Different ways to define leadership and mentoring

In this report, it divided into three parts. Firstly, it discuss about leadership and mentoring. There have many different ways to defined leadership and mentoring where it done by many researchers before. Leadership is the skills that to lead other people to accomplish the mission and the goals. However, mentoring is the skills that guide, help and consult, as well as set the vision, mission and goals for mentee. Further, to be an effective leaders and mentors, they have to fulfil certain requirements such as the roles, models, values and ethics of leadership or mentoring on individual character.

Secondly, it discuss about the characteristics of leaders and mentors. There have many characteristics to be an effective and good leader and mentor, however, in this report, it only discusses a part of the characteristics of leaders and mentors such as communication, good decision making and others. Leaders and mentors are playing significant roles in an organization. So, several factors to be an effective leader and mentor will be discuss on part two later. Lastly, researcher who prepared this report had choosing a platform which is scout society to discuss the potential to lead followers in order to achieve the mission.

2.0 Definition of Leadership and Mentoring

Leadership is a skill that done by a leader to motivate a group of members to achieve the goals that has been set by the company. There are many definitions done by researches. Based on G.A. Cole (1994), leadership defined as a process of an individual influences to work voluntarily to achieve the goals of the tasks that has been given. Besides that, according to P.F. Drucker (1999), leadership can raise individual performance to a higher standard and help to build individual personality beyond the limitation. Means while it is a process of an individual leading others subordinates in an organization to accomplish the tasks, motivate subordinates to work hard in a good condition and perform in a higher standard.

On the other hand, mentoring can be defined as an experienced person who having particular skills or knowledge to help others who lack of experiences. Referring to Russel and Adams (1997), researches defined it as the interpersonal exchange between experienced employee who known as mentor and a peer less on experienced who known as protégé. In an organization, mentors can be a person who holding a higher position in that company such as a manger, so, mentors should help and guide as much as possible of protégé to accomplish vision and mission of the company. Based on E. White (2007) research, a high level manager should be mentors for others and help unlimited employees to complete the mission.

2.1 Roles of Leadership and Mentoring

An effective leadership in an organization can be proven to maintain a good condition of a company. So, while leaders leading a group of people to complete the project tasks, leader need to have effective leadership skills. Due to that, the knowledge and skills on the personal leader are important to lead followers in a right direction to accomplish the goals of the organization.

There are several important leadership roles requires on a leader. First of all, visioning and setting an example (Vadim Kotelnikov, 2001) is one of the significant factors for the leadership. Leader can build up a proper vision to establish subordinates and lead subordinates to reach the vision. Besides, leadership is a considering of the working result which will reflect to an organization performance. So, choosing a correct strategy to direct followers work efficiently on the project has to be very careful. As a leader, where should care on the organization performance, leader individual has to take the risks of manage change and develop a winning strategy to reach the vision point or the goal of an organization. According to Jeffery Gandz (2005), develop winning strategies to get a better result or performance is helpful for the company. Furthermore, lead by example to show up the confidence in front of followers and gain respect as well as trusty from followers can makes leader easier on completing the task in the whole team.

Secondly, empowering and energizing (Vadim Kotelnikov, 2001) are another important leadership role. As a leader, build up a positive environment at the working place can tend to an efficiency of working process. For example, leader showing out a friendly personality to motivate and energize people to work willingly and efficiently to performance well in the project. It can help to increase the performance of an organization. Moreover, empower people by listen on the ideas from subordinates as in a fair condition to avoid unconvinced in the team. Communicate well with subordinates, giving out clear instructions to avoid misleading by followers. Leaders should also always understand the condition of followers and support and helps subordinates while doing the project.

Last but not least, leading team (Vadim Kotelnikov, 2001) is a common role of leadership. Leader is to lead a group of people on performing a particular task. However, leader also considers as one of the team members in the group. Leader has to carry out the value of team work to ensure the whole team is in a well performing. So, leader should involve everyone include leader individual to performance the task. Further, allow to have a group discussion for followers to get a well performance and decision. The result that done by followers should be rely to and trust on the working scope, yet, leader has to provide an effective feedback for subordinates on the result.

In contrast, mentors is to guide mentees to accomplish the mission that given. Based on the research of S.K. Hill and M.H. Bahnink (1998), effective mentoring can progress a better result such as performance levels, promotion rates, upward mobility, income and job satisfaction of mentors and mentees. It is almost the same as roles of leadership whereby roles of mentoring also have to contribute the skills and guideline, role modeling and the most important is effective mentoring relationships. Mentors have a specialist skills or knowledge to help mentees in order for mentees to gain confidence while doing the tasks. By using mentors’ updated knowledge to aid mentees and build up confidence as well as offering a new challenge tasks for mentees to improve mentees’ learning knowledge.

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In an organization, role modeling of mentors such as responsibilities on the job scope, confidence, trusty of others allow mentees to examine and being an example for them. Mentors can be consider as a representative of an organization, due to that, mentors have to always giving out a good impression to mentees in order to increase the presentation of mentees where may reflected performance of a company. Lastly, effective mentoring relationship such as well communication, pay out attention and concern on mentees, and others to build up a good relation with mentees is very important. It can reflect the learning process of a mentee, due to that, a proper mentoring relationship must always maintain in a good condition in order to gain respect from mentees and efficiency of learning and completing a task scope.

2.2 Models of leadership

Different leaders have different leadership style and behaviour, where it is discuss in different types of leadership models by several researches. In this report, the leadership model is going to discuss is John Adair’s action-centred leadership model.

For an organization, John Adair’s model is the simplest model to carry out leadership presentation. This model is suitable for leadership and management of any team, group or organization. In this mode, it included the term of task – team – individual.

Achieving the



for the




Developing the


Figure 1.1: Action Centred Leadership model

Source: Effective Leadership, John Adair (1983)

An effective leader should fulfil three of the obligation that shown in the action centred leadership model. In an organization who holding the position as a leader should be responsibilities on achieving the task-team-individual model. It is helpful on maintain good condition of the company and the environment around subordinates. Responsibilities of a leader in order to achieve the task, leader has to defined the task, provide a clear vision, plan and allocating the resources such as set a deadline for the task as well as controlling and monitoring are in well progress. Secondly, as in a group, team building is very important. Leader should able to communicate well, setting standards and able to manage the conflict within the group. Finally, responsibilities as an individual, leader has to taking part on doing the task together, motivation as in able to gain more confidence, accept any feedback from subordinates and able to get respected.

(Alan Chapman, 2001)

2.3 Values and Ethics of Leadership and Mentoring

Values and ethics are important aspects in an individual personality. Referring to Lisa Murton Beets (2006), values and ethics showing by a leader will reflect an organization’s culture, due to that, leaders should always increase awareness on individual presentation. Individual moral personality should have either for leader or mentor. Besides that, according to Toor and Ofori (2009), leader or mentor should always involve in the task to lead or guide and consult others, yet, it must be beneficial to other but not leader or mentor. Further, leader or mentor should avoid situation that may hurt others people such as scolding in front public where may cause lost of confidence to themselves. However, leader or mentor should always praise followers, subordinates or protégé in order to have a comfort working environment and maintain a good relationship between each others.

3.0 Characteristics of Effective Leader

In a country, organization, society, or a group of people on doing a project, there must be a leader to lead those followers to achieve their goals. Leader is a person who influences other people to work using their capabilities to accomplish the goals that has been set. Therefore, it is important that a leader carry out their responsibility to ensure the effectiveness of their leadership skill to conduct a group of people in order to complete their task.

To be an effective leader, there must be fulfilling several characteristics. First of all, a leader must be a good communicator (Self improvement mentor.com, 2009). Communication between leader and followers is important where it can avoid misunderstanding between each other, comfortable of subordinates while working and others. A good leader not only to conduct a group to complete their task, however, leader must able to communicate with followers in order to make them work comfortable on their position. Leaders must use an easy and clear instruction to giving out the significant information to avoid uncertainty barriers while completing the project. For example, the language that using to communicate, the ways of talking with others must be in a proper way and easy let followers receive and respond on it. So, both of leader and follower must able to understand each other conversation and giving feedback.

Secondly, decision maker (Self improvement mentor.com, 2009) also is one of the characteristics for a leader to lead followers or subordinates in a correct path way. Decision making is very significant on doing and complete a task. If there’s a wrong decision has been makes, therefore, a whole group of people could receiving a wrong information and unable to achieve the goals that set by company. For example, when a company facing a slightly loss in end of the month. As a leader of a company, a right decision making on carry out a proper strategy to solve the problem and lead the subordinate to work harder and bringing back the company to a correct direction. Thus, a leader must have the capability of making right decision in particular situation such as choosing a correct strategy to complete the task.

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A part from that, self-confidence (online youtube source) of a leader should be included in the characteristic of effective leader. A leader should always have a great idea, creativity, different type of thinking than other people for the project, in addition, leader must able to giving out opinion or feedback on those ideas came from subordinates as well. For example, a leader of a project has to show up confidence on the ideas, creativity and others to provide a clear feature to a group of people in order to accomplish the project’s goals. Hence, it is important that leaders showing their confidence to followers, so, the words out from a leader could be more convincing to other people and makes the followers work willingly to complete the task.

Another characteristic of effective leader is lead by example (Self improvement mentor.com, 2009). Normally subordinates would take leader as an example for themselves. That means, everything done by leader could reflected to followers. As an example, if a leader in an organization using the position power to take a small smoke break, it could reflect to subordinates and might be follow by them. Consequently, leader should have a good role model shows to followers, and therefore, subordinates would giving a respect and high expectation to leader.

Moreover, leader who knows to correct and knows how to accept correct (online youtube source) also is one of the components of effective leader. Knows to correct means, leader should correct the mistake of the followers in a proper way. Leader could not lose temper or upset while correcting subordinates. For example, leaders have to aware non-verbal communication such like scolding followers when correcting the mistakes. Conversely, knows how to accept correct means, leader should be respect and accept the correction that makes by followers. Even leader should have to know apologize when making a mistake. Further, there might be some subordinates has more experience than a leader, so, leader has to accept the correction and learn from it. It would result to a respect from others people.

3.1 Characteristics of Effective Mentor

On the other hand, mentor can be defined as an experience person who teach and guide another person who less experience on certain field such as, teachers and students, or experience employees and less experience peer. In an organization or society, mentors also playing a significant role to guide or help other people who lack of experience on doing their task or project. So, mentors must have few years more experiences than mentee which could help and provide them a correct information and instruction.

A good and effective mentor must have enclosed several characteristics. Firstly, mentor must have particular knowledge and skills (W. Angie and K. Premkumar) and and which related to the field. In an organization, the mentors should be familiar with the structure and the culture of the company, so, these could easy to guide and help other people who lack of experience in the organization. Which means that, mentors of the company should be had experiences of few years and clearly knows about the field and the norms of the company. Besides, mentor should always update the technologies, knowledge, skills, and the current issue of company as well as outsider world.

In addition, the willingness of mentor (W. Angie and K. Premkumar) also is one of the characteristics of effective mentor. The willingness of helping others and the willingness of time commitment are very important for a mentor. Spending time on someone as well as helping and guiding the person to achieve the goals are a responsibility of a mentor. Besides, providing feedback also must be done by a mentor where mentee able to obtain the result of the performance. Therefore, as an effective mentor, time management must be efficient where can due to sufficient time for mentee.

Values of patience and tolerance (Susan M. Heathfield, 2010) also are a significant characteristic of effective mentor. Mentee is a person who lack of experience and might always make mistakes on performance. Different people have different learning level, so, mentor should have the value of patience while guiding mentee. Moreover, mentor should be tolerance while mentee making mistake and accept mentee’s weaknesses. It is because a mistake can be considered as a chance which allows mentee to learn from mistake. So, the moral values must always show up by mentor in order to help mentee complete the task.

Furthermore, mentors should always give encouragement (Susan M. Heathfield, 2010) to mentees and always concern on mentees’ performance in order to build up a high confidence to mentees. If a person lack of confidence on performing the task, it could lead to fail of performing and fail of achieve the goals. So, mentors should provide a proper encouragement in a right time to allow mentees on building up a good self-esteem and self-confidence. Result, mentees might able to performance well for the project.

As a conclusion, leaders and mentors also playing a significant role in an organization, society, or others form of group. Leaders are to lead followers to achieve the goals that have been set, however, mentors is to help, guide, and set the goals to let mentees to achieve it. So, in order to accomplish the goals, leaders and mentors should carry out the characteristic of being effective leaders or mentors to help and lead other people complete the tasks. Respecting each other, communication well, concern and tolerance, as well as others moral values are some of the important components that should have for a leader or a mentor.

4.0 Aspects of Researcher’s Potential to Lead Followers

Based on researcher’s experienced when secondary school, researcher has been chosen to be a leader of scout. Scout is a society which involved in worldwide and with the main objective of supporting people on their physical, mental, and spiritual development. Scout is playing an important role on this society world, therefore, as a part of scout members have to always help others no matter on the different of races, religion, or ages of the person. There have many activities included in scout society such as camping, hiking, jungle tracking, woodcraft, and others.

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On researcher’s few years experienced on being a leader of scouting, researcher had gain many knowledge and skills to be an effective and good leader. Scout included many members inside where a leader have to be tolerant and patience while conduct a group of people. When a leader lost tempered and scolding in front other people, members could be scared and feel uncomfortable on joining this society. As the aim of scout is have to supporting young people, due to that, leading with a moral value character is the most important rules for a leader.

Furthermore, scouts mostly include outdoor activities for members. Researcher had attended many kind of camping while being a leader. There will be met up of others school’s scout members or even international scout members. So, able to socialize with other people is another major factors to be an effective leader. Proper social with other members showing out a friendly side of researcher individual and gain respect and heart from them would be smooth movement while joining those activities. Researcher, as a leader which represents a state has to communicate well, paying attention and concern with researcher’s followers. Beside, socialize with others leaders and members could help to increase the skills and knowledge to be a good leader.

In the camping activities such as learning fist aid skills, woodcraft, tracking and others, researcher was a team leader. All of these have to carry out a team work value among each other in order to successful complete the activities. Besides, researcher has to involve personal in the activities and build up a good team work condition with other members. Even though it separate to a small group of people in those activities, since every person having different types of knowledge and skills, so, team work still important for them in order to exchange knowledge and skills among each others. Additionally, a leader would not be perfect in all the areas, researcher might has certain part could lack of knowledge or skills. So, involving individual to taking part on those activities enable researcher to learn and gain more knowledge. Also, researcher able to manage conflict among group could bring out a better learning environment for followers.

Furthermore, researcher always gives out challenge for followers to train their discipline, confidence, and moral values of followers. Those aspects are significant and useful for followers from time to time. Being a good leader should train followers to be an excellent person where can helps society world in future. Challenge such as creating a marching formation, woodcraft and others where it needs creativity of an individual and skills that had learnt. Researcher has to explain clearly on the mission, rules that followers have to follow, deadline and others for followers. For example, researcher gives out a challenge of creating a marching formation using team creativity and performance it after. Followers must be done on time and perform well after. Even though it is a challenge for them, yet, researcher as a leader have needs to lead and guide them and support as well as provide feedback in a proper way which enable followers to get more confidence.

Researcher, a leader of scout team always being an example for others, thus, researcher has to be the first who discipline own self, being confidence and motivated in front followers. Where the character and attitude of researcher might influence followers, due to that, an effective leader has to motivate own self always be the first line and as a good example in front others. In addition, based on the experienced that gain from there, researcher has always treating fairly to every individual person in the team. While a person did wrongly and should be penalty, or a person did well in particular performance, researcher should give fairly treated to them. Researcher could not didn’t penalty due to the follower is close friend to researcher or didn’t praise and reward person who doing well performance in that team.

As a conclusion, followers are a significant asset for any society, organization, association or others to being success and achieve the mission. Due to that, researcher should have good moral value on own character, always concern on followers needs, be motivated and motivate followers on gaining confidence. Respect each other, treated fairly, being a good shadow to followers and providing feedback as well as accept any feedback from followers to have a stable and unchangeable good relationship with followers. All of these are the main aspects to being an effective and efficient leader.

5.0 Conclusion

People who holding high level management position in an organization should have a good leadership skill in order to accomplish the mission and goals of the company, well leadership to followers have to widely use. Furthermore, problems always occur either on organization performance or co-worker in a company, thus, leaders have to enclose an efficient thinking, making a correct decision to solve the trouble of company and conflict among employees or followers. Additionally, mentors have to consult one or more person who lack of experienced using their mentoring skills. Helping and guiding mentees could gain back the confidence of mentees and providing feedback for them is a way for them to learn more from their mistake and performance.

As a conclusion, leader and mentor have responsibilities to their followers or mentees to maintain good condition of a company. Providing a good working environment for subordinates is the main factor to building up good relationship among each others. Therefore, the willingness on helping and guiding them could be useful and comfortable on learning for subordinates.

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