Factors Determining The Work Life Balance
The main objective of study was to know that what Factors determine the work life balance and what causes may be hurdle in work life balance practices in pharmaceutical sector in Pakistani culture. The questionnaire technique was used in conducting for this study. The results show that high rate of absenteeism cause work life unbalance and time management practice leads to work life balance activities. Furthermore, the study shows that demographic variables for employees play an important role for work life balance.
Key Words: Work-life balance, Absenteeism, Time Management, Human Resource.
Decenzo, Robbins & Verhulst have written (2008) that Human Resource is the most important resource for organizations irrespective of; they are commercial or non-commercial organizations. This is because the organizations having a lot of buildings and latest equipment, cannot achieve their goals without well talented human resources.
Nowadays in global perspective, organizations compete with each other. They try to get such advantages which cannot be attained and achieved easily by other organizations. In order to get some competitive advantages, they use different techniques and try to satisfy their employees.
Eikhof, Warhurst & Haunschild have studied (2007) that organizations need to maintain competent and satisfied workers to achieve their goals. Work Life Balance (WLB) plays important role in employee’s performance. In these days, it is considered as an important and hot Issue which is explained in meetings and conferences whether these are conducted by governments, practitioners and academic forums is work life balance. In order to get competitive advantages, the talented, well happy and satisfied employees are needed to the organizations. They satisfy their employees to provide different facilities. But nowadays work-life balance system is being practiced to satisfy their employees. Gregory & Milner (2009) say that the Work life Balance is an important for employees. That is why the representative (Unions) of employees demands for such policies which maintain the work life balance for employees.
It has been discussed that work-life balance influences employees’ performance and their satisfaction level. During of making policies for employees in developed countries, the work life balance is being paid specific attention (Gregory & Milner, 2009). Scholarios & Marks (2004) have studied that work life unbalance is considered as most important issue which has impact on the employees performance. Managing and maintaining work life balance increases employee’s performance and satisfaction.
There has been choosing only two factors time management and absenteeism to examine the factors that influences work life balance. There may be other factors. For example, Worker easiness, satisfaction etc. This is because that I have observed my roommates doing in pharmaceutical company. They were in trouble due to work life unbalance. They told these factors. That is why I chose only these two factors.
The objective of study is to explore that the work efficiency, absenteeism and time management can be made determinant factors for work life balance or not? This study will provide solutions to these problems which are created by not to be work life balance.
There are three dependent and independent variables. Dependent variable is Work- Life Balance. Independent variables are Absenteeism and Time Management.
Work Life Balance
According to Redmond, Valiulis & Eileen Drew (2006) the work-life balance it may be different for different persons. The term used in the literature to refer to policies that attempts to achieve a greater complementarily and balance between work and home responsibilities. Beauregard & Henry (2009) stated that numerous organizations are paying significant attention to provide work-life balance practices to facilitate their employees. Having work-life balance practices, they are attracting worker to themselves and are enhancing their employees’ performance.
Promotion and improvement of work-life balance is the most hot issue which is presently being debated among governmental departments and all other persons and departments which have concerns to the employees (Fleetwood, 2007). White, Hill, McGovern, Mills, & Smeaton, D (2003) have studied that Politicians and policymakers are exploring solutions. There are some new concepts which are related to employees, are emerging all over the world. One most new of them is Work-Life Balance.
Greenblatt (2002) has studied that Achieving and maintaining employees work life balance has become a strategic part of many organizations. In perspective of global competition for personnel, some industries have attracted talented human resources to provide them the facility of work life balance. Attracting them, the industries are getting competitive advantages to compete their competitors (Greenblatt, 2002).
There is a thing in which employer support influence on which it is out of work activities and responsibilities. The employer support influences the extent to which graduates can’t balance between home and work. Due to unbalance between them, the graduates face conflict between home and work. It shows two things: positive and negative. (Struges & Guest, 2004).
Employees as well as the managers demand solutions to solve problems that create due to work-life unbalance practice. As a result, the work- life- balance has considered as a worldly serious topic in government and corporate meetings as well conferences. In next decades, work-life-balance would become the most debatable topic which will be managing by executives and human resources professionals (Bird, 2006). There are much discussion about work-life balance and family-friendly employment used to conduct among politicians and businessmen. Some workers do their work at home. Doing working at home, usually is not considered as an included within such these practices (Felstead, Jewson, Phizacklea & Walters, 2002).It has been studied that work-life balance’ practices have significant impact to improve their’ job satisfaction level both for male and female. Due to having doubt in high level job satisfaction for gender gap, they don’t want to explain it. These practices cause the getting benefits which increase the worker’s satisfaction level regarding to basic and salary perspective. There are several policies and rules and regulations by which the use of work-life balance practices are encouraged (Asadullah & Fernandez, 2008).
The most important issue is Work life balance. The organizations recognize this issue as a most important part of their strategy. The employees also consider it as a most important thing for themselves (Guest, 2002). The employer has an own view is that work-life balance makes people happy with their job. The employees are satisfied with it. Due to having work-life balance practice in organizations, they do their work and responsibilities very well. Using work-life balance, the employer can have support in recruiting and retaining of its staff. Work-life balance practices have m any benefits both for employers and employees (Manfredi & Holliday 2004).
It has been discussed, the organizations are urged to follow completely rules and regulations that are lay down from code of Corporate Social Responsibility. This concept of CSR considers it as a most important factor. Now organizations understand that WLB can have a most important role in enhancing employee’s performance and satisfaction. They can observe and then compare to previous figures the benefits of this practice, if the employers have practices of work-life balance (Welford, 2008).
Traditionally definition of absence is ‘non-appearance for scheduled work’. It means not to be physically an employee in the workplace. Due to do working in virtual offices, the appropriate meaning of absence has become changed and has become difficult to understand absence (Kristensen et al., 2006). There are many factors which increase the expenses of establishment. One of them is absence with team production. The absence rate can be reduces through additional monitoring. But it is too much expensive. And it results in lower absence rate (Heywood & Jirjahn, 2004).
In spite of notifications from organizations to the employees due to be absence, the workers are not paying attention to minimize their absenteeism (Vardi & Wiener, 1996). It has been discussed that increasing rate of absenteeism is a big problem not only in United State but also throughout the world. Making absence from class, the students miss a lot of instructions and learning materials which are delivered from their respected teachers. Figures show that absenteeism can cause the students truancy which leads later students to the young crime and law-breaking (Yepern & Hagedoorn, 1996). Until few years, a lot number of economists not used to consider absenteeism as an important issue. But nowadays it has become as an important issue and it almost is discussed in every conference conducting on labors related problems (Frick & Malo, 2008). Due to increasing rate of work absence in work place in many European states, the owner’s attention are attracting to this issue. In developed countries, the maximum employees are protected by insurance companies and laws (Broström, Johansson & Palme, 2004).
The greatest factor among blue-collar employee which creates a trouble in the assembly lines is absenteeism. It has a negative impact on value and operation’s expenses (Mateo, 2008). It may be nature that worker demand some days of vacations. But the entrepreneur influences the vacations of worker. He can make more costly to take leaves for workers or he can make workers ‘schedule very tight (Jaarsveld & Yanadori, 2011).
Lishchinsky & Rosenblatt (2009) have taken results that there are four moral ideas. These are helpful climate, proper environment, inclination to behave badly and technical fairness. Helpful environment is related to absence period and others are related to absence frequency. Due to demand of absence policy from employees, the employees absence policies and procedures are being developed. They may make getting absenteeism easier for employees and may make most benefits for them (Dalton & Perry, 1981). If absenteeism increase in high level in short term, it will lead to decreasing of employees’ performance in long term (Harrison, 1998). absenteeism leads to decreased performance in the
Time management involves the process of determining needs, setting goals to achieve these needs, prioritizing and planning tasks required to achieve these goals (Lakein 1973).
Claessens, Eerde, Rutte & Roe (2005) stated that the importance of practice of time management is growing. Time management training is being conducted in competing organizations. Vasiliadou, Derri, Galanis & Emmanouilidou (2009) have written that the usage of schedules and guidelines and the application of time and instruments play a most important role to increase the usage of session time.
Organizations must have more interest in time because of it is a scarce resource and it involves the various resources of the Organization, if time wasn’t managed, nothing else will be managed. And a good management of time is useful in providing the resources and the costs of the Organization (Alsarayreh , 2012). Time management is a good technique to check up more patients in less available time. This technique can be used by using centralized Data Stream Management System DSMS(Srivastava & Widom ,2004).
It has been studied that teachers ‘abilities can be improved if different kind of time management trainings are provided to teachers. Studying in parallel manner affects the student’s ability and achieves. It would lead in more complete conclusions. He effect of the program on student achievement or on teacher (Vasiliadou, Derri, Galanis & Emmanouilidiou , 2009). Clinical physicians are facing some major issues in today’s wellbeing care atmosphere. One of them is lack of time management practice. Due to lack of time management practice, cost of some activities is increasing gradually (Kleshinski, Dunn & Kleshinski, 2010).
Time management, and its impact on performance and achievement, has been researched extensively over the last few decades. Many people believe that time management is the key to success in academics, business and many other aspects of life. However, previous research on time management has not produced consistent findings as to whether or not time management is imperative to academic success (Time Management).
The use and understanding of time-based structures is an important component for good individual time management. Four properties of individual time management include planning, meeting deadlines, sensing a lack of time control and engaging in procrastination. Scott (2011).
Anand (2007) 26 urged that if employees are skillful at a beginning stage then time management designs are implanted in them and they remain during their workplace lives.
This study was conducted in pharmaceutical sector. That is why the population of this study is the worker of vision pharmaceutical company.
The questions used in this study were an adaptation from different articles. Questions of work life balance used in desertion of Chaney (2007) which is written to fulfill the requirement for the degree of doctor of Education… Alpha thornback reliability is 0.78. Questions of time management were used in thesis of Vander hall (1995) which was submitted in partial fulfillment of the re quitrent for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Alpha thornback reliability was 0.7.
Absenteeism questions were used by Lishchinsky and Risenblatt (2008). Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability is 0.75.
In order to make this study, 150 questionnaires were floated in vision pharmaceutical company. 113 filled questionnaires are understood reasonable to make this study.
A questionnaire which is used in this study consists of purpose of this study. There are two part in questioners. First consists of demographics: gender, age, education, marital status, family size and income level. In this part likert scale was used.
Second part consists of 24 objects to measure Work-life balance, Absenteeism and Time Management. 5 items were used to measure Work-Life Balance, 11 were used to measure Absenteeism and 8 for Time Management. All the items were supported with 5 point Liker scale ranging from 1. Strongly Disagree to 5. Strongly Agree. Cranach’s Alpha values of each variable are mentioned in table.
In order to check the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, two hypotheses were developed.
H1: Workers’ high rate of absence causes work-life unbalance.
H2: Time management practice will lead to work-life balance.
Demographical analysis shows that out of sample of 113, 85 are men and 18 are women. Due to women’s lack interest to do job in Pakistani culture; women’s length is less than men. Most of them are between 36-45 years old. Most of them are those who got Intermediate education. There are two specific questions that were used in questionnaire. These questions have most impact on work life balance. These are about marital status and monthly income.
Descriptive statistics is used to determine the main features of the collected data in quantitative terms. It is used to examine the central tendency of the data in terms of mean, median, mode and standard deviation. All the items used in the instrument (questionnaire), were based on 5-point Liker scale therefore, the mean values greater than 3.00 for all the three variables. (Work life balance, Absenteeism and Time Management are showing the significant positive trend. The correlation analysis is used to find out the strength of the relationship between several variables.
Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The regression analysis is used to determine the dependence of Work life balance upon the
Independent variables i.e. Absenteeism and Time Management. The results showed that up to 0.49 of the variation in criterion variable (Work life balance) is explained by two of the predicting variables i.e. Absenteeism and Time Management. The values of coefficients of coefficients were found as 0.352 for absenteeism and 0.398 for time management. Hence, the results found that adjusted R Square of absenteeism is 0.116 and of time management is 0.151.
Discussions and Findings
Work life balance is a most important among employees. This is because that lack of work life balance practice causes the employees’ satisfaction. The main motive of this study was to check that what factors can determine the work life balance. Results show that all the selected elements affect the work life balance.
The results of this study of employees of pharmaceutical company shows that if the employee’s absenteeism rate is less in company, work life balance can be achieved here. Time management practices determine the work life balance.
Descriptive results shed light on the positive trend of each of the variables selected for the study.
Time management also plays a major role. If a time management is being practiced in company, work life balance can be achieved here. Pharmaceutical sector is the most important sector in which time management practice can provide work life balance for employees. The research study has shown that most of the time management practitioners are influenced.
Time management and Absenteeism are found having positive relationship. This study also validates this notion as if there is less absenteeism rate in company; work life balance can be attained in this company.
The research study has shown that independent variables that are Absenteeism and Time Management play a very important role in getting work life balance practices. Each independent variable influences dependent variable in this study. The human resources are the most important and most valuable assets in each and every organization. That is why the organizations want, try and struggle very well to make their workers satisfied. Satisfied employees would be able to make long term profitable relationship with company.
This study was conducted to determine the factors that influence and have impact on work life balance. There are many factors available in this field that can be chose for this study. But only two factors were taken for this study. Due to having observation regarding to these two factors. The results show significant relation among independent and dependent variables. Time management has a positive and significant relation to work life balance. It means that if time management practices were being practiced in organization, then their employees can have work life balance practices. This practice will lead to enhance organization’s performance. Similarly second independent variable is time management. It has positive impact on work life balance. It means that if absenteeism rate is high, it will lead to work life unbalance. It will create troubleness among employees’ work life balance.
There is significant effect of absenteeism on work life balance. If there is high absenteeism rate in organizations, it will cause work life unbalance. The employees cannot manage their work life balance activities.