Factors Affecting The Job Performance Of Bank Employees Management Essay
Job performance of an employee in banks and in any other organisation plays a vital role, not only for the organisation but also for the employee himself.
M. Ali Pervez (2009) discuss about the different emotions like anger, interest and trust and how these emotions form a relationship among themselves and effects the job performance of an individual. He also discusses about the role of the gender in effecting the job performance at a work place. Moreover to strengthen the research carried out on Gender led to many other social and cultural differences. Jeffery H.Greenhause et al (1990) portrayed and identified that career outcomes and the job performance levels of white and black managers are different. M. Ali Pervez (2009) researched about emotions and its impacts on the job performance. The samples of 210 people are collected to relate them with the emotions and to check for the job performance. The relationship between the emotions and the job performance came out to be strongly influential, hence proving that interest, trust and anger plays a vital role in causing deterioration of the job performance at a work place.
Alan M Saks et al (1998) and Mohammad Shamsuddoha, Md, Khaled Afzal (2005) relate the factor of age with the job performance. Both findings showed that the age has an effect on the working and job performance of a worker. Employees with more age tend to slow down than the employees with the less age and employees with less age work faster than those with more age. Mohammad Shamsuddoha (2005) carried out research in the third world country like Bangladesh, where the age barrier is seen less importantly because people tend to extend their service life and hinder the recruitment of young people. In the findings of Riaz Khan, Ziauddin, Farooq A Jam and M. I. Ramay (2010) age plays no significant part in the job performance and satisfaction but the employees with age under 25 has high performance as compared to other ages. Fawad Hanif and Yasir Kamal (2009) present their statistics about the employee participation in Pakistani banks. According to them Pakistani banks do not see employee participation as a key element, but their research showed different results indicating that the factor employee participation is very essential in achieving job satisfaction and job performance.
Several researchers like (Nguyen, Taylor, & Bradley, 2003), Fawad Hanif and Yasir Kamal (2009), Rizwan Saleem (2010), Masud Ibn Rahman, Bahadur and Saha (2009) had the same opinion about the pay and the monetary benefits given to employees by an organisation. Increase in pay and monetary benefits help an employee to perform much better and with more enthusiasm. Increase in fringe benefits and work related incentives can help the employees concentrate more on the work and the performance level are tend to be high (Nguyen, Taylor, & Bradley, 2003). Igbaria and Baroudi (1995), Ahmed Hunjra, Irfan Chani, Sher Aslam, Muhammad Azam and Kashif (2010), T. Clifton Green, Narasimhan Jegadeesh, and Yue Tang (2007) discussed about the gender problems that are always a critical issue in an organisation. Factors like autonomy, leadership behavior and team work effects the overall job satisfaction and performance of both the genders. The relationship between these three variables is significant among them and also with the performance and satisfaction level in general. Men are more satisfied with their jobs as compared to women because of all the three factors acting differently on both the genders. Pakistani environment being men dominated also plays a vital role in getting the results that showed the job satisfaction and performance level being different in both the genders, Ahmed Hunjra, Irfan Chani, Sher Aslam, Muhammad Azam and Kashif (2010).
The foremost and the important factor studied in almost every major research of the articles was the HRM practices being followed in different Pakistani organisations. Better human resource management practices helps get more productivity out of an employee and thus the overall productivity of an organisation increased, Bloom and Van Reenen (2007). Ahmed Hunjra, Irfan Chani, Sher Aslam, Muhammad Azam and Kashif (2010) in their research took the samples of 295 people who were then studied for different HRM practices like leadership, autonomy and team work environment. The results indicated that the team work environment is more important as compared to the other two factors. Adequate information provided and given to do the job and the overall job description is also a part of the HRM practices highlighted in the article by Masud Ibn Rahman, Bahadur and Saha (2009). The results were similar as more research on HRM practices and policies helps design a better inner environment of an organisation and significantly affects the job performance in a positive way. The better the HRM practices are taken care of in the organisation, the more the performance of the employees is seen to be positive. The performance of the employees then adds into the overall organisational performance and the satisfaction level of the employees is seen too be high.
Work involvement and commitment helps in adding the organisational commitment. Organisational commitment is divided in three parts, affective commitment which measures the relationship of employeeââ‚¬â„¢s emotional attachment to work, normative commitment measures the pressure on the employee resulting from the organisation and Continuance commitment which tells about the commitment with the costs related to leave the job, Meyer and Allen (1990). These three organisational commitment points are taken into study by Riaz Khan, Ziauddin, Farooq A Jam and M. I. Ramay (2010) and conducted on the oil and gas sector of Pakistan. Results showed that all these three factors of the organisational commitment have a positive relation to that of the job performance. Organisational commitment had also been discussed in the research by Fawad Hanif and Yasir Kamal (2009).
The level of satisfaction directly impacts on the job performance of an employee. The relation between these two is positive showing that as the satisfaction level of the employee gets high the performance of the employee gets high too. Maurizio Pugno and Sara Depedri (2009) found the relationship between the job performance and satisfaction and how both these factors are affected by the economic incentives. Satisfaction in the job is achieved by realizing the employees work achievements and rewarding the employee, pay, on job trainings etc Ahmed Hunjra, Irfan Chani, Sher Aslam, Muhammad Azam and Kashif (2010). Thus, when the satisfaction level gets high the job involvement also increase. Job involvement then helps increase the job performance, Mark John Somers et al (1998). This proves the point and result that showed the positive relation of satisfaction and performance on a work place, of an employee.
The components of emotional intelligence like intrapersonal and interpersonal skill have a direct impact on the performance of an individual working. Adaptability, stress management and general mood also have an impact on the performance of the employees working. This was all represented in the research done by Hassan Jofri, Said Jofri, Yaccob and Sirous Korahi (2010). Emotions as studied by M. Ali Pervez (2009) can also give help in understanding different emotions and stress involved in the minds of the employees. Lam and Kirby (2002) showed positive correlation between emotional intelligence and job performance. The interpersonal and intrapersonal involve some self actualization concepts which can be interrelated for a valid research to take place. The skills along with the adaptability, stress management and general mood can help alter the results of job performance and can affect it tremendously. Moreover in the research information system was also taken as a component that affects the job performance of an employee, Hassan Jofri, Said Jofri, Yaccob and Sirous Korahi (2010). The model which was taken at the base was a model by Delone and Mclean (1992) which has the components like information and system quality. These factors were tested on the employees under study and then checked for their adaptability for the new IS systems. The usage of Is systems make the work more effective, which helps improve the satisfaction and this in result the overall job performance of the employees. The emotional and information systems are aligned together in such a manner that the components of emotional intelligence were used to check for the adaptability of the systems that are used in the organisation. The results showed a positive relation between both the components and also the job performance.
William R Bowman and Stephen L Mehay (2002) studied about the quality of education provided to employees before they start their jobs. The findings were in relation with the concept of better performance appraisal. The employees with the background of private schools, instead of the public schools have got a better hand on performing well and getting recognised at a workplace. Job insecurity related with the job comes into play when the employee is not getting the feedback he/she deserves. This concept of job insecurity related with the job satisfaction and then changing the whole concept of job performance was studied in detail by William D Reisel et al (2005). According to his research the job insecurity has a negative impact on the job performance.
High rates of job performance and job satisfaction can help reduce the absenteeism rate in an organisation. Thus the absenteeism rate if low can help increase the productivity of the organisation. Job satisfaction and job performance are interdependent on each other and all the factors that affect them relates to each other. Like in the previous researches the level of emotions are related with the job performance. The level of satisfaction derived from certain factors can impact the overall job performance. Gender issues are also an important part of taking in view the job performance. Certain issues like job insecurity are related to the job performance and also with the motivation of the employee. The work motivation plays a vital role in the job performance too as more the motivation of the employee is taken care of by pay, other non monetary benefits and HRM practices been applied, the more the job performance is higher.
Factors that are affecting job performance like age, HRM factors, pay and non monetary benefits, education etc has been discussed by all the researchers in their researches mentioned above. High performance of an employee regarding his/her job depends not only on the external factors, but also the internal factors like emotions, satisfaction etc. Both the external and internal factors are interrelated to cause an effect on the job performance of an employee in any organisation.