Essay Turabian Border and Security
Economic impact of border protection
1. Smart borders are the boundaries between countries meant to improve efficiency in the
administration of borders and bring mutual benefits to both sides of the border. The smart border
accord was signed between the US and Canada in 2001, and also covers parts of the US Mexican
border. The main aim was to ease congestion and improve surveillance of the border. Through
increased cooperation and border patrols there is increased ease in movement of goods
facilitating international trade, but also facilitating security by minimizing the possibility of
terrorist threats in America1
2. Intellectual Property (IP) thefts relates to patents, trademarks, designs and copyright
infringement without the owner’s permission. IP violations can be rendered undesirable and
unprofitable through more rigorous laws to combat IP violations, and increasing protection of
intellectual property through anti counterfeiting programs. Enforcing IP violations is necessary
as this reduces smuggling across national borders2
. Similarly, it acts as a deterrent to IP
violations but there should be criteria to distinguish organized criminals ordinary consumers and
innovators. Most laws against IP violations focus on digital infringement without distinguishing
users. Loss of billions through IP violations imposes a heavy burden through reduced
competitiveness, and disrupts fair competition in the market. Thus, enforcing laws against IP
violations instills confidence on the regulator’s ability to deal with IP threats.
1 Peter Andreas, Border games: policing the U.S.-Mexico divide. (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2009),
2 Andreas, Border Games,20.
3. Executive order 13,133 relates to combating human trafficking, and was an
amendment to Executive order 13527. President Bush reaffirmed the government’s commitment
to create relevant policies to combat international trafficking through the executive branch. This
is a follow up on border security because it requires the collaboration of countries to combat the
vice and strengthen local communities in dealing with human trafficking.
Internet use improves communication, but there are also increased cases of IP theft
through computer crimes and illegal infiltration of computer systems. Even though, there is
increased efficiency in many sectors the threat of computer crimes slows down business and can
cause massive losses to businesses. Thus, there is a need to have balance in combating economic
crimes and ensuring that there is respect of privacy for internet users.
Marine safety, control, operations, emergency and terrorism
1. There is a connection between the US port facilities and Homeland security on the threat
of cyber terrorism. Most port facilities are interconnected through computer systems to facilitate
movement of goods and the nation’s security is also at risk from the vulnerabilities of the
computer networks. Thus, Homeland security and the US Coast Guard need to ensure that there
is adequate security in the ports. Marine safety is a top priority for the Homeland Security,
although there are fewer efforts to upgrade the infrastructure of ports than other sectors of the
economy. The U.S. Customs and Border Protection which is an agency of the Homeland
Security is tasked with protecting ports and the maritime environments as well as facilitate trade
and technology is important to achieve this.
2. A Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) is the method devised for a port facility to
carry on operations in case of emergency with a view to resume full operations3
. The planning
Kenneth, Christopher. Port Security Management. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, 242
takes place to ensure that the port management runs smoothly in a way that facilitates
sustainability when there are disasters and emergencies. Coordination of activities is paramount
as this facilitates easier access to the port facilities among the parties involved. In planning
operations during emergencies, it is necessary to delegate roles among the parties, and the
planning should also make it easier for personnel to retrieve information.
3. Situational awareness and readiness affect the way port authorities communicate and
share information. Through situational awareness, it is possible to issue alerts and ensure
adequate preparation. Similarly, situational readiness manage facilitates port safety and improves
emergency management as information is easily accessed by parties4
. Situational awareness and
readiness facilitates protection and rapid response as there is easier coordination of activities
during emergencies. Situational awareness precedes situational readiness where measures are put
in place before there is response in mitigating risks for anticipated emergencies.
4. Technology is an integral part of port facility security where ports are able to adapt
business models in line with port security requirements5
. In essence, port facilities now integrate
business models with port facilities in a way that increase efficiency of ports while also
integrating security measures in the system. In particular, the ability to verify and record all
persons working and entering the port facilities ensures that there is no infiltration by outsiders.
Additionally, the staff is able to verify arrival and departures of goods electronically and their
corresponding authorization. One of the most significant uses of technology in port facilities is
4Kenneth, Christopher, Port Security, 251
5 Kenneth, Christopher. Port Security Management. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, 247
verification of credentials through use of bio metrics where information is relayed to one center
to ensure that all persons do not pose a threat to the port facilities.
Reducing Cognitive and perceptual biases in analysis
Cognitive and perpetual biases occur in analysis, and hence there is a need to reduce
biases in evaluating evidence. Perpetual biases occur because of what we expect, and hence it is
necessary to have more unambiguous information to reduce risk of biasness. Perpetual biases
result to wrong interpretation of information because it is based on inaccurate assumptions.
People’s perceptions often cloud their judgment even when presented with new evidence. This
typically occurs because of exposure to ambiguities and new evidence does not change the
perception already formed6
Analysis of competing hypothesis is another technique that facilitates proper judgment
and analysis when provided with alternatives. This technique works by first identifying at once
the alternative outcomes rather than evaluating their appropriateness separately7
. In essence, this
technique overcomes the conventional view where analysts choose the alternative that seems best
through intuition, and then use evidence to support their claims and decision. In the event that the
evidence supports the claim, then analysts suppose that their intuition is right. On the other hand,
if evidence does not support claim they tend to assume that information is misleading and
potentially look for another hypothesis. The technique has eight steps begin with a review of
competing hypothesis to making analytical conclusions.
6 U.S. Government. A tradecraft primer: Structured analytic techniques for improving intelligence analysis.
McLean, VA: Sherman Kent School’s Center for Analytic Tradecraft, US Central Intelligence Agency, 2009, 2
7 Richards, Heuer.Chapter 8, Analysis of Competing Hypotheses. Psychology of intelligence analysis. Washington,
DC: US Government Printing Office,1999
There are other techniques that help to reduce biasness in analysis and these could
include a checklist for analysts providing a general overview of techniques applicable8
. The first
step involves focuses on the problem, where questions pertaining to the problem are framed and
information collaborated with policy makers. Generating hypotheses is the next logical step
through which one identifies all the possible hypotheses and includes collaboration with experts
to broaden the scope of the hypotheses. Collecting information to help in analysis follows and is
closely related to evaluating the hypotheses from the information gathered. In evaluating
hypotheses it is necessary to determine whether the assumptions influence the conclusion.
Choosing the most likely hypothesis is dependent on the evidence available, but further analysis
is necessary especially if significant change occurs that may change the outcome of decisions.
Ultimately, it is training, research and exposure to different alternative mindsets that ensures that
analysts get knowledge on how to conduct proper analysis and reduce bias.
In reducing the likelihood of bias in decision making, it is necessary to highlight on
judgmental gaps. Using conventional wisdom in analysis situations may result to potential
wrong analysis in security matters because of the judgmental gap. Thus use of systematic
analysis when faced with numerous alternatives is the best course of action. Additionally, this
leaves a trail and it is possible to justify the reasons for choosing one alternative over the others.
Thus, analytical tools are important in decision making as mental models typically occur through
people’s perception and this may introduce bias because of being selective on information.
8 Richards, Heuer (Chapter 14, Improving Intelligence Analysis. Psychology of intelligence analysis. Washington,
DC: US Government Printing Office,1999
Andreas, Peter. Border games: policing the U.S.-Mexico divide. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University
Christopher, Christopher. Port Security Management. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor &
Francis Group, 2009.
Heuer, R. Chapter 8, Analysis of Competing Hypotheses. Psychology of intelligence analysis.
Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office,1999.Retrieved from
Heuer, R. Chapter 14, Improving Intelligence Analysis. Psychology of intelligence analysis.
Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1999. Retrieved from
U.S. Government. (2009). A tradecraft primer: Structured analytic techniques for improving
intelligence analysis. McLean, VA: Sherman Kent School’s Center for Analytic
Tradecraft, US Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from: