Fixture

Fixture_ID (PK)

Booking_ID (FK)

Shedule_Date

Fixture_Time

Secretary

Secretary_ID (PK)

Secretary_Name

Secretary_Address

Secretary_Join_Date

Secretary_Salary

Secretary_Telephone

Figure 2.3: description of Entity with primary and foreign keys

Relationship detailing optionality and degree of relationship between entities

Team

Training

Coach

Fixture

Secretary

Member

Payment

Member_ID

Training _ID

Team_ID

Coach_ID

Fixture_ID

Payment_ID

Secretary_ID

Figure2.4: Relationship between entities

Problem Identification:

Task 3

Entity Life History for Soccer Training

Solution of Task 3

Entity Life History for Soccer Session:

30 Days

Invoice

7 Days

Session

Create new training

Training process

Training Schedule

Complete Training

Payment

Session wise *

Monthly*

Figure3.1: Relationship Table

Problem Identification:

Task 4

Create a database design for the Soccer Club system including:

A set of fully normalised tables showing the normalisation process for each.

Data Dictionary entries for all items included in the database design.

Solution of Task 4

A set of fully normalized tables showing the normalization process for each table.

UNF

1st NF

2nd NF

3rd NF

Member_ID

Member_Name

Member_Address

Member_Telephone

Training _ID

Training _Name

Training _Description

Training _Type

Team_ID

Team_Name

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Team_Condition

Team_Type

Coach_ID

Coach_Name

Coach_Address

Coach_Join_Date

Coach_Salary

Coach_Telephone

Fixture_ID

Fixture_Time

Shedule_Date

Secretary_ID

Secretary_Name

Secretary_Address

Secretary_Join_Date

Secretary_Salary

Secretary_Telephone

Payment_ID

Payment_Date

Member_ID

Member_Name

Member_Address

Member_Telephone

Training _ID

Training _Name

Training _Description

Training _Type

Team_ID

Team_Name

Team_Condition

Team_Type

Coach_ID

Coach_Name

Coach_Address

Coach_Join_Date

Coach_Salary

Coach_Telephone

Fixture_ID

Shedule_Date

Fixture_Time

Secretary_ID

Secretary_Name

Secretary_Address

Secretary_Join_Date

Secretary_Salary

Secretary_Telephone

Payment_ID

Payment_Date

Member_ID

Member_Name

Member_Address

Member_Telephone

Secretary_ID

Secretary_Name

Secretary_Address

Secretary_Join_Date

Secretary_Salary

Secretary_Telephone

Training _ID

Training _Name

Training _Description

Training _Type

Team_ID

Team_Name

Team_Condition

Team_Type

Coach_ID

Coach_Name

Coach_Address

Coach_Join_Date

Coach_Salary

Coach_Telephone

Fixture_ID

Shedule_Date

Fixture_Time

Payment_ID

Payment_Date

Member

Member_ID

Member_Name

Member_Address

Member_Telephone

Training

Training _ID

Training _Name

Training _Description

Training _Type

Team

Team_ID

Team_Name

Team_Condition

Team_Type

Coach

Coach_ID

Coach_Name

Coach_Address

Coach_Join_Date

Coach_Salary

Coach_Telephone

Fixture

Fixture_ID

Shedule_Date

Fixture_Time

Secretary

Secretary_ID

Secretary_Name

Secretary_Address

Secretary_Join_Date

Secretary_Salary

Secretary_Telephone

Payment

Payment_ID

Payment_Date

b) Data Dictionary entries for all items included in the database design.

Data dictionary:

A term used either to denote the system tables of some relational DBMS or to denote a more encompassing representation of the data used by some enterprise.

Member:

Attribute Name

Type

Size

Format

Constraints

Relationship

Member_ID

VARCHAR

11

PK

Member_Name

VARCHAR

30

Member_Address

VARCHAR

50

Member_Telephone

VARCHAR

12

Training :

Attribute Name

Type

Size

Format

Constraints

Relationship

Training _ID

VARCHAR

11

PK

Training _Name

VARCHAR

30

Training _Description

VARCHAR

50

Training _Type

VARCHAR

12

Team:

Attribute Name

Type

Size

Format

Constraints

Relationship

Team_ID

VARCHAR

11

PK

Team_Name

VARCHAR

30

Team_Condition

VARCHAR

50

Team_Type

VARCHAR

12

Coach:

Attribute Name

Type

Size

Format

Constraints

Relationship

Coach_ID

VARCHAR

11

PK

Coach_Name

VARCHAR

30

Coach_Address

VARCHAR

50

Coach_Join_Date

DATE

12

Coach_Salary

VARCHAR

20

Coach_Telephone

VARCHAR

12

Fixture:

Attribute Name

Type

Size

Format

Constraints

Relationship

Fixture_ID

VARCHAR

11

PK

Shedule_Date

DATE

12

Fixture_Time

VARCHAR

20

Secretary:

Attribute Name

Type

Size

Format

Constraints

Relationship

Secretary_ID

VARCHAR

11

PK

Secretary_Name

VARCHAR

30

Secretary_Address

VARCHAR

50

Secretary_Join_Date

DATE

12

Secretary_Salary

VARCHAR

20

Secretary_Telephone

VARCHAR

12

Payment:

Attribute Name

Type

Size

Format

Constraints

Relationship

Payment_ID

VARCHAR

11

PK

Payment_Date

DATE

12

Problem Identification:

Task 5

Create a prototype user interface for the Soccer Club system including, as a minimum, the following

functions:

Adding a new member.

Creating a fixture list for a team.

Recording a match result.

Solution of Task 5

Create a prototype user interface for the rugby club system including, as a minimum, the following functions:

User Interface:

a) Adding a new member:

Creating a fixture list for a team:

Recording a match result:

Problem Identification:

Task 6

Detailed document specifying:

Create an outline training plan for the new system including who would be trained, how the session(s)

Create a User Guide for the system. This should not be a comprehensive system manual but a reference document that users can use as a quick guide to the tasks they need to carry out.

Solution of Task 6

a) Training Outline plane:

The foundation of any effective football conditioning program is strength training…

Absolute or maximal strengthen and of itself is not enough though – not if football players want to reach their full potential. To gain the greatest advantage, gains in maximal strength should be converted into explosive power. Don’t confuse the two – there is a crucial difference. Power is a combination of strength and speed. A player who can bench press 300lbs is not necessarily more powerful than a player who can bench press 250lbs for example. And in football, with all other factors equal, the player with the greater power will come out on top.

Of course, maximal strength training still plays a key role in a football training program. In the articles below we’ll look at other forms of training that can help to convert maximal strength into explosive power.

Milestone:

Problem Identification:

Task 7

Create a comprehensive, professional standard report describing the system design for the Soccer Club.

Solution of Task 7

Comprehensive, professional standard report

A professional standard report is A System Context Diagram (SCD) in software engineering and systems engineering are diagrams that represent all external entities that may interact with a system This diagram is the highest level view of a system, similar to Block Diagram, showing a, possibly software-based, system as a whole and its inputs and outputs from/to external factors.

A two-dimensional diagram that explains how data is processed and transferred in a system. The graphical depiction identifies each source of data and how it interacts with other data sources to reach a common output. Individuals seeking to draft a data flow diagram must (1) identify external inputs and outputs, (2) determine how the inputs and outputs relate to each other, and (3) explain with graphics how these connections relate and what they result in. This type of diagram helps business development and design teams visualize how data is processed and identify or improve certain aspects. Larry Constantine is credited with designing the basic design of the data flow diagram.

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This paper presents a technique for tightly coupling models of business processes to those of data structure. It is largely based on the work of Chris Bird, John Hall, and Keith Robinson of Model Systems Consultants, Inc., although the technique was originally described by Michael Jackson (no, not the popular singer) in his 1983 book, System Development, and it is incorporated into the SSADM methodology widely used in Europe.

Oracle’s CASE*Method represents a particularly sophisticated approach to entity/relationship modeling, producing models which are both rigorous and accessible to users. The resulting models form a very good foundation for data base design.

The method is weaker, however, when it comes to capturing the essence of a company’s business functions rigorously enough and in enough detail to form a solid basis for developing software. The function side of analysis is explicitly separated from the data side, and the function hierarchy remains a somewhat subjective kind of model. The “CRUD” matrix. showing which functions create, retrieve, update, and delete which entities, provides some guidance for the way programs will use data, but without more rigor in the definition of functions, even this remains a weak tool.

In the 1970’s Ed Yourdon’s and Larry Constantine’s principles of structured design provided real guidance in defining modules, with rules for defining each module’s use of data. Unfortunately, however, the rules were defined in terms of third-generation programming languages, and don’t apply in the same way to fourth-generation languages and forms tools such as SQL*Forms.

The move towards an object-oriented approach to programming, however, and by extension to design and systems analysis, has provided some insights into modeling a business. Where CASE*Method represents data and function modeling as two parallel operations, object-orientation shows them as much more integrated, bringing together not only the function.

hierarchy and the data model, but other modeling techniques as well.

shows the three aspects of an organization that are the subject of most modeling techniques in use today, and how the techniques are related to them. The three aspects are:

The objects that the business manipulates: the things of significance about which the organization must hold and maintain information.

The functions or activities performed by the business.

The events in the world that cause those functions to be performed.

A user guide, also commonly known as a manual, is a technical communication document intended to give assistance to people using a particular system. It is usually written by a technical writer, although user guides could be written by programmers, product or project managers, or other technical Secretary, particularly in smaller companies.

User guides are most commonly associated with electronic goods, computer hardware and software.

Most user guides contain both a written guide and the associated images. In the case of computer applications it is usual to include screenshots of how the program should look, and hardware manuals often include clear, simplified diagrams. The language is written to match up with the intended audience with jargon kept to a minimum or explained thoroughly.

Conclusion:

Completing the assignment I have a good experience of a system. I searched many web sites completing this assignment. For this I had to spend more time. I discussed to our classmates and our subject tutor. Our teacher helped me to do the work clearly and timely. I had also some problem. Solving the problem I have known other articles. Many web sites were also helpful for us. During the completion time we gathered knowledge about some of the topics and practical task which was known before completing this task. Finally I enjoyed much better for prepared this assignment.

Bibliography

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