Discussing Database Management Systems E Business Information Technology Essay

Software systems or computer software which is used to create, modify, maintain, & provide controlled access to user database. According to Mullins, 2002 “It enables end users 7 application programmes to share data, it enables data to be shared among multiple applications rather than propagated & stored in new files for every new applications.”

For e.g. Online banking systems uses database management systems, Big hospitals uses database management systems to keep the track record of their patients details, their history etc.

Database management systems based on the variety of models of distribution architectures such as the widely used Client/Server architecture and centralized architecture among others as also the database models such as Relational Model and the XML Model etc.

First DBMS systems were used for primary for large & complex ventures such as Apollo moon landing projects. Such operations were too expensive to contemplate anyway, as in that era most data was stored on magnetic tape

1970s Relational DBMS

During this decade DBMS became a commercial reality. The hierarchical & network database systems were developed they are generally regarded as first generation DBMS. They are still widely used. But have limitation, like difficulty in accessing to data, very limited data independence, not widely accepted.


E.F.Codd & others developed the relational data model during the 1970. This was second generation DBMS. With relational model all data were represented in form of tables. This has widespread commercial acceptance diffused throughout the business world in 1980s. SQL is the fourth generation language which is used for data retrieval.

1990s Object oriented database.

This decade was the new era of computing, first with client/server, data warehousing & internet application which became increasingly important.

Largely structured, multimedia data became increasingly common during the 1990s. Both relational & object oriented database are still of great importance.

2000 & Beyond.

The ability to manage increasingly complex data. Multidimensional data considerably importance in data warehouse application.

Development of “universal servers” based on object relational DBMS. Especially important to internet application.

Fully distributed database became a reality, centralization of database will continue. The lower cost of high performance computing also encourages centralization.

Content-addressable storage will become more popular. User can retrieve data by specifying the data they desire. For e.g. a user can query any detail in Google site & can have the computer search for the closest match to that photo.

Working on developing data mining algorithms that scale to handle very large data sets which help to analyze data efficiently. Improving abilities to discern patterns, trends, correlation about customers, employees, products & suppliers will influence strategic decision making by organisation.

The proliferation of the PDAS will lead to improved synchronization of small databases & improvement of wireless transmission.

The use of web services will become more widespread as reliable XML web services more available.


Function of Database management systems.

There are several functions that a DBMS performs to ensure data integrity and consistency of data in the database.

Data dictionary management:

Data Dictionary is where the DBMS stores definitions of the data elements and their relationships (metadata). The DBMS uses this function to look up the required data component structures and relationships

Data storage management:

This particular function is used for the storage of data and any related data entry forms or screen definitions, report definitions, data validation rules, procedural code, and structures that can handle video and picture formats

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Security management:

This is one of the most important functions in the DBMS. Security management sets rules that determine specific users that are allowed to access the database

Multiuser access control,

Multiuser access control is a very useful tool in a DBMS, it enables multiple users to access the database simultaneously without affecting the integrity of the database.

Backup and recovery management:

Backup and recovery is brought to mind whenever there is potential outside threats to a database. Backup management refers to the data safety and integrity; for example backing up all your mp3 files on a disk.

Data integrity management,

The DBMS enforces these rules to reduce things such as data redundancy, which is when data is stored in more than one place unnecessarily, and maximizing data consistency, making sure database is returning correct/same answer each time for same question asked.

Database access languages & application programming interfaces:

A query language is a nonprocedural language. An example of this is SQL (structured query language). SQL is the most common query language supported by the majority of DBMS vendors. The use of this language makes it easy for user to specify what they want done without the headache of explaining how to specifically do it

Database communication interfaces:

This refers to how a DBMS can accept different end user requests through different network environments. An example of this Can be easily related to the internet. A DBMS can provide access to the database using the Internet through Web Browsers (Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Netscape).


Types of Database Management Systems:

Database management has become important part of every company that has got data to be managed & handled. There are two types of database.

Server database.

Desktop database.

Advantages of Database management systems:

Controls Data redundancy


Improved data integrity

Easy to access data and maintain it

Provides backup & recover services

Increase in productivity & concurrency

Disadvantages of database management systems:

Maintain data are Complex

Maintaining the database systems are very costly, for e.g. the server database is mainly connected with multiuser application & have greater reliability & data consistency. It is costlier than desk top database & operates on high performance servers.

There is high risk of failure.




According to IBM (www.ibm.com/e-business) “e-business (e’biz’Nis) – the transformation of key business processes through the use of Internet technologies”. The key business processes referred to in the IBM definitions are the organizational processes. They include research and development, marketing, manufacturing and inbound and outbound logistics.

Louis Gerstner, the former CEO of IBM, in his book, Who Says Elephants Can’t Dance? Attributes the term “e-Business” to IBM’s marketing and Internet teams in 1996.

Stiller A (2003) related that Sussis (2000) an e-commerce consultant, stated that “as businesses move into significant e-businesses, good planning strategies, design and implementation becomes more and more essential.”

E-business (electronic business), derived from such terms as “e-mail” and “e-commerce,” is the conduct of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners. Today, major corporations are rethinking their businesses in terms of the Internet and its new culture and capabilities. Companies are using the Web to buy parts and supplies from other companies, to collaborate on sales promotions, and to do joint research. E-business can be conducted using the Web, the Internet, intranets, extranets, or some combination of these.

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E-Business will impact business process, technology and organizational structure

E-Business opportunities exist in:

– Sales & Marketing

– Product Development

– Supply Chain Management & Procurement

– Support Processes & People Enablement

For example Amazon (www.amazon.com) and eBay (www.ebay.com) are the world’s two biggest e-businesses.

Types of e-business or e-commerce:

B2B (business to business) – business communications with other businesses like the direct placement of purchase orders.

B2C (business to consumer) – business communications with consumers through sales completed from a business website (e-commerce) or a regular newsletter.

B2G (business to government) – business communications with government like online taxation lodgements.

P2P technology enables internet users to share files & computer resources.

Music & file sharing services such as Gnutella are the prime examples of this type of e-commerce.

M-commerce involves the use of wireless digital devices to enable the transaction on the web.


Benefits/Advantages of E-Business:

Business whether small or big are using the internet in their own ways. To work with partners and suppliers, for procurement, for internal activities such as knowledge sharing and new product development, and much more. Companies such as United Technologies, J. Sainsbury, General Electric and many others are reporting benefits from the use of the Internet. These benefits include:

improved speed of response;

cost savings;

improved communications, information and knowledge sharing;

reductions in inventory;

improved efficiency and productivity;

harmonisation and standardisation of procedures;

better transfer of best practices;

acquisition of new customers and increased sales;

improved customer service

Removes Location and Availability Restrictions

Reduces Time and Money Spent



Barriers to E-business:

Security & encryption;

Trust & risk;

Lack of qualified personal;

Lack of business models;


Legal Issues;

Fraud & risk of loss;

Internet/web is too slow & not dependable.

Constantly change in technology, which is always costly.

{Source by: Veljko Milutinović, Frédéric Patricelli (2002) E-business and e-challenges; IOS PRESS; page 10}



Every big or small organization is now trying their hands on DBMs to remain competitive in their respective fields. Every organisation which is big or at its starting stage wants to have their own DBMs as they don’t want themselves to be left behind. To function in an e-business environment, an organization has to have a good command of knowledge on its markets, customers, products and services, methods and processes, competitors, employee skills and its regulatory environment.

The term E-business is used in two main ways within organizations.

The first is as a concept which can be applied to strategy and operations.

Secondly E-business is used as an adjective to describe businesses that mainly operate online, i.e. they have no physical presence on the high-streets and seek to minimize customer-service and support through enabling ‘web self-service’.

Educational institution, public & government organisation, private enterprises which require large databases to store information’s are using DBMs in their business.

Every day some or the other organisation is building database application or re-constructing the older version, for making these application there are two ways; Microsoft products such as .net platform or Visual BASIC with an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver connected to SQL Server & the other is JSP/Java Server with a JDBC driver in DBMSs such as Oracle or IBM DB2 on the Unix, Linux and Windows platforms.

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Sabre airline reservation system was introduced in 1964 which was the first large scale DMBs for airline industry. Both airline & travelling agents depends on sabre & other reservation systems like Apollo. These database contain information about flight & seats of most commercial airlines, permitting co-ordination of reservation. Now days every airline company has their own database where they do lot of work. Database helps their customers to book their itineraries & fares. It has became lot easy for the customers to sit in the comfort of home & enjoy the services. These databases help the airline industry to grow & doubling their profits.

DBMS is important to the operations of e-Business because it provides the organisation with the tools to make relevant and concrete decisions concerning the business. With a touch of button, hundreds of data stored in its database about a transaction, product or customer can be extracted, viewed, or amended The DBMS

enables the e-Business to reduce waste in that majority of the traditional approach of doing business in the file-based era has been reduced.

For e.g. in customer service industry the DBMs helps them to maintain the records & information about the customers. For instance all banks have online & telephone banking services provided for their customers as they keep & track every record every minute details of the customers.

Database management systems are widely used by the information technology & in computer manufacturing business, the DBMs help them in understanding their customers need like in some website of a computer manufacturing companies we can virtually customize or make changes in laptops we can purchase & make payments online & get our laptops within couple of days.


In today’s world e-business is extremely important for many reasons. Some of which is due to the fact it can speed the whole process of ordering etc. up. This then means that the lead time can be decreased because the ordering of products can be done much more quickly, particularly because the Internet is a fast running wide area network. The Internet has completely reshaped customer relationships. The transformation began with the dot-com boom, which spawned a new type of company whose entire business model was predicated on Web acceptance and usage. These companies — Yahoo (Nasdaq: YHOO), Amazon (Nasdaq: AMZN), eBay (Nasdaq: EBAY) and Google (Nasdaq: GOOG) — took advantage of the Web in all aspects of their business. Soon, traditional “brick-and-mortar” enterprises realized that to survive, they too had to satisfy customer expectations to procure goods and services over the Internet.

e-business has been benefited by DBMs a lot. But a lot work has to be done in developing more database application which are more user friendly, analytical & practical. Lot of work has to be done in security issues of this e-business organisation as they have lot of personal information regarding their customers, to eliminate the fraud which is easily done by the hackers as they have access to these databases or can break the access codes & use the valuable information.

Up gradation of the databases websites should be always done so that these e-businesses would attract lot of customers.

E-business is the future of all the organisation, as the world is get closer so does the business, to stay in the competition companies must adapt to new technologies.

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