Factor Influencing Job Involvement
This chapter shows the theoretical bases for this research which supported by the relevant literature review. The research was conducted based on the topic “Factor Influencing Job Involvement in University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)”. The objective of this literature review is to identify factors that caused to the job involvement in the workplace. This chapter have also reviewed the relevant research literature on the job involvement which considering the engagement of workers towards their jobs. By doing this research we can identify what are the working conditions that make the workers to be committed with their jobs. The factors that relevant for the job involvement are motivation, organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction.
2.1 Job involvement
Job involvement has been defined in a variety ways across studies and referred as job situation of “central life interest”, the importance of individuals work for his or her total self -image, the degree to which an individual participates in his or her self-concept or self-esteem which stated by Ooi Keng Boon (2007). In the other hand, Paul F. Rotenberry (2007), has defined that one whose job is an integral part of his or her self-definition which highly job involved employees will put the forth substantial effort towards the achievement of an organizational objective and less likely to turnover. From the job involvement we can identified the factors that make the employee highly engaged and involved in their work performance.
Study has shown by Hackman and Lawler (1971) theorized that job involvement refer as a salient factor in shaping up the motivation of an individual employee yet the study conducted on the effects of job involvement among criminal justice employees has been limited to the police force that found no statistically significant between job involvement and also job satisfaction which stated by Bergen (1992).
According to Blau (1986) job involvement has been clearly refer to absenteeism of the employees of an organization and intent to leave. A study has shown by Frone and Rice (1987) defined job involvement that cause employee or an individual to spend more time which incur difficulties in filing the expectation of other roles in an organization. Another research has shown by Pfeffer (1994) stated the job involvement refer as an essential of an organizational objective claim it to primary source of an organizational commitment, motivation and job satisfaction that influence employee’s job performance that being involved on enhancing motivational processes which turn individual job performance such as absenteeism and also turnover.
Moreover, researcher Diefendorff (2002) studying employed undergraduates in the USA has examined the relationship between job involvement and organizational citizenship behavior corroborated the validity of an employee’s self-rated job involvement which refer to the main key term of organizational citizenship behavior such as altruism, civic virtue and conscientiousness on the effect of work centrality, personality, employee status such as full time versus part time and gender.
According to researcher Posthuma and Campion (2005) revealed that job involvement has the impact on the employee performance which refer on measuring the job performance of current study also examined the both in-role job performance and extra-role organizational citizenship behavior. Researcher Diefendorff (2002) had examined employees reported their full-time or part-time work status that has providing insufficient variability of the data for the variables. Another researcher Newstrom and Davis (1994) stated that employee engross themselves regarding their job but involves in the extent of employee as being a central part of their lives, for example the female managers who has career and family oriented at disadvantage because have the family demand which interfering with the women’s career, lead them to refuse overtime, rearrange their working hours on extra work assignment also risking the possibility of less involving than the male counterparts.
Another researcher Cromie (1981) argued the employees which job involved more likely to believe in their work ethic also exhibit the growth needs which enhancing the individual within an organizational. For example, the concept of job involvement has searched extensively by an organizational research that been explored to the work experiences and job attitudes of Information System personnel, which have high need for achievement and growth according to Baroudi (1985).
Despite that a researcher Blau and Boal (1989) has defined job involvement into four different groups by high job involvement-high organizational commitment, high job involvement-low organizational commitment, low job involvement-high organizational commitment and low job involvement-low organizational commitment. For example, researcher Blau and Boal (1989) has identified that nurses with the higher level of job involvement has significant unexcused absences than the nurses with lower level of job involvement.
In addition according to Greenhaus (1989) suggested that employees with the high level with their jobs and concerned about achieving recognition in their career that could be able increase the level of effort and energy to their work role. For instance research studies over the past two decades which explained in term of construct of job involvement have approached it from the different perspectives identified by Sekaran (1989) and also viewed as a n individual of difference variable which believed to occur of certain needs, values or personal characteristic to become more or less involved in their jobs. For example, another researcher Brown’s (1996) has identified the present study of job involvement which called as meta-analysis estimated the population correlation between overall performance maybe instead of exerting a direct influence more likely to affect performance indirectly through other variables like effort.
Motivation refers to the process that causes people to act as they do. A study shows that motivation occurs “when a need is aroused and the person wishes to satisfy it”, therefore motivation is the core to the success of the organization is essential when the higher employee’s levels of motivation, the more productive outcome they can give to the organization.
According to DeCenzo and Robbins (1996), motivation is the willingness or desire to do something, conditioned by the activity or action’s ability to satisfy some need. However, Robbins and Coulter (1996) have described the motivation as the willing where else another researcher, C.Vignali (1997) has stated that an employee to exert or action in order to achieve the organizational goals, conditioned by the action’s ability to satisfy employee’s individual needs. Motivation is an important factor for the achievement of employee whereby increases the employee’s job involvement. It also keeps the employees to be more productive and improve their job performance at workplace.
Van Niekerk (1987) has defined that motivation as the creation of work circumstances that influence employees to perform certain task of their own free will, in order to reach the goals of the organization and satisfy their own needs. Therefore, it is very important for employer to motivate their employee in order to increase the organization productivity as well as the profit. Research has shown that the more employee become motivated the more involvement towards their jobs at workplace.
However, Du Toit (1990) added that motivation has influenced by individual characteristics such as people’s own interests, value and needs, work characteristics such as task variety and responsibility and organizational characteristics such as its policies, procedures and customs. Despite that Pinder (1998) have described that motivation as the set of internal and external forces which initiate the work-related behavior and determine its form, intensity and also duration.
Researcher study Cunningham (2002) shown that firefighters have one of the most dedicated and motivated professions in the world. In addition, a firefighter is also seen as one of the most ethical and honorable positions a person who able to hold because they are the most trustworthy in the consensus of the public which stated by Cunningham (2002), example to go into a burning buildings and rescue complete strangers, firefighter have to be a very motivated group of people with a sense of organization and teamwork which described by Casey (2000).
Understanding the motivation is important at workplace in order increase the productivity and job involvement of the workers. Sandra Lawrence (2009) has defined that motivation can be split into explicit and implicit motive system, explicit motives means person who consciously attributes to his or her behavior and influence decisions, judgments and attributions whereby the implicit motives carry out the affective reactions and implicit behavioral dispositions.
It is clearly stated in the research that motivation of a workers carry the behavioral of them towards their job involvement, also determine their level of motivation in the workplace. In some cases managers play an important role of leadership to boost their worker’s motivation towards their performance and task that given to them. Motivation of a worker could provide better self enhancement towards their career.
According to Bartol and Martin (1998) classified motivation theory that owned by Abraham Maslow which is Maslow (1970) known as the hierarchical needs include of five basic level of needs of human being in their daily life. However, researcher Alderfer (1972) have propose an alternative to Maslow theory which known as the ERG theory that has three level such as existence, relatedness and growth. For example, physiological factors known as the existence needs such as food, shelter, clothes, good pay, fringe benefits and good working conditions. Relatedness needs known as the relationship such as families, friends, and work group. Last but not least self-actualization and self-esteem refer as the growth needs.
For example a study of motivation shows that the impact on the academic staff motivation in a higher education which refer to the hygiene factor of Herzberg mentioned by Rowley (1996). From the study the author explained that the frustration could develop from the dissatisfaction which able to prevent staff from accomplish their jobs such as poor timetable organization, inadequate maintenance of educational equipment or else time management.
In addition, Hertzberg theory has conducted a study on the motivation factors which included of the work itself, advancement, recognition and responsibility directly related to the employee job and individual itself. Taylor’s Scientific Management (1911) has proposed a science theory could be able develop for each element of an employee’s task that scientifically selected and trained, where else the managers should sincerely ensure the employee that being done in accordance with the principles of the science, and also there should be an equal division of their task and responsibility between the organization’s management. The author has argued that motivation need to bring human skills whereby minimizing their hope of mistakes and careless that they could make.
According to Douglas McGregor (1960) has described in his Theory X and Theory Y justify the motivation theory. The author explained that much traditional management used the Theory X such as employee hate work who driven with the punishment to get the employees to accomplish towards their organizational objective, they tend to more like security, lack ambition, and avoid responsibility whereby Theory Y defined that people are more self-directed, accept responsibility and also they don’t have to be force to done their job.
Therefore, Herzberg motivation theory has been identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. A study had been carried by International Teacher 2000 which the result indicated more motivated by intrinsic motivators than by the extrinsic motivators, this study has been reveal the outcome of achievement of teachers. For example, the teacher has carried their responsibility on guiding their students based on improving their performance.
Hence, a researcher Dinham and Scott (1998) has identify that the work salary has become the important needs of every employee which could lead them to a very high or low level motivation in many academic field. For example, a supported research from Darmody and Smyth (2010) appeal that this factor lead of deterioration of some staff in academic profession.
2.3 Organizational citizenship behavior
According to Organ (1988) has defined the term of organizational citizenship behavior as an individual behavior that is discretionary which is not directly that recognized by the formal reward system and also promotes effective functioning of the organization. Organizational citizenship behavior refers to employees such as supportive actions to assist other employee and go beyond the minimum requirement of their task. Researcher MacKensie (1993) identified that civic virtue as constructive involvement of the organization of minimum required by the individual’s immediate job, sportsmanship refer as the tolerant less than without excessive complaining, altruism defined as helping people with organizationally relevant task, conscientiousness which means going beyond the minimum role requirement expected by the organization, courtesy refer of preventing occurrence of work-related problem, cheerleading refer to encouraging others and peacemaking resolving disagreement and providing a stabilizing force.
Another study has focus on the citizenship tendency inclined to maintain social relationship which could reduce the voice of employees and also give suggestion in order to improve existing methods. The task has highlight the importance of a change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior which mean improving the effectiveness of the social network which form to maintain the current relationship in the public sector among the employees according to Choi (2007).
Moreover, organizational citizenship behavior has been related construct from the organizational commitment that developed by organizational psychologist which described by Cohen (2000), which emphasize to particular class of employee behavior and attitude based for a practically significant workplace based of employee job attitudes.
In addition, organizational citizenship behavior has construct particular characteristic such as behavior that beyond formal prescribed by the person’s organizational role, discretionary behavior part of the employees which are not directly or explicitly reward the system and it is important for an effective and successful functioning for the public sector organizational stated by Netemeyer (1997). Hence, organizational citizenship behavior exist of factors such as positive and negative “extra-role” behavior which influence the employee’s productivity believed to be reflected in performance evaluations explained by MacKenzle (1991). The variable of job satisfaction has related to organizational citizenship behavior which affective response of various job related whereby explain the employee’s mood engaged with their organizational citizenship behavior according researcher Schnake (1991).
Organizational citizenship behavior is most important variable of explaining the individual as a social theory with greater frequency which means the organizations and their representatives make a better allocation decision making towards their job performance described by Blau (1964). For example, teachers are professional staff in a public sector that works normatively by improving the student performance in their studies, from here the teachers have to be able face with their student discipline and aware with the student needs according to researcher Blasé (1993). From the example we can conclude that teacher exhibit the higher level of organizational citizenship behavior whenever they feel control of autonomy on their task whereby they experience the meaningfulness of their responsibility which described by Wilson and Coolican (1996).
Despite that Organ (1988), has stated that organizational citizenship behavior manage the employee of a work unit whereby increase the work performance outcome, reduce the organization need in order to scarce the resources to simple functions and also improve the ability of employees to perform their jobs by for more efficient planning, scheduling and problem solving.
Therefore, Organ and Konovsky (1989) has mentioned a study that organizational citizenship behavior has become an important element of a cognitive appraisal of an employee work performance and also related to their work environment based on the outcome such as positive and negative behavior during perform their task in an organization. For example, employee that has positive behavior towards their organization, then they tend to be more spiritual on handling their work.
In the view of Smith (1983) has stated that organizational citizenship behavior has two main facets such as organizational altruistic, it refer to specify person and also organizational citizenship behavior compliance more of “good soldier” or “good citizen” of doing the “right and proper”. For example, employee in working environment helps to attach them with the interrelated work relationship between other employee from different department and establish an altruistic motive with an organization share their skill, knowledge, capability, and experiences together with passion which mentioned by (Bolino, 2002).
According to Allen and Rush (1988) has stated that research shown that manager’s decision influence organizational citizenship behavior of an employee regarding their performance contributes to an organization by providing their employee effective training, promotion and reward to perform their task. For example, when the managers examine their employees based on the work performance, therefore the manager will included this organizational citizenship behavior factor into their assessment (Podsakoff, 2000). In fact, researcher Bolino and Turnley (2003) mentioned that managers should energize their employee through increase the level of organizational citizenship behavior by giving them reward such as compensation and employee recognition programs.
2.4 Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is an important asset to the business owners and top managers because the low levels of job satisfaction are related to increased absenteeism and higher job turnover levels towards their job involvement at workplace by Annabel Droussiotis (2007). However, Hart (1999) concluded that job satisfaction contributes to overall life satisfaction and according to Edward Lawler (1973) measured job satisfaction as quality of life in an organization which important for the managers to understand the components of work life and ensure that the workplace provides the employee needs. Moreover, job satisfaction is an affective reaction to one’s job which resulting from the incumbent’s comparison of actual outcomes with those desired “expected, deserved and so on” stated by researcher Lewis J.W. Lim (2012).
According to Sempane, Rieger & Roodt (2002), “Job satisfaction relates to people’s own evaluation of their jobs against those issues that are important to them”. More over Meggins, Mosley & Pietri (1982) stated that people experiences job satisfaction when they are feeling good about their jobs and that feeling relates towards their doing their jobs well or else being recognized as a good performer in the organization.
Other interpretation view that job satisfaction attributes the positive and negative feelings and attitudes of people hold about their jobs and that depend on many work-characteristics but also on personal characteristic such as age, gender, health and social relationship which described by Schultz and Schultz (1998). But argued by researcher Locke & Latham, (2000) that job satisfaction is one of the top issues for management and organization researchers have been conducted on different dimensions of job satisfaction because it has been closely linked with the organizational phenomena such as leadership, morale, motivation and performance.
Decenzo & Robbins, (1998 p.152) has revealed that the factors which contribute to the job satisfaction of any employee are: pay, work, co-workers and environment. On the other hand the study of Ellickson & Logsdon (2001) described that adequate equipment, required resources, training opportunities and an equitable workload all affect job satisfaction. Other interpretation has measured that the job satisfaction on the basis of employee, attitude to the job, relations with the co-workers, supervision, company policy and support, promotion and pay according to DeVane & Sandy, (2003).
According to Freeman (1978) that employers prefer that their employees to be satisfied, since the employees’ satisfaction is closely related to their labor market such as productivity, quits and absenteeism. On the other hand, Locke (1976) has defines that the job satisfaction as the individual’s subjective valuation of different aspects of their job involvement. In addition, it is a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job whereby cognition and the feeling of an individual elaborating the idea of selecting the right path for it is execution, however it not only linked to the psychological behavior of an individual but also related to his or her biological behavior depending on their personality trait which described by researcher (Locke, 1976).
For example, according to the researcher Smith, Kendall and Hullin (1969) identified that the job satisfaction of an employee rely on the result been collected from the interpretation of individual’s job characteristics. The task is based upon by the reference structural definition whereby certain of the employee situation affect their satisfaction during their work been carried out at workplace. It is depend on the factors such as comparison between jobs and comparison with the others employee working experiences, skill and ability of accomplishing their organization objective.
Another author Herzberg (1957) has stated that employee’s psychological recognition given through their accomplishment of their job, to believe the level of job satisfaction determined by the gap of the work actually and expected obtained by the employees. There are five factors that related to the job satisfaction of the employees included company policy, administration, inter-personal relations, work condition and payment.
According to researcher Fogarty (1994) refer job satisfaction as the employee’s gaining their success and enjoyment from their won effort in the workplace and given the proper recognition for their hardship. For example, when an employee has a positive attitude towards their job, they have high level of job satisfaction and identify their goals in the organization. However, according to Mael and Tetrick (1992) has stated that an employee could be able adopt their beliefs towards the management, they will tend to cooperate with the management goals and objectives, such employee are likely to be attached emotionally with the organizational and has strong level of job satisfaction. A study of Shore (1995) has mentioned that an employee tend to be more loyal towards their organization when they have the high level of job satisfaction whereby the employee has happy working environment with the other employee, who share the experience and skill together. The bonding of the employee working relationship could foster the level job satisfaction in the workplace.
In other studies of Santhapparaj and Alam (2005) regarding of job satisfaction among the private universities in Malaysia has determine that salary, promotion, benefits, working conditions and others are positively related with the job satisfaction which influences work related and also employee related. Where else another researcher Fauziah and Anizah (2003) has stated that academic staff in public universities in Malaysia had a collectivist and moderate level of job satisfaction.
Hence, another study that been conducted in Cyprus by Zembylas (2004) has stated that academic staff and teachers found to be coordinate with the students based on performance growth and the well-being in developed countries which will result on their contributions for the society. Another study by Farh (1990) has mentioned that job satisfaction in China is not strong which tend to more concern on economic and cultural perspective did not anticipate the employee turnover in the China region and correlated with the employee’s turnover in foreign directly that speculate with an organization.
Chapter two refers as Literature Review consists of the motivation, organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction in the job involvement of an organization.
In conclusion, the literature review is a description of what has been published on a topic or study that accredited by the scholars and researchers. In this chapter, the researcher’s has provide the purpose to convey the reader on what been knowledge and ideas have been established regarding the study of the weakness and strength. Besides that the study has carried out the researcher’s argument towards the review. It also shows the existing ideas that fit into the researchers’ own thesis differ from other researchers.
Next will be focus on the Chapter Three which is the Theoretical Framework which involving identify the variables in the study. It also will discuss the nature of the questions will be ask to the respondents and also describe the issues related to adopt the approach. In that chapter also provide the detail about the population and sample that will be use. It also focus on how to design the questionnaire and provide potential impact on reliability and validity of the data.