Employee training and developments role in organisation success
In today fast-paced world, a business does not learn will fall behind. The business learns as the organisation or the employees learn. As employee is the major asset of an organisation, employee’s learning plays a major role in organisation’s growth. Learning is a long term process where involves individual’s education, training and development. Education here refers to the activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future which it’s evaluated against those jobs. While training is both focused upon and evaluated against the job that an individual currently holds. Development defines the focuses of activities that the organisation employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in future, and is almost impossible to evaluate. (Thomas N.Garavan, Pat Costine, and Noreen Heraty, 1995)
The traditional type of training is the input towards employee on the technique, skills and knowledge which is mainly on work-related field. Directly or indirectly this may create a group of trained individual who just follow the instruction of the work for work. In an article of Polson, he stated some impact on training and development of employee for social and organization trends. His points are summarized as operational learning will adopt specific needs of the organization. The generic learning will be geared to providing basic competencies that transferable and remarkable across organizations. The focus is on self-paced learning or development instead of the conventional classroom, instructor-led training (Polson R. 1994).
Today, a lot of organisation had turned the training to a more significant learning. Learning creates the individual driving with the own development through relevant experience. Learning is more on personal development and thereby the organisational development through the process of education. Learning describes an individual growing in terms of their behavior, beliefs, emotional maturity, ethics, wisdom, values and this is what today organization will ever needs. Enable learning and personal development is the effective way of develop people or as employee’s development. (businessballs training and learning development)
According to Adam Smith, “The Capacities of individuals depended on their access to education”. (Kelly,2001). Education is channeled to development as a contribution to continual improvement and growth of the employee as well as the organisation. In another word, employee’s development should be in-line with organisation’s goal which not only beneficial to the organisation but also the employee.
Generally, the learning plan is a document where a set of learning goals are in place that the employee or/and organization target to achieve within a time frame provided. The learning goal can be a main goal supported with sub-goals for easy manage/ access. From time to time, organization or employee can be realized or review the sub-goals and the compilation of sub-goals will results the final main learning goal that had been set. Learning goal should be associated with a series of actions. This actual behavior or action will link to the learning goal. Resources and evidence are the two major elements for the action. Resources are anything that can be used to relate action item for the learning goal. Seminar or Training are the example of resources. Resources are the transport channel to the target of learning goal in long run. Evidence is the demonstration of the action item in place to achieve the goal.
Learning plan should be an on-going process where it takes effective when reviewed and maintained regularly. Employee/ Individual can use the learning plan to track the daily activity on working task that with learning goal.
Employee Development Plan
The employee development plan is the process to improve the employee’s current job skill as well as developing them for future responsibilities and new positions/ tasks. This action plan will be based on awareness, reflection, goal-setting and strengths of competencies within the context of organization growth. The major skill requirements for employee development are the skill developed in leadership, management and supervisory training. The 4-steps Employee Development Plan is the essential strategy.
Prepare the employee
In this aspect, employee’s opinion is the major key-role. Employee should have a clear understanding about the job skill, responsibilities and the organization’s requirement. The key quality skills are the tools in order to perform the current responsibilities. Employee’s interest which related to current job functions is the momentum to move forward. On top of this, the previous track-record of achievement is a platform to create employee’s thinking to channel to job goals regardless of long-term or short-term goals. The job goals will determine the activities in order to prepare for the employee’s development.
Provide development opportunities
Different individual have a different tasks and responsibilities. Every employee have a vary needs of development opportunity based on the job requirement.
Training is the important element. Based on the experience and lack of experience or the employee’s performance to defines the training needs.
Peer Coaching in the sense of employee coaching other employee to develop skills so that employee can share and cover each other’s when the other’s absence. When employee help people to develop as people, it will create a greater alignment and congruence between work and people and lives and this may strengthen the platform for the task.
Job Design Changes defines the aspects of the job and makes suggestions as to how the job might be redesign to enhance proficiency. Employees knows and understand the job better with their concerns.
Representing the department for some exposure will link to a better understanding to individuals in the department of the roles and functions. The normal reflexes is : I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand”. The direct involvement enhance the job fit skills into the big picture of the organization.
Delegate special projects will challenges and boost the innovations of employee. Indirectly the project will create competition aiming as motivating experience.
Observation is the major elements. Reviews on the progress and quality measures as a feedback to discuss and motivates the on-going development. Feedback is critical to the success of the developmental process.
Create confidence and shows encouragement to support. This is critical to build the confidence level of employee on their ability to succeed.
(Dale Mark, 2006)
2.0 Company Background
Dou Yee Enterprises (S) Pte Ltd is the premier total industrial solutions provider in the Asia Pacific region with vast experience in static control, micro-contamination control and various specialized tools and materials. Dou Yee Enterprises was serving with distinction the semiconductor, data storage, electronics and biomedical industry since 1982.
With the conviction of anticipating and fulfilling customer’s needs and expectations, Dou Yee has grown to become a one-stop provider of a comprehensive range of products and complete solutions, where products and services of superior quality are delivered on time at competitive pricing.
Dou Yee also established long-term strategic alliances worldwide, with a global network that spans 15 countries in more than 30 major cities. Dou Yee have more than 35 international branch offices strategically located around the world to give customers the fastest and most accessible products and services. These alliances are necessary to provide supplies to the valued customers regardless which part of the world they are in and also allow effective marketing and distribution of Dou Yee’s quality products worldwide. The comprehensive range of products is designed to provide customer with a convenient one-stop service, meeting practically every industrial needs.
With a dynamic, experienced and dedicated team of staff, Dou Yee aims to become Asia Pacific’s leading provider of industrial solution. Most importantly, the organisation’s aim to always deliver what had promised and continue to be a reliable and reputable business partner to all valued customers. Customers can rely on Dou Yee for products and services that are comprehensive in range, reliable in quality, accessible in location, and backed up by the organisation’s many years of experience and expertise. Dou Yee, your preferred partner in the industrial world (Dou Yee Company Profile 2010). Figure 1.0 summaries the history and milestones of the company.
2.1 Philosophy, Values and Competencies
Dou Yee, comes from the direct translation of the 2 Chinese characters:
é“ (dao) : the right path; and
ç›Š (yi) : beneficial.
Dou Yee literally means the conduct of business in the right and proper way, which is to always ensure a meaningful and mutually beneficial business partnership and relationship, upheld by principles of integrity and correctness.
This is a guiding principle which we try to uphold in all business dealings. Dou Yee strive to ensure customer satisfaction, because meeting and fulfilling our customers’ needs and expectations is the reason for our existence. Therefore, the organisation strive to deliver in all areas: from the quality of our products, promptness of our services, competitiveness of our pricing, to timeliness of our deliveries. Dou Yee believe in building up long-term partnerships with customers because the basis of the business is the customers.
Dou Yee Ensure the highest quality of products, using the finest raw material procured from a reputable resources who meet the strictest quality criteria and undergo periodic quality examination at the in-house equipped with specialized facilities for electronics industries and external US laboratories. Dou Yee also practice ongoing R&D for continuous improvement and innovation.
Dou Yee possesses highly automated setup capability to run many different products with little or no download time. The high configuration flexibility allows the accommodate varying demand requirement as well as achieve fast efficient turnaround for the new design product.
Dou Yee achieves low costs for the customers through the size and operations which enables the company to buy raw materials in bulk at substantial saving. Dou Yee also locating the modern manufacturing facilities in countries with lower overheads. Besides, Dou Yee also continuously works with customers on long-term cost reduction programmes.
Logistics and Delivery
Dou Yee believes in delivering the industrial supplies to customer when customer needs them, on time. To achieve this, the organization facilitated in many parts of the world with local, specious warehousing facilities and a modern logistics management system in place, so that there is minimal time lag between customer’s placement of orders and the delivering the order to customer.
Customer Service and Relations Management
Dou Yee have dedicated and qualified teams of sales engineers and technical support staff to provide prompt sales and technical advice to all customer’s requests and queries. In addition, a regular sales engineer is assigned to manage each client account on long-term basis, to ensure service consistency and build up greater rapport and understanding of clients’ requirements.
Worldwide Distribution Channel
Dou Yee’s international presence means the accessible supplies anywhere, at the customer’s convenience. For local manufacturers who wish to benefit from Dou Yee’s well established export channels of marketing and distribution, Dou Yee maintain a dedicated team of sales engineers in each of the overseas sales offices, well positioned to market a diverse of products into these markets.
(Dou Yee Corporate Profile 2009)
2.3 Strategic Alliances
Through the years, Dou Yee has formed many strategic partnerships with companies and individuals to serve the customers more effectively and to capture greater market share. At the same time, the organization constantly invites various local and foreign companies to go into ventures, to tap into the fastest growing region with the organization.
For local manufacturers who want to go regional, but who may lack the architecture or marketing network to have an effective reach, Dou Yee can play a significant role in helping them to establish presence in markets.
Similarly, foreign companies who want to sell their products in the region but lack the necessary marketing facilities to make significant headway can also use Dou Yee’s network of sales offices throughout the region. The advantage of such a move is local and foreign companies can enjoy an existing pipeline for export without paying for high overheads.
This collaboration serves the partners and Dou Yee well. There are numerous companies with promising products but lack the necessary “access” to market effectively in the region. By combining mutual strengths, Dou Yee’s marketing reach and the superior products; creates a winning combination that will take both into the 21st century. In addition, the organization have established worldwide distribution channels in 15 countries in more 30 major cities that allow Dou Yee to serve the business partner regardless of the place they are in. As Dou Yee continues to grow and expand with the business partner, the organization will be able to serve the industry in even greater parts of the world.
3.0 Literature Review
Employee development is crucial to the experiential learning concept. This is mainly referred to learning and developments are achieved through personally determined experience and involvement. This development style is flexible for the employee’s style, based on employee’s strengths, preferences and direction to produce positive emotional effects, self-esteem, sense of personal, notable confidence, value and focused purpose.
The conventional teaching and training are based on the knowledge and skills transfer. In this style of teaching and training, employee just be taught of what the trainer delivered. Usually it will only focus based on a small scope and/or to fulfill the temporary objective. It does not address the long term individual growth and potential particularly well. The table below shows some difference on today’s employee’s learning and development and the conventional teaching and training.
Conventional Teaching and Training
Today’s Learning and Development
Training-centered/ focused- based on theoretical approach.
Learner-centered/ focused- based on practical approach.
Prescribed fixed design and content. From outside in basis.
Internal growth and discovery. From inside out basis.
Target and focus on knowledge/ skills transfer.
Target and focus on knowledge/ skills/ emotions/ attitude via experience development.
Fixed structured delivery/ facilitation.
Not delivered, minimal facilitation, more on thinking growth.
Groups and fixed outcomes
Individually directed and adaptable outcomes.
(Businessballs.com, experiential learning, Retrieved 06/03/2011 http://www.businessballs.com/experiential_learning.htm )
3.1 Training, Needs, Analysis (TNA)
A Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is used to assess an organization’s training needs. The root of the TNA is the gap analysis. This is an assessment of the gap between the knowledge, skills and attitudes that the people in the organization currently possess and the knowledge, skills and attitudes that they require to meet the organization’s objectives. The training needs assessment is best conducted up front, before training solutions are budgeted, designed and delivered. The output of the needs analysis will be a document that specifies why, what, who, when, where and how.
(businessperform.com, Training Needs Analysis Purpose, Retrieved 08/03/2011 http://www.businessperform.com/workplace-training/training_needs_analysis.html )
Before any plan of employee’s development program, a survey or analysis is needed. This is to evaluate the needs of the overall development. In organization stand point, the strategies and the plans must be clear. Once the strategies and plans in place, the employee’s direction is outline. Further to this, employee’s targets and goals will be based on the organisation’s track. In order to achieve the targets and goals, employee’s short-fall may need to improve. A result of employee’s performance of the appraisal will determine the categories of employee’s lack-off. Employee’s role description also another key challenge to define the needs of the employee’s development. The feedback of internal and/or external party (Customers, stakeholders) contributes to the area of improvement. As a result, learning and development needs are highly varied amongst individual employees.
As the output of the needs analysis, “WH” questions as below answer the overall needs.
Why the employees need the training/ development?
What is the scope/ the area needs improvement?
Who is the targeted group?
When is the correct timing?
Where is the location?
How effective is the training/ learning and How employee’s attitude influence the flow?
3.2 The ADDIE Model
The ADDIE model is a systems approach. The acronym refers to Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation.
Analysis phase emphasize on the breakdowns of the many aspect. From the organization stand point, the target and the goal is the major source objective. How the employees meet and fulfill the task effectively. In this aspect, the target audience should be specify. In employee’s aspect, the needs, current knowledge, learning problems and the relevant characteristic will indentify the knowledge gap. This will contribute to the gap analysis study to determine the next step of the learning design. On the other hand, the stakeholders will look into the cost efficiency, the timeline and sponsorship.
Design phase is a systematic process where the analyze data as a blueprint for the specific learning objectives. This is a critical stage where the information obtained in analysis phase will be defined and gathers to outline an effective learning program. The challenges of this phase focus on the effectiveness and efficiency of the designed program to meet all expectation/ needs from the different element in the analysis phase.
Development phase is the delivery of concept after the design process. The actual production of the development learning program material as a platform towards the targeted audience develops. The contents of what had designed will construct into a proper channel. During this stage, the concepts, rules and strategies will be explored and experimented with the objective in order to have indeed understands on the concepts, principles and strategies.
Implementation phase apply the action to develops the employee. In this stage, the method and material will be delivered. The important element in this step not only transfers of the concepts, but also employee’s attitude and behaviors. The attitude and behavior develop in this stage will later solidify the idea of the concepts, principles and strategies that delivered.
Evaluate phase is a long term on-going process to measure and appraise the whole learning process. This is also summary towards to learning program as a feedback from the partaker.
3.3 IGROW Model
The IGROW model refers to I for Issue, G for Goal, R for Root Cause, O for Options and W for What’s Next. The IGROW Model is indented for use during the performance coaching conversation where a skill based issue is identified and looking forward to achieve a behavior change or performance improvement. (coach4growth.com, 2010). In another word, IGROW Model applied rooted in the intention for improvement by the analysis of the existing short-fall. The Model will be focus on the behavior or attitude change in order to tackle the short-falls in an efficient solution by the model adaptable approach.
Issue is the employee’s existing performance improvement opportunity. This issue is vary from individuals and/or departments if organisation based.
4.0 Employee’s Development Plan Proposal.
A Structural Employee Development Plan is very important to an organization. This guideline drives the employee’s growth together with the organization. According to Priya Ganapati, (Priya Ganapati, 2005) only about 25% of organization with a proper structured for the employee development plan where the rest do not have it, so as Dou Yee Enterprises. The Structured Employee Development plans are vital for the effective management and evaluation of employee’s development in an organization. Jessica Hartung, the CEO of Intergrated Work Strategies says, “Do not let your staff go another day without a clear developmental direction that increases their value to the organizationâ€¦” (Jessica Hartung, 2011). In 21st century’s competitive market, employees are ready for the personal development from time to time for personal improvement. On the other hand, are the organizations ready to individually tailor and develop the employee?
Structured Employee Plan here refers to the detail individual development plan, which will keep track ever since the day one of employment. This is a guide to pilot employees along the career path in the organization and from time to time to slot in the improvement activities as the organisation’s efficiency advancement.
4.1 Individual Development Plan
Individual development plan is a statement or map for short and long terms developmental needs and goals. This plan fasten with the action to develop the competencies included skills and knowledge to improve performance from time to time regardless of the grounds of age, race, religion, and gender. This win-win scenario benefits both organization and employees. Figure 2.0 shows the advantages for employee and advantages for the leader/ manager. The focus of the proposed individual development plan will be in 2 major categories.
Leverage the strength and talent of the employee.
Provide relevant knowledge and skills at the same time develop the attitude and behavior of the employee towards a better performance.
4.2 Design, Development and Implementation of the Development Plan.
The Individual Development Plan is not just refers to the yearly performance appraisal or reviews once a year. The development plan should take place ever since the first day of the employment for each of the workforce. A detail, comprehensive and structural plan will keep track of every employee. The chart, table and checklist/ scorecard is the tool to determine the employee’s performance at the same time will notify/ alert on the timing of any additional/ special training for the employee.
To design a comprehensive plan, the reason to start has to be clear. As a result of the analysis, there are few reasons below to support and identify the need for the Individual Development Plan.
For the employee are new in a job, the target is to get up to speed as fast as possible.
For the employee moving towards to the new role, the self-preparation for those new task.
For the employee who was under-perform, the required action is to improve.
For the employee who was good enough and no aspirations to move, the skills to perform better in existing task.
The analysis also defines the competencies in terms of knowledge, skills and attributes to achieve the goal. The development plan should recount the development action to the competencies of the goal.
Figure 3.0 shows the template of the Individual Development Plan Form. This form is the identity for the employee, which records the particulars of employee and personal mission statement, short and long-term goals. Figure 4.0 and Figure 5.0 shows the table of the Strength to Leverage and Area to Develop. In this area, the employee will identify the strength and weakness to improve precisely. The development plan is a long-term and complex process. In this area, employees are suggests to introduce mentoring and coaching program.
According to Daniel R. Tobin (1998), The mentor acts as your counselor, providing advice on career paths, development opportunities, and an overview of what it takes to become a leader in the company. The coach is more of a tutor, observing your work and actions, providing comments on execution, and teaching skills which may be lacking. Both Coaching and Mentoring do not directing or providing answer o the employees on what to do. It is in the sense of guiding and brainstorming of the employees to ascertain on their own.
4.3 Evaluation of the Development Plan
Every plan should couple with the evaluation or review regularly. Else it do not reflex the meaning of plan if do not identify the review and results. Figure 6.0 shows the assessment by the “nine block”. The diagram reflex realistic and consistency of employee’s development with the goal set. As a scorecard or checklist, the data is objectively documenting accomplishment. Further to the evaluation stage, beside to evaluate the efficiency of the plan, the inhibit factor is the major issue to focus. To indentify the inhibitor, figure 7.0 shows the evaluation form for the potential success inhibitor. This is to review and spot the shortfall of the plan in order to improve it. Evaluations can then be conducted through in-depth interviews, unsigned questionnaires and surveys, and discussion groups (Alan R Nankervis, Robert L Compton, Terence E McCarthy,1999)
5.0 Basis for the Critical Success Factor
There are some key focus in for the effectiveness of the proposed plan. As per Robert Heller (2008), he mentioned “treat your employee the right way and get more power from the people”. Employees are the major role for the business to develop. The right attitudes of employees will drive the business flow, so as the proposed development plan. It is a booster to grow the business. Below are some of the critical success factors for the proposed plan.
The plan design in the way of involved all level of employees. The leaders as well as the employees are develop together. In this sense, the employee’s attitude should be in the same phase.
Continuous support between leaders and employees build up a great relationship of employees. The plan creates a lot of face to face discussion and coaching. The workplace as a platform to ritual the develop skills, knowledge and attitudes. The sharing session enhance teamwork spirit in the organization.
To change behavior or to develop the right attitude takes a long path by multiple interventions that include many styles of learning and communications. When team members share a vision of what they want to achieve, broadly participate in decision making and think about continuous improvement, they are functioning in a culture conductive to learning (Michael Young,2010). The scenario creates the framework of employee’s development.
Care for the employee and creates the environment of developing and improving the employee’s situation may valued/ appreciates employees as organizations asset. This is a win win scenario where win hearts and minds.
The success of an organization mainly refers to the employee’s performance and attitudes. Based on the ADDIE Model, the proposed structured individual development plan is a tool to determine the contribution of the employees towards the organization. The structured development plan will clearly stated the objectives and goals in detail as guidance for the employee’s growth. In another word, the outline of the development plan carefully defined the performance standards that are relevant and reliable are essential foundations for evaluation (Alan R Nankervis, Robert L Compton, Terence E McCarthy,1999).
As the evaluation plays an important role in the effectiveness of employee’s development, a 360° feedback reviews is recommendation concept to imply with the proposed development plan. McGhee K. 1997 says organizations will attempt to gather work performance data about an employee from as many sources as possible.
360° feedback reviews is the input from all levels of employees and even external sources like customers or suppliers. Different levels of individual will have a different point of view. This multi-direction input will creates a thorough entry for the specific aspect of the review. Nagle R. 1997 commented on the intrinsic attraction of 360° feedback insofar as the theory looks right; by involving more than one person, the feedback process is likely to be more meaningful for both the manager/ leader and the employee.
Finally yet importantly, the Individual Development plan will value add both the organization and the employees in 21st century. The organization grows with the good performance employees. Employees improve with the market needs. The organisation’s asset, the employees, will assist in establishment a climate where employees feel that they are more than mere numbers on the payroll.Order Now