Effects of globalization on hospitality and tourism industry

In recent years, organizations in the hospitality and tourism industry have experienced a great deal of turmoil as the competitive forces within their industry have shifted under the weight of globalization. To survive, many companies must now build competitive advantage by relying on their employees to implement improved service delivery processes. Shifting travel markets, world-class competition, and escalating operating costs are forcing hospitality and tourism organizations to pay more attention than ever before to the needs and desires of their customers. This means that companies are having to find ways to become more responsive and create greater value for their customers.

The quality of an organizations service delivery hinges in part upon its people. How frontline personnel act has a determining influence on customers perceptions of service quality and, in turn, on the overall level of customer satisfaction. However, even employees who are not directly involved in serving the customer have an indirect impact on customer satisfaction by means of the backup support they provide to frontline staff. The important role employees play in the success of service organizations, human resource management has traditional been a weak link in the hospitality and tourism industry.


Explain the communication process and same common forms of communication use in hospitality and tourism industry.


Communication is perhaps the most important and most used of all skills in the hospitality and tourism industry. Managers spend the largest portion of their time in verbal or written communication with their employees, other managers, or outside parties. Frontline employees have frequent interaction with customers and other employees. Other staff member’s communicate among themselves, as well as with their managers, frontline employees, suppliers, and so on, to give and receive the information they need to perform their jobs.

Communication has been recognized as the means by which both people and the organization survive. When human beings lack the ability to cope with life, the source of the problem is often a lack of appropriate information. Incomplete and unorganized information places a heavy strain on the ability of people make sense out of their existence. Their performance of a job depends on having the necessary information, having the skills to do a job depends on the quality of communication during the skills acquisition period.

1.1: Verbal communication

Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. The oral communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the internet. Spoken conversation or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. The other type of verbal communication is written communication. Written communication can be either via snail mail, or email. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language.

1.2: Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication is such as facial expression, gestures, posture, and tone of voice is an important component of personal business interactions. Nonverbal communication can help a small business owner to get a message across, or to successful interpret a message received from another person. On the other hand, nonverbal communication can also send signals that interfere with the effective presentation or reception of message. Nonverbal communication is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture body language or posture, facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyle or even architecture, symbols and info graphics. Speech may also contain nonverbal elements knows as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of motion. However much of nonverbal communication process has focused on face-to-face interaction, where it can be classified into three principal areas and they are environmental conditions where communication takes place, the physical characteristics of the communicators, and behavior of communicators during interaction

1.3: Verbal VS Oral communication

Scholars in this field usually use a strict sense of the team verbal, meaning of or concerned with words, and do not use verbal communication as a synonym for oral or spoken communication. Thus, vocal sounds which are not considered to be words, such as a grunt, or singing a wordless note, are nonverbal. Sign languages and writing are generally understood as forms of verbal communication, as both make use of words although like speech, both may contain paralinguistic elements and often occur alongside nonverbal messages. Nonverbal communication can occur through any sensory channel sight, sounds, smell, touch or taste. Nonverbal communication is important as when we speak or listen, our attention is focused on words rather than body language. But our judgment includes both. An audience is simultaneously processing both verbal and nonverbal cues. Body movements are not usually positive or negative in and of themselves; rather, the situation and the message will determine the appraisal. Interaction of verbal and nonverbal communication. When communicating, nonverbal messages can interact with verbal messages in six ways and they are repeating, conflicting, complementing, substituting, regulating and accenting or moderating.

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1.4: Formal communication

Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time. Hence formal communication is stringent and rigid tone to it.

1.5: Informal communication

Informal communication includes instances of free unrestraint communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other. Informal communication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family. Informal communication does not have any rigid rules and guidelines.

1.6: Appearance

In oral forms of communication, the appearance of both the speaker and the surroundings are vital to the successful conveyance of a message. Whether we speaking to one person face to face or to a group in a meeting, personal appearance and the appearance of the surroundings covey nonverbal stimuli that affect attitudes even emotions toward the spoken words. For example, a speakers clothing, hairstyle, use of cosmetics, neatness, and stature may cause a listener to form impressions about her occupation, socioeconomic level, competence. Similarly, such details of the surroundings as room size, furnishings, decorations, lighting, and windows can affect a listeners attitudes toward the speaker and the message being presented. The importance of nonverbal clues in surroundings can be seen in the desire of business managers to have a corner office with a view rather than a cubicle in a crowded work area.

1.7: Body language

Body language, and particularly facial expressions, can provide important information that may not be contained in the verbal portion of the communication. Facial expressions are especially helpful as they may show hidden emotions that contradict verbal statements. For example, an employee may deny having knowledge of a problem, but also have a fearful expression and glance around guiltily. Other forms of body language that may provide communication clues include posture and gestures. For example, a manager who puts his feet up on the desk may convey an impression of status and confidence, while an employee who leans forward to listen may convey interest. Gestures can add emphasis and improve understanding when used sparingly, but the continual use of gestures can distract listeners and convey nervousness.

1.8: Sounds

Finally, the tone, rate, and volume of a speaker’s voice can convey different meanings, as can sounds like laughing, throat clearing, or humming. It is also important to note that perfume or other odors contribute to listener’s impressions, as does physical contact between the speaker and the listener. Silence, or the lack of sound, is a form of nonverbal communication as well. Silence can communicate a lack of understanding or even hard feelings in a face-to-face discussion.


Communication can take any of a wide variety of forms. However, verbal communication is the form that is relied upon most often by managers. To be an effective verbal communicator requires that one adhere to the two basic laws of communication and be skilled in supportive communication. Much communication at the group level is conducted in meetings. Hence, effective meeting skills go hand-in-hand with effective communication within workgroup and teams. Communication at the organizational level can occur either via formal or informal channels. Each of these channels has associated benefits and a drawback, thus which channel is best depends on a given situation. Of utmost importance at the organizational level is to ensure that both internal and external communication systems are working in a way that facilitates the free flow of vital information throughout all levels and functional areas of the company.


Motivation is the key to keeping performing continuously at the highest standards. How organization motivate their employees to excel at their jobs.

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A vital managerial function in any organization is to motivate employees. This is because motivation is inextricably linked to employee satisfaction and ensures employees consistently excel at their jobs. Motivation is especially important in the hospitality and tourism industry, where employee satisfaction and competence are key determinants of service quality. The definition of motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or certain behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. Education is motivated by desire for knowledge. Motivators can be anything from reward to coercion.

Motivation plays a major role in achieving high performance in the workplace, which is an important goal of management. However, just because an employee is motivated does not guarantee she or he will perform satisfactorily. Effective performance requires ability, direction, motivation, and support from the work environment. Therefore, changing the performance of workers is rather more complicated than just motivating.

In motivation they have two main kinds of motivation and they are intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal. It occurs when people are compelled to do something out of pleasure, importance, or desire. Extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors compel the person to do something. However, there are many theories and labels that serve as sub tittles to the definition of motivation. A common place that can see is the need to apply motivation, is in the work place. In the work place, we can see motivation play a key role in leadership success. A person unable to grasp motivation and apply it will not become or stay a leader.

To motivate the employees to excel at their job is the management have to identify what motivates the employees as each employees is likely to be motivated in different ways. For example is they might find that some employees are motivated when given praise for a job well done while others excel when given a bonus or a raise. Second is the management have hold contests that pit employees in one department against employees in another department or even between employees of the same department. Offer a fun reward for those who win the contest and the management also have to listen to the employees and let them know that management are there to support and to listen to them if they have a problem or concern. By listening to the employees, the management also will be able to assess their morale and whether they need motivation.

Fourth is the management must allow their employees to use new skills they have acquired. If an employee has learned a new skill or completed a training course, try our best to implement his new skill into his everyday responsibilities and keep the employees from becoming bored. The management should continually strive to ensure that their employees are being used to their full potential rather than under-using them, which can stress them out.

The management should be flexible with their employee’s specific roles within the company. While it is important that their employees fulfill the responsibilities defined in their job description, it is equally important to ensure that the employees are allowed to be creative and to contribute in ways that go beyond their job description and the management must offer positive feedback to employees who are doing a good job. Praise can often be a powerful motivator. The last motivate employees to excel at their jobs is stay focused on motivating their employees, so the management can ensure a high level of productivity from them. If the management notice that employees are starting to lag and lose their motivation, the managements must take action as soon as possible to re-motivate them.

In motivation they have seven type of motivation and they are achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, competence motivation, power motivation, attitude motivation, incentive motivation and fear motivation. Achievement motivation is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is vital for its own shake and not for the rewards that accompany it. Second is affiliation motivation. Affiliation motivation is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Personnel with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their propitious and co surgical procedure. Third is competence motivation. Competence motivation is the drive to be good at something, allowing the individual to perform high quality work. Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles.


Fourth types of motivation are power motivation. Power motivation it is drive to influence people and change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risk to do so. Fifth types of motivation are attitude motivation. Attitude motivation is how people reckon and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in them selves, their attitude to life. It is how they feel about the possibility and how they react to the past. Sixth motivation is incentive motivation. Incentive motivation it is where a person or a team reaps a reward from an activity. Example of incentive motivation is “you do this and you get that”, attitude. It is the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a little harder and the last motivation is fear motivation. Fear motivation is for coercions a person to act against will. It is instantaneous and gets the job done quickly. It is helpful in the short run.

The importance of motivation is obvious. The employees need motivation in order to reach their goals. In fact it is one of the most important and driving factor for the employees to reaching their goals. Motivation does not have to be positive emotions. Fear can be very effective motivating factor. Stress is an example of negative motivating ineffective feelings. Most people have a tendency to become narrow sighted when they are stressed, some even get paralyzed or apathy. It is the rewards for reaching the goals that motivates or the feeling of fulfillment when they reach their goals or the satisfaction of being important.

In motivation they have behavior styles. If the employees ever come across any of the behaviour matrix’s that is available on the market, they will notice some interesting things when it comes to motivation. It is easy to realize that most companies bonus and appraisal system are not very well thought. Usually a behaviour matrix divides people into four different types of behaviour group. The four IDI styles are motivator, producer, processor, and realtor. They all have different needs and are therefore motivated by different emotions.

Motivators are people that are good at motivating others, they are often perceived as exciting, fast, outspoken, engaging, enthusiastic, and creating. There is always something new going on. They are often very good at getting others to want to take on new challenges. Their need is to be unique and that is driving their motivation. Producers are people that often are perceived as goal oriented, strong, self confident, practically, down to earth and determent. Producers are good at driving towards goals. Their need is to be in control and that is driving their motivation.

Processors are often perceived as well thought, objective, consistent, serious and logical. They are good at structuring and analyzing and their need to understand and that is driving their motivation. Relators are often perceived as supporting, loyal, trustworthy, considerate, calm, friendly and caring. Relators are good at creating and maintaining good relations with others.


Motivation refers to employee’s willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals in the expectation that doing so will enable them to satisfy some individual need. Motivation is a necessary, but by itself not a sufficient, condition of effective performance. The recipe for effective performance also calls for employee ability, managerial direction, and a satisfactory work environment.

There are various motivational theories and strategies that can be applied at the individual, group, and organizational levels. At the individual level are Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and McClelland’s manifest needs theory, and equity theory. Motivational theories and techniques that can best be applied at the group level include the Hawthorne effect and equity theory. At the organizational level, the following motivational theories and strategies are most applicable reinforcement theory, job enrichment, job redesign, and the Scanlon plan.


People management can be defined as the process of controlling and monitoring individuals. The concept of people management is widely used in organizations where the managers most important task is to manage people. In order to increase the efficiency of the people the manager has to lead, motivate and inspire people. Sometimes rules are defined to manage people like time lines, duties and more. In order to manage the people Human Resource Departments are established in the organization. These departments are specifically responsible to deal with people of organization.

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