E Servicescapes On Hotel Website Information Technology Essay
Last chapter, the background research has been mention and present. This study is focus on testing the e-serviscapes dimension on a hotel website. Few studies on e-servicescapes have been noticed in industry and organization. One of the example is E-servicescapes of B&B website . The reserch has attempted to examine the dimension of e-servicescapes as antecedents of perceived e-servicescape quality of B&B website . Jeon & Jeong (2009) are also attempt to measure e-servicescapes qualities of B&B website and investigates dimensions of the e-servicescapes most influence customer decision making. Regarding to the research above, this study is testing the e-servicescapes dimension on the intention of using hotel website by applying the past research conceptual framework. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the related issues within the e-servicesapes on a hotel website. In order to gain a clearer and better understanding, it is definitely to explore the related literature regarding the e-servicesape. Following that, the key aspects of this review is to measure the dependent variable which is the intention of internet browser to browse hotel website. The literature review is focused on the theoretical definition and empirical studies in regards to the areas. Servicescapes has used in the development of e-servicescapes framework. In this chapter, related theory and variables will be further explained.
For your information, servicescape is known as the physical environment of an organization in several different elements such as overall layout, design and décor . Bitner (1992) define servicescapes as a service packages by categorize it in three environmental dimensions, which are ambient conditions, space or function, and sign, symbols, and artifacts. First of all, ambient conditions are sensory elements which consist of temperature, air quality, noise, music, light, smell, color and so on . Next, space or function are refers to layout equipment, furnishings and others items arrangement and functionality . Sign, symbol and artifact are means to be signage, personal artifacts, style of decoration and so on . These environmental dimensions or we shall say physical elements will give impact on customers and employees. Hence leads to internal responses in cognitive, emotional, and physiological . Due to the impacts given by environmental dimensions, customers and employees behavior will be influence in order to approach or avoid certain product or service . Typology of service organizations based on variations in form and usage of the servicescape are able to categorize in three types, self service, interpersonal services, and remote services .
Hotel is one of interpersonal services which include both customer and employee. As the standards of lifestyle increasing, applying servicescapes in hotel services is important. Hotel as a service organization who developing with servicescape, it is actually enhance customer satisfaction and increase in repeat business . According to Kandampully & Suhartanoto (2000) research, company’s image contributes value addition and increases the customer satisfaction towards the product and service provided by the company. Customer satisfaction and company image are positively related to customer loyalty . A positive perceived in cognition, emotion, and physiological will leads to positive approach behavior . Hence, an intention for customer to continuously utilize service and product of hotel will occur.
2.3 E-servicescapes on hotel website
Nowadays, online retailing is steadily growth. Company or organization are adopting information technology to run business online as e-merchant . Base on the Jeon & Jeong (2009) study research, a framework had been built in previous study on servicescapes and customer relationships in service organization in physical setting and on the website environment . Figure 1 depicts is the framework for environmental dimensions affecting perceived e-servicescapes:
Adapted from: Jeon & Jeong (2009)
Figure 1: A framework for environmental dimensions affecting perceived e-servicescapes
The framework shows that the four environmental dimensions of e-servicescapes are ambient conditions, design aspects, search aids & slogans and functional aspects. In the context of e-servicescapes, these four dimensions will provide customers with communication cues . Perceived e-servicescapes quality and intention to use a B&B website were affected by the environmental dimensions of e-servicescapes .
The major vary between serviscapes and e-serviscapes is the physical and non-physical elements. Unlike servicescapes, e-servicescapes have no physical elements in Internet service environment . Dimensions between servicescapes and e-servicescapes might are similar in terms of definition, but is different in some characteristic in terms of environment . There were no physically interaction between customer and employees when service provided . In this modern area, service or sales that involve online or go through by website, the e-servicescapes may be the key factor in playing a role of representing company or organization to customers . By using internet, information provided from website is giving intangible benefits of interaction with websites . Internet also allow customer to have more choices in terms of service and product and giving opportunity to customer to compare price and features of relevant product and service through vary website .
In order to survive in competitive environment, hotel companies are increasingly adopt on having an electronic distribution partner which know as online travel agencies . According to Sullivan (2005) report analysis, internet users are increasingly using search engine to get information. Besides that, demand towards usage of search engine from different websites are increase as well . No matters from organization perspective or consumer perspective, developing a hotel website has become a trend or a must in order to optimize organization revenue and fulfill customer demands .
2.4 Independent Variables
2.4.1 Ambient conditions
Under servicescapes framework, ambient condition is one of the environmental dimension, it also known as one of the factor that affect human perception and respond towards environment . According to Bitner (1992), human five senses are mostly affected by ambient conditions which include background characteristic such as room temperature, lighting, noise, music, and scent. Sensory stimulation are greatly influence environments, enhance customer experience and change the nature behavior beyond human conscious . In e-servicescapes, ambient conditions influence customer perception by the website service environment . Background characteristic of website such as color, quality photos, virtual tour, music and animation effects are affecting people perceived towards the website .
One of the characteristic of ambient conditions, music has be tested in research study on the role of cognition and emotions in the music approach and avoidance behavior relationship . It is found that the service quality of the organization is rated according to the preference of music . Organization which is often playing customer preferable music are offer with higher rating . Hence, a suitable music applies on hotel website might leads to intention to use the website. Rather than that, customers also use to perceive certain subject base on appearance . Website design are important in acting as website appearance . The clarity and readability of text and size of fonts use to be important for appropriate visual presentation on website . A relevant research has shown that customer perceived company or personnel base on appearance . This result shows that people are use to have a lousy perception with not appropriate appearance . By applying the result in H.Dean (2010) study, it is obvious that quality photo and colors are playing an important role in hotel website to represent hotel image as well for the first good impression to have customer’s intention for further browse hotel website.
Animation or virtual tour is effective in presenting information towards people . Byrne et al. (1999) state that use of picture and animations are commonly accepted. Animations appears better in presenting information . A research on dyslexia people on educating with animation has shoes that animation did a better job in presenting information . All the research above has one common which is the animation, high quality picture and website design are effective in presenting information. In short, all the background characteristic of ambient conditions is important in create intention of user to use hotel website.
2.4.2 Design Aspect
Service environment are purposeful environments because it fulfill consumer needs through employee actions . Base on what have study by Bitner (1992), spatial layout are refers to the arrangement, size and shape of item such as machinery, equipment and furnishings. Functionality are the ability of the item to perform and accomplish goal . Design aspect of website is view as overall structure of the ages, layout, space and the navigational functions . Poorly design website are not able to hold customer intention to surf on it . It had been claims that website design is directly influence in turning a web browser to customer . Web user’s attention is hardly to get to hold on a webpage in longer time. In order to grab web user’s attention for longer period, it is suggested that home page should be relatively simple, clean and clear content, and hit to the point since users are not sure whether they are at the right website to obtain the information they wanted .
Information overload in one page will lead to delay in viewing a home page and leads to dissatisfaction of web users . However, too little information or too simple in a web page might not able to include important content of the website . Therefore, website designer feels that it is important to be balance in website layout distribution and have to be self content in over all structure . Sum, design aspect of website in terms of layout and space usage is important in holding web user’s attention.
2.4.3 Search aids and Slogans
According to Bitner (1992) research, sign, symbols, and artifacts are serving as explicit and implicit signal to communicate with users. They can also as labels for directional purposes and to communicate with the rule of behavior . Signage helps in playing an important part in communicating firm image to customer . For example, a well known hotel are usually been recognize by the customer with company logo or symbol. Under servicescapes perspective, these symbol and artifacts can be use to create awareness in customer mind . In online perspective, some of the features of Bitner (1992) are useful in creating awareness in company website, such as company logo and slogans. Geissler (2001) research is supporting Bitner (1992) that symbol and logo of the company manage to create customer awareness.
However, due to the absence of physical environment in e-servicescape, keywords or slogan use in search aids are replace the function of signage to help customer to locate hotel website . In search engine, meta-tag are been use to help in locate website by using pop up technique . Meta-tag are useful when come to indexing, search engines use meta-tag to locate information . A past research evaluated the effectiveness of meta-tag on the improvement of data retrieval on the World Wide Web and the results shows that the keyword meta-tag did improve information retrieval . Meta-tag are also have improved the rank of the selected articles among retrieved results of information . Base on Geissler (2001) research study, it is believed that using keywords in search aids is speeding up customer in locate relevant website. Besides using keywords, catchy phrases will draw internet browser’s attention on websites as well rather than using plain text . Keywords are use to locate website easily by using search engines and meta-tag. Therefore, search aids and slogan are important in hotel website in the purpose of explored itself widely in the internet for being easily located by customer. Awareness created by implementing search aids and slogan dimension will be able to grab customer intention in using website.
2.4.4 Functional Dimension
The functional aspect of a website will affect customer perception towards website and intention on browsing it . Website is been recognize as a convenient, low cost and easy accessible by every medium . Accessibility