Eco-Translatoloty: English Translation of Chinese Classics
Study on the Development of English Translation of Chinese Classics from the perspective of Eco-translatology
Keywords: Ecological Translation Studies, the Chinese classics, translation, traditional culture, development trend.
Abstract. Eco translation studies is the use of ecological rationality, from the perspective of ecological integrity of research conducted overview of translation. Ecological Studies on translation and cultural tradition of literary translation and translation studies doctrine itself poses a challenge. It digestion for the translation of the selection process anthropocentric mindset, and construction of a new paradigm, according to this paradigm or principle, the translation of the selection is not based on their own subjective likes and dislikes translator , but rather it should be based on self-selected text translatability. This should ensure that translation studies as a scientific discipline basic premise. As a sub-discipline of translation studies, translation studies has its own ecological characteristics: both to the translation of the excavations carried out in order to peruse its translatability in the process of translation should be possible to preserve the original text in the target language of ecology balance.
From the 1990s, translation studies teaching model has been more and more attention of scholars parties. But the current translation teaching mode mostly from translation theory and educational theory in two directions, from the overall concept and the system cannot analyze the concept of the existing problems.
In today’s era of globalization, with increasingly frequent cultural exchanges among peoples, the role of translation has become more and more indispensable. Thus the study of translation will no doubt be referred to the academic research agenda. Translation Studies, Translation Studies or, after having gone through cultural shift will be where development has become a common problem of domestic and international translation researchers think. In the past few years, through the joint efforts of scholars, or Translation Studies Translation Studies has made great progress, which finally established his position in the territory of discipline, but is moving in a relatively independent and mature Humanities and Social Sciences branch of the direction of development. Ecological translation studies should be regarded as a branch of translation studies.
Translation Studies ecological ecology theory and criticism along with methods other scholars in literature is being translated rise, it is strongly traditional literary and cultural translation and translation studies doctrine itself poses a challenge. But in the contemporary translation studies, there is still a considerable number of scholars of this branch of the significance and vitality skeptical. Given the ecological Translation Studies research in fact already exists in the practice of translation studies, and therefore the relationship between ecological research or ecological criticism of this paper is to explore ecological translation studies and literature.
Ecological translation studies started in 2001 is in full swing in 2009. This is a gradual process. If our system of discourse constructed as an output result of this process, then the result is bound to have its occurrence, the basis for development, the premise and conditions, etc.
Consequently, many students believe that translation can only teach courses probably do not even trust the ability of teachers in translation. The new school was to explore ecological Translation Translation Teaching Model provides a new perspective. State translation theory as the basic principles and ideas of the guidance based on Darwinian “adaptation / selection” and proposed “Translation as Adaptation and Selection”, not only to emphasize the ecological integrity of the entire system of translation, also re-interpretation of the “nature of translation, process and methods a series of translation phenomena.” Ecological Translation Studies believes that the use of traditional translation teaching translation skills to translate the lack of practice relevance, the translator should pay attention to the text which the translation environment, in order to adapt to the ecological environment to make a dynamic selection of different degrees, such as cultural texts, authors, readers and other mutual interaction between ecological subsystems, therefore, teachers improve students’ language skills at the same time, but also to strengthen the cultural, religious, social and historical background of knowledge and understanding to do the translation between the various sub-ecosystems integrity and relevance, so as to make the translation theory and techniques to explain and use have a reasonable explanation.
The Proposed Methodology
Ecological Paradigm.Paradigm is a big concept. It is related to the specific field of study in a large “direction” and big “principle” is a way to study the overall concept or research mode, embodies value judgments and research methods.
Ecological Studies repeatedly to locate its translation “paradigm.” Translation Studies in the field of ecology, said from the perspective of ecology explore Translation Theory “ecological paradigm” is gradually taking shape, and has been more and more recognition. The main sign is that many scholars in the study of basic concepts related issues, value judgments, research methods, and conclusions as well as the terms used are all pointing to essentially incorporate ecological Approach to Translation Theory.
These aggregates ecological Translation Studies “Community” in recognition of Ecological translation researchers learn basic description translation, Translation Studies accepted guidelines for eco-translation studies, translation studies follow the research methods of ecological overall relevance, and their performing specific the study also used a common problem of the ecological value of the standard translation studies. These studies have not isolated, single case studies, and can be seen as joint research agreement under ecological Translation Theory “Paradigm”.
Incidence order chain.Highlights associated chain sequence is: Given Translation is language, and language is part of culture; culture is the accumulation of human activity, and humanity is part of nature.
Associated sequence chain reflects the expansion of horizons of human cognition and rational base path of progress, it is consistent with the basic laws of human cognitive evolution, both interactive and progressive nature of the feature, it can be said outlines progressive visual field of human cognition logical sequence and points to the inherent mechanism derived exhibition. The focus of translation studies from the translation itself to language, culture, human ecology, it has also been constantly repeated, interactive, just reflect this trend and its characteristics. We can see the interconnections between nature and biological translation, as well as the basic characteristics of the natural ecosystem and human social interaction common system.
Ecological rationality.The so-called holistic / association, is to follow a rational ecology, the study of translation ecosystem, not just limited to the isolation of a sub-ecosystems (such as translation body ecosystems), or some stakeholders (such as translation activities funders) from an ecological rational perspective, the relevance and the need to take care of the integrity between different ecosystems.
The so-called dynamic stress / balance, is to follow a rational ecology, the study of translation ecosystem, through the translation between the main object of attention, interaction translation subject and its external ecological environment influence each other, forming a translation of ecological interdependence homeostasis system.
The so-called reflect the aesthetics, ecological rationality is to follow, the study of translation ecosystem, in the process of translation studies, both macro-level or micro level, has been the pursuit of aesthetic principles. Ecological rationality above has important guiding significance to build eco-system of translation studies discourse. I also believe there will be more and more rational use of theoretical ecology and applied translation studies translation studies.
Translator center.One of the fundamental problems of translation theory is how to describe and explain the translator in the role. The importance of the translator in the translation process, but also makes the study of this issue has become an eternal topic translation industry.
Ecological Translation Studies is the relationship between the translator and the translation environment. On the translator, he/she is an independent body, throughout the translation must be completed by the translator and the leading role of the consciousness. Translator in the different languages â€‹â€‹and different cultures interacting forces interaction point, both the main body of the translation process, and is the cornerstone in Translation can be performed.
Ecological Translation Studies believes that the translator is the sum of all translation process “Contradictions”. “Translator centric” concept to translate living, emotional, creative translator to the translation theory of reception, so that translation theory based on real, concrete basis translator, “Translator centric” concept proposed translation help make the Translator Studies “research radius” has been extended, and the theoretical level it has improved; the same time, the translator of self-respect, self-discipline and their own quality the increase also promoted.
This orientation to the translator and the translator for the ultimate care of translation theory, its advantages become increasingly evident, so that aspect of the case studies translators centers, leading translator, translator subjects, etc. continued.
Classics generation.Classics is the result of academic development, ideology and culture is a historical process evolving. In the long course of development, which includes at least three interdependent aspects: First, the spirit of thought; the second is to preserve the spirit of symbolic thought, that language; third shell material according to the language, such as paper and the like. Thing to do is to translate the spirit of ideological conversion from one language to another language, the language of its external form, internal texture is spiritual, ideological, cultural, and therefore not only to study the language translation conversion, but also the study of language TCEs after conversion.
China is a country attaches great importance to the traditional history, resulting in a lot of history books, with excellent historical tradition. Dynasties will learn from the experience of the rise and fall of dynasties, learn, learn from history, past serve the present. History in China is a big subject, research has deep historical roots.
Chinese culture of Confucianism and Taoism on Chinese people’s social life norms and spirit of the character played a significant role, its influence has never been interrupted, undoubtedly belongs to Chinese cultural classics in the central part, which belongs to China thinking class books. Chinese literature is a big country, rich literature, which basically reflects the spirit of Confucianism and Taoism, Buddhism or even thought can be said that Chinese literature is a concrete manifestation of Chinese thought and culture, so Chinese literature or Literature Classics is also an important part of Chinese culture classics. Translation in Chinese cultural classics of the 19th century, these two books translated into most English speakers, this study focused on Chinese thought and literature class books classics into English. Although it is a part of Chinese culture classics of science and technology, pharmaceutical, and other books geography class.
Classics in Translation. Translation history to be able to provide a reference for contemporary translations, is learning from history, past serve the present, get past today play a role in the translation, so translators more than a reference current. In the such a purpose, this study will be noted in the description of translation of the language level, which is the translation of the operational level, focusing on comparison between the original and the translation, focusing on translation of key terms, as well as the important passages back into Chinese to find a place between two languages and two cultures What changes, sum up experience and lessons learned for the moment Translator service; in the analysis will include more perspectives on translation and translators, readers and society, level exchanges between different cultures, and use them as research. Starting from the microscopic and macroscopic gradual transition to the two links to a comprehensive study together, and strive to the value of the 19th Century Chinese classics into English excavated.
Ecological translation.Translation mention ecological science, people may soon expect is currently in the field of literary criticism very active eco-criticism. Ecological Criticism is from the perspective of the ecological environment for critical interpretation and explanation of literary phenomena, which after nearly two decades of practice has been a gradual transition from a problem-oriented movement of a methodological guide to literary criticism methods. Institute of ecology, ecological literary criticism or pointing to the ecological environment is the theme of writing. Of course, there are various forms of writing, originality is divided into writing and variability writing or rewriting. We should acknowledge that across the boundaries of language translation is to use another language the original text rewritten or some form of rewriting, which it contains both creative ingredients, but with a reproducible composition.
Translation unlike creative writing, its anthropocentric consciousness will have a distinct deconstruction, then we engaged in translation studies should also take into account the translation has the opposite characteristics of deconstruction. It can be said, deconstructive ecological translation studies is that it ruthlessly digestion on the proposed translation of the selection process anthropocentric mindset, because for anthropocentric purposes, regardless of the text to be translated if the inherent translatability, as long as the translator would be happy to contribute to its reproduction in another language. In anthropocentric mindset, political and cultural enlightenment translation function is often inappropriate to play to a point where, as a consequence, its own laws also been destroyed.
Ecological principles of translation studies will be reflected in the restrictions on the role of the translator: the translator must respect the original internal ecological structure, by carefully reading and deep understanding of the original discovery of this inner translatable to achieve with the author and translator equal exchange and dialogue between the text.
In today’s cultural background, we emphasize that the translation should spread Chinese culture and literature in the world and make due contributions. Translation teaching mode ecological translation studies from the perspective into the teaching objectives, curriculum resources, translate the main object, and translate market demand and other factors, with more fresh content and a broader perspective. An empirical study of the Teaching of the above shows that the pattern of the information technology (interactive, virtual simulation capabilities and modern social networking tools) and translation teaching normalized integration can help students improve their translation ability, through the translation of language learning, but also through language learning the information they need. But, in this mode, how to improve the “workshop” cohesion and motivation, how to strengthen the supervision and guidance on how to improve students’ self-monitoring and self-control, how to render more effective ecological interactions it is possible further explore research questions.
1. Tymoczko, Maria. Translation in a postcolonial context: Early Irish literature in English translation. Routledge, 2016.
2. Jia, Sun. “A study of the conceptual metaphors in the representation of women in the Chinese novel the song of EV erlasting sorrow and the English translation.” (2015).
3. Maier, Giulio, et al. “The Complete Works of Gabrio Piola: Volume I Commented English Translation-English and Italian Edition.” (2014).
4. Cox, Laurence, and Alf Gunvald Nilsen. “Das Ende neoliberaler Hegemonie durch soziale Bewegungen?(English translation: Reading Neoliberalism as a Social Movement from Above).” Theorie und Praxis 2016 (2016): 98-105.
5. Shinde, Smita Rambhau. “A Socio-cultural Study of the Marathi Play in English Translation: with Reference to Satish Alekar’s Mahanirvan.” International Journal of Multifaceted and Multilingual Studies 3.1 (2016).