Emotional Stability Within A Managerial Role Management Essay

A person being in the emotionally stable is an important role for a person with good management character. It can be said that in general scenario controlling the emotions is a very responsible factor as being emotionally firm, at the same time it is appropriate as per to the occasion (Durbinet al. 2006). Person with the good management character as team may require and expect to maintain the consistency, as it’s naturally there in them. (Goleman, 1995) These individuals will be self-confident, an efficient leader are often calm natured and straight at the time of emergencies. An individual who can do his work on his own without any one’s help or grasp the things, its really gives the confident that this person has the ability to solve the issues on his own

( Durbin et.al). Thus, an organiser should be adjustable with the changes as he makes it easy and must be flexible.

As per Dubrin et al., 2006, a business head should be adaptable to the changes, and must be flexible to the circumstances to be recognised as one of the important leader having management personality. It is essential for a head to be energetic as the team may act absolutely towards this personality of passion to some level as this personality may be known as the reward for the individual mannerism. (Durbin et al. 2006) In the organisation the head must also project the sympathy and which influences the other members of the team as to confirm that their team members really recognises the head. Sympathy makes the head to understand the problem of the team and help in the method of communication with the team. (Durbin et al., 2006) communication is the important element for management. On the working day mostly 80% of

Time of the head will be spent in communicating with team members either talking to them directly when walking around or on telephone. If there is communication gap in between the team members and the heads there will be lack of mutual understanding, not aware of requirements of the management and etc, thus communication is most for effective oragnisation.

Performance Management

The fundamental concept of performance management is abstracted from motivation theory, goal theory and expectancy theory.

Goal setting theory not only does the task of specific goals result in improved performance but that, assuming goal acceptance, increasing the challenge or difficulty of goals leads to increased motivation and increases in performance ( (Locke and Latham, 1984) (Mitchell et al, 2000).

Expectancy theory assumes that individuals change their behaviour according to their expected satisfaction in achieving certain goals (Vroom, 1964).

As per Clark (1998) the theories, goal setting and expectancy theory are founded on the premise that human beings think in a balanced, calculative and unique way. In fact, the performance management is based on a tremendously rationalistic and instruction vision of the organisation assumes that plan can be clearly expressed. But also leads to result of HR processes can be framed that makes clear their relations to the organisation’s strategic objectives.

On the other hand the approach assumes causal relations between different parts of the process can be keenly identified and permit under performance in one or more aspects of the process to be managed to ensure optimum functioning of the wider PMS. These assumptions not only ignore the nature of strategy and its formulation (Mintzberg, 1994). But also fail to recognise the framework in which a PMS operates. The social processes and authority systems within organisations operate together with the broader organisational and country cultural situation. These are important mediating factors in the operation and success of any system (Clark, 1998).

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Performance management is an essentially Western development begin in the United States is an artistic context. Most of the study is in use and operations are conducted in family settings.

(Locke and Latham, 1984, Armstrong and Baron, 1998) Performance management practice

Are cultural differences which make it difficult to standardise aspects (Pucik, 1985; Vance et al, 1992) and Number of studies have examine the impact of country culture on aspects of the process (Mendonca and Kanungo, 1996):

Power distance

Uncertainty avoidance

Individualism/collectivism

Masculinity/femaleness

Long term/short term orientation.

Performance management process aims at the appraisal through the goal setting stage to the evaluation and influences the feedback. It has been explained how to investigate the different aspects of the performance management process and the ways the context impacts upon them.

As per Whilst there is no universal model of performance management, number of elements naturally be found in a PMS and it has explained as a performance management cycle (IDS, 2003). PMS put objective setting and formal appraisal systems, were these two areas might be particularly affected by the cultural context (Milliman et al, 1998; Fletcher and Perry, 2001; Lindholm et al, 1999)

Statement of Purpose and Consideration

Organisational culture previous study was widening by examining how it viewed organisational culture impacts on the organisational attractiveness held by possible candidate. Organisational

Attractiveness was measured through a job search purpose measure like an organizational preference measure, and an organizational choice measure. It was presented in two recruitment brochures one is masculine organizational culture and second is a supportive, feminine organizational culture. The competitive organizational culture was operated by competition, independence, ambition, high financial rewards, and a belief that one’s career should be a priority. (Graversen, 2005)

Hypothesis 1

There is a considerable positive relationship between organisational culture and job satisfaction scores.

Hypothesis 2

There are considerable differences in organisational culture scores connected to demographical variables.

Hypothesis 3

There are considerable differences in job satisfaction scores related to biographical variables.

Sample

Participants were 256 personals (109 men and 147 women). A demographic questionnaire indicated that 109 participants were men and 147 were women. The sample consisted of 131 seniors, 79 juniors, 39 sophomores, and 7 freshmen. The students reported eighteen different majors; the most frequent majors were business (31%), political science (20%), psychology (7%), and government (7%). The average GPA for the sample was 2.98. Twenty participants reported were they had at least one child. Students were told that the research study involved reviewing recruitment brochures for two companies that hired many new college graduates. (Georgellis, 2007)

Materials and Measures

Materials consist of following item:

An informed consent form

A prize entry form

Two organizational recruitment brochures and

Three scales used to assess applicant attraction.

Other materials were a demographic questionnaire and a debriefing statement (Georgellis, 2007)

Hypothesis One

The results partially support It stated that there would be an interaction between organizational culture and sex on job pursuit intentions, were men would be considerably more likely than women to show greater aim to pursue a job in the competitive organizational culture, While women would be considerably more likely than men to show greater intentions to pursue a position in the supportive organizational culture (Alvesson, 1990).

Table 1

Mean result for job pursuit intentionsª

Culture Men

Mean SD Women

Mean SD F Value P Value

Competitive Supportive 4.60 .143

5.02 .126 4.53 .123

5.56 .109 .158

10.723 *p> .05

***p = .001

ª the maximum mean is 7.00

Table 2

Mean results for organizational preferenceª

Culture Men

Mean SD Women

Mean SD F Value P Value

Competitive Supportive 4.25 .110

5.14 .86 3.83 .095

5.47 .074 8.19

8.77 *p< .05

*p< .05

ª the maximum mean is 7.00

Hypothesis Two

These results fully support It stated there would be an interaction between organizational culture and gender on organizational preference, were as men would be considerably more likely than women to prefer the competitive culture, while women would be considerably more likely than men to prefer the supportive culture (Templeton, 1994).

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Hypothesis Three

The third hypothesis was that there would be an interaction between organizational culture and sex for organizational choice, such that men would be considerably more likely than women to choose to work in the competitive organizational culture, while women would be considerably more likely than men to choose to work in the supportive organizational culture. (Van der Post, 1997)

Table 3

Mean results for organizational choiceª

Sex Mean SD t Value p Value

Men

Women 3.78

4.29 1.14

1.24 -3.59 ***p = .001

ª a mean between 1.00 and 3.99 represent a preference for the competitive organizational culture, while a mean between 4.00 and 6.00 represent a preference for the supportive organizational culture.

As per Luthans (1998) assert that motivation is a process, were it is step by step which consist of directs stimulate, energizes and sustain behaviour and performance. Mainly it concentrates on motivating the people to action and to achieve a desired task. One of the ways of stimulating the people is to utilize effective motivation, which results in the employees more satisfied and committed to their jobs. Always money is not the criteria or only one way of motivator, there are other incentives which can also serve as motivators. The particular attitudes relating to the employee is organisational commitment and job satisfaction is major field of organisational behaviour and the practice of human resources management.

Organizational commitment further focuses on their attitudes towards the entire organization. Even though a strong relationship between satisfaction and commitment has been found, still, most studies treat satisfaction and commitment differently, especially in light of things like scale back that are part of present organizations.

On Job satisfaction and organisational commitment there are many views and studies with different people but present studies are implemented. Present organisations are applying new information and a new perspective which describing job satisfaction, motivation and commitment.

Strategies of Motivating Workers

(Bernard in Stoner, et al. 1995) To achieve organisational success the ultimate test is its ability to create values sufficient to compensate for the load forced upon resources contributed. As per Bernard, workers in particular responsibilities in the organisation they put in time and efforts for personal, economic and non economic satisfaction. At the time of information superhighway, employers of information professionals or librarians must be very much careful to meet their needs. If not, they creative professionals to other organizations who are ready and willing to meet their needs and demand also they determine they are losing their talent.

There are few strategies which can be used to motivate information professionals and particularly librarians are as followings:

Conditions of Service, wages and salary

There are four most important components of a salary structures which must be considered by personnel managers. It is compulsory to use salaries as a motivator effectively in the process of motivation strategy. These are as follows:

The job rate : It relates to the importance the organization attaches to each job

Payment: It encourages workers or groups by rewarding them according to their performance.

Personal or special allowances: It associated with factors of scarcity of particular skills or certain categories of information professionals or librarians, or with long service; and edging benefits such as holidays with pay, pensions, and so on.

To maintain effective pay structure of the organization, it needs to take consideration is very important to make sure that the existing pay in other library or information should be taken care.

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Money

(Akintoye 2000) Money remains the most important motivate personal strategy because money makes the individual to pay more attention towards its. (Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate, 1911) money is most important factor in motivating the industrial workers to achieve greater productivity. (Taylor) establishment of incentive wage system leads to inspiring workers to higher performance, commitment, and eventually satisfaction. Money possesses significant motivating influence in as much as it symbolises indefinable goals like security, power, prestige, and a feeling of accomplishment and success. (Katz, in Sinclair, et al. 2005) The process of job choice exhibits the motivational power of money, because money has the power to attract, retain, and motivate individuals towards higher performance. For example,

If an information professional has another job offer in his hands which has identical job uniqueness with his current job, but offering greater financial payment, that worker would be definitely be motivated to accept the new job offer. (Banjoko, 1996) Many managers use money, to reward employee or punish the employee, were this is done through the process of rewarding employees for higher productivity by inculcating fear of loss of job. For example, when the person is retired early or removed by the organisation due to poor performance premature retirement, this state is called as premature retirement or loss of job. The person or employee who has willingness towards the earning better pay may also motivate employees.

Staff Training

In the general scenario no matter how mechanical an organization may be, high productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness of the workforce. Staff training is an essential strategy for motivating workers in the organisation. The library organization must have good training program were it will give information professional opportunities for self-improvement and development. This will leads to meet the challenges and requirements of new tools and new techniques of performing a task. In all the organisations method of training programs should be improved to meet desired staff.

Information Availability and Communication

One way managers can stimulate motivation is to give relevant information on the penalty of their actions on others (Olajide, 2000). It seems that there is no recognized organization in which people do not usually feel there should be improvement in the way departments communicate, cooperate, and work together with one another. Information availability brings to bear a powerful stare force, where two or more people running together will run faster than when running alone or running without awareness of the pace of the other runners. By sharing information, subordinates compete with one another.

Motivation seems to verify that it improves workers’ performance and satisfaction. For example, (Brown and Shepherd, 1997) the characteristics of the work of teacher-librarians in four major categories: knowledge base, technical skills, values, and beliefs. He reports that they will succeed in meeting this challenge only if they are motivated by deeply-held values and beliefs regarding the development of a shared vision. (Vinous, Jayarantne, and Chess 1994) An agency-influenced work and employment conditions, and assess their impact on social workers’ job satisfaction. Some motivational issues were salary, fringe benefits, job security, physical surroundings, and safety. Certain environmental and motivational factors are predictors of job satisfaction. (Colvin, 1998) The financial incentives will get people to do more of what they are doing in general. (Silverthrone, 1996) Motivation and managerial styles in the private and public sector will results indicate that there is a little difference between the motivational needs of public and private sector employees, managers, and non-managers.

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