Factors effecting team effectiveness job satisfaction
Today, workers are often valued and more and more are regarded as an investment, rather than as a commodity to be traded or tossed aside. Employees and employers, alike, are concerned with fostering a good working environment. We hear terms like “job satisfaction.” According to contemporary business practices, employees are becoming more involved.
Teamwork is a joint action by two or more people, in which each person contributes with different skills and expresses his or her individual interests and opinions to the unity and efficiency of the group in order to achieve common goals. This does not mean that the individual is no longer important; however, it does mean that effective and efficient teamwork goes beyond individual accomplishments. The most effective teamwork is produced when all the individuals involved harmonize their contributions and work towards a common goal.
Many different characteristics factor into forming a successful team, and as more and more companies and corporations are realizing the significance and value teams bring to the business, the more imperative it has become to identify the dynamics of an award winning team. The four most crucial pieces to build a profitable team are determining a common goal, understanding and applying different abilities, forming mutual accountability and trust, and practicing conflict resolution. Without these four key dynamics, there will not be a solid foundation to form a successful team.
Another way we can say, Team building can mean different things to different people, and can take a different form depending on the size and nature of the team. An ideal team may consist of a group of people who are committed to achieving a common objective, produce high quality results, who work well together and enjoy their work.
The team approach to managing organizations is having diverse and substantial impacts on organizations and individuals. The team works for a certain achievements. Achievement is usually measured by some kind of performance indicator such as; customer satisfaction, sales growth. Teamwork is improved when the group changes their behavior so that performance improves. In this paper we will discuss about the factors, which both improve and reduce the organizations performance. (Daulatram B. Lund, 2003).
There is a direct correlation between the idea of job satisfaction and employee involvement. But how exactly does employee involvement and teamwork influence job satisfaction? First we must analyze the meaning of employee involvement and what it is to be a team.
1.1.1 Definition of Key Items
The term job satisfaction is been defined as “a function of the perceived relationship between what one wants from one’s job and what one perceives it as offering” (Locke, 1969).
The term job satisfaction has been discussed by many authors, on the first time this term was first defined by Hoppock (1935) as a “combination of psychological, physical and environmental circumstances that causes a person” and Hoppock stated then the employee will say that, “I am satisfied with my job”.
Base on the literature there are many definition to job satisfaction as discussed by Locke (1969), who defines job satisfaction as a positive emotional feeling, a result of one’s evaluation towards his job or his job experience by comparing between what he expects from his job and what he actually gets from it. Job satisfaction is the result of the interaction of the employees’ values and his perception towards his job and environment (Locke, 1976).
2.1 Latest Theories for Job Satisfaction
2.1.1 Affect Theory
Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The major basis of this theory is that satisfaction is resolute by an inconsistency between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Additional, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. When a person values an exacting facet of a job, his satisfaction is more very much impacted together positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that surface. For example, if Employee values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.
2.1.2 Dispositional Theory
Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.
A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her/his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.( Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. ,2001).
2.1.3 Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)
Frederick Herzberg’s Two-factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. Name (HackmanOldham1976)
3.1 How do companies can improve Job Satisfaction
There are many things that can affect the effectiveness of job satisfaction. Some of them are adequate resources, leadership, and performance evaluation and rewards, frame the context of a team. If the health benefit orientation did not provide employees with the needed information about each provider, employees would be lacking a mandatory resource and would not be able to come up with a decision. When companies develop teams they must take into consideration that in order to succeed they must have continuing support from the organization. They must also realize that effective job satisfaction consists of designing a plan that team members can follow in order for the organization to be successful.
4.1 Research Framework
Source: Charles M. Carson, Don C. Mosley, Scott L. Boyar, (2004).,”Goal orientation and supervisory behaviors: impacting SMWT effectiveness.”Journal of Team Performance Management. 2004 .Vol 10 .Issue: 7/8 .Pg 152 – 162.Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
The above model for individual goal orientation on the self-management work process and how individual goal orientation may impact self-managed work team (SMWT) effectiveness. Supervisory encouragement, team member goal orientation, and work team behaviors are included in a conceptual model of work team effectiveness It is also an important aspect that is the relationships between goal orientation, encouraging manager or supervisor behaviors, and self-managed work team effectiveness needs the external manager or supervisors to encourage certain work team behaviors to promote work team effectiveness.(Charles M. Carson, Don C. Mosley, Scott L. Boyar, 2004).
5.1 Key Success Factors to Team Efficiency
Team leadership: Most team members are primarily concerned about relationship and about being valued as a team member, before they are concerned about the task that the team is to undertake. A team leader must Commitment to people, Desire to Support and Serve, Enthusiasm, Energy, Inspiration and Expertise, Willingness to shoulder responsibility, Ability to achieve more as a team.
Shared vision: The Team members should have shared vision to achieve the goal.
Collocation: Team collocation is most important for a team, where the entire team member assume each other as nuclear family.
Technology: All the team members need knowledge about technology and ability to use.
Team size: Team size is a factor, because too big team is difficult to guide, and too small team is less knowledge and power.
Feedback: Individual opinion of all team members.
Partnering: Interactive workshop for leadership teams develop an organizational plan to build an internal partnering infrastructure.
Collaboration: Collaboration simply means “working together. Knowledge based on skills, resources and background to achieve the goal.
Empowerment: Empowering people to succeed will create an incredible team of people
Team learning: Continuous Learning Opportunity.
6.1 Developing Teamwork competencies
Forming work place teams and urging employees to be good team players are good starting points on the road to effective teams, this is no enough today. Teamwork skills and competencies need to role modeled and taught. These include group problem solving, mentoring, conflict management skills, and emotional intelligence. A team is a mature group where leadership is shared, accountability is both individual and collective, the member have developed their own purpose, problem solving is a way of life, and effectiveness is measured by collective outcomes. There are five teamwork competencies;
Orients team to problem solving situations
Organizes and manages team performance
Promotes a positive team environment
Facilitates and manages task conflicts
Appropriately promotes perspective
7.1 Problem Statement
The Job satisfaction is the factor that can influence employee performance and efficiency. Team effectiveness and job satisfaction are some of the common and most important issues among the organization and it debated on the relationship between job satisfaction and employee performance. In this report we will be highlighting the issues as well as their solution with respect to the latest literature.
The focus of this report is to work for the efficiency and effectiveness of employees towards performance. By focusing on how the ‘best companies to work for’ provide the best to the employees, this report will highlight the following dilemmas. Is job satisfaction directly proportional to employee performance? Does one lead to the occurrence of other or are they independent of each other’s presence?
The issues we have highlighted is
8.1 Objective of this Study
The core objectives of the report are given below:
To identify the factors motivating employees in the organization which can lead to job satisfaction?
To determine the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and the level of employee efficiency.
To determine the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and the level of effectiveness among the employee.
To examine what are the factors that can influence job satisfaction effectiveness and efficiency
9.1 Case Study on Factors effecting team effectiveness and Job satisfaction
In 2001 and 2002 Visiting Arts worked with Teamwork to present a showcase of contemporary Indian performing arts at the Edinburgh Festivals with the support of the India Consulate General in Scotland, Scottish Indian Arts Forum, Edinburgh Mela and British Council Scotland. Presentations included visual arts from Kolkata, martial arts from Manipur at the Tattoo and an all-night Raga at the Edinburgh International Festival. Each and every member participated and they have brought the efficiency. It was set that Hidden Gardens were launched in 2003 as Scotland’s first pluralistic spiritual garden for the 21st Century. A major landscape project that transformed a derelict gap near the renowned Tramway theatre to create permanent gardens designed with a communal vision. The gardens were designed in a beautiful manner with the mutual understand of the team member. They have coordinated so well and as result these celebrations of diversity in nature and humanity advocating an equality of faiths and beliefs that all have gardens central to their symbolism. Visiting Arts enabled Divya Bhatia, Prithvi Arts Director from Bombay to work with NVA as a mentor to the creative team providing a spiritual overview and conceptual framework garden. The understanding to this case is if the entire member participates the whole team can be benefited as a whole. On the other hand if any of the member to not play the role with his dedication then the whole team might suffer. (Source: www.visitingarts.org.uk)
Facilitates and manages task conflicts
Promotes a positive team environment
Organizes and manages team performance
Orients team to problem solving situations
Appropriately promotes perspective
Creating gift culture
Task oriented Relationship
Building on heritage relationships
Understanding Role & Task
Supporting strong sense of community
Figure 1: Successful Team collaboration
Source: L. Gratton & T. Erickson, (2007)., “Eight Ways to Build Collaborative Teams.” Harvard Business Review.
10.1 The factors that lead to successful team collaboration
In organization that used the following practices teams collaborated more effectively.
10.1.1 Investing in ÙÙSignature Relationship practices
Executives can encourage collaborative behavior by making highly visible investments in facilities with open floor plans to foster communication. For example that demonstrates their commitment to collaboration.
10.1.2 Modeling Collaborative Behavior
At Organization where the senior executives demonstrate highly collaborative behavior themselves, teams collaborate well.
10.1.3 Creating a “gift culture”
Mentoring and coaching especially on an informal basis help people build the networks they need to work across corporate boundaries.
10.1.4 Ensuring the Requisite Skills
There is a high contribution of human resource department in term of giving training and teaching employees. However in order to build a positive relationship communication play a important role. It also resolves conflicts creatively with a significant impact on team collaboration.
10.1.5 Supporting a Strong Sense of Community
When people feel a sense of community, they are more comfortable reaching out to others and more likely to share knowledge.
10.1.6 Assigning team leaders that are bath task and relationship oriented
The debate has traditionally focused on whether a task or a relationship orientation creates better leadership, but in fact both are keys to successfully leading a team. Typically, leaning more heavily on a task orientation at the outset of a project and shifting toward a relationship orientation once the work is in full swing works best.
10.1.7 Building on heritage relationships
When too many team members are strangers, people may be reluctant to share knowledge. The best practice is to put at least a few people who know one another on the team.
10.1.8 Understanding role clarity and task ambiguity
Cooperation increases when the roles of individual team members are sharply denned yet the team is given latitude on how to achieve the task.
11.1 The Factors threats team effectiveness
No matter how carefully managers staff and organize task groups and teams, group dynamics can still go haywire. Forehand knowledge of two major threats to group effectiveness- group think and social loafing, which can help managers and team members alike take necessary preventive steps.
Groupthink is a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in group, when members striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative course of action, also groupthink refer to a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures. Members of groups victimized by groupthink tend to be friendly and tightly knit. According to Janis`s model. There are eight classic symptoms of groupthink. The greater the number of symptom. The higher the probabilities of group think:
I. Invulnerability: An illusion that breeds excessive optimism and risk taking.
2. Inherent morality: A belief that encourages the group to ignore ethical implications.
3. Rationalization: Protects pet assumptions.
4. Stereotyped views of opposition: Cause group to underestimate opponents.
5. Self censorship: Stifles critical debate.
6. Illusion of unanimity: Silence interpreted to mean consent.
7. Peer pressure: Loyalty of dissenters is questioned.
8. Mind guards: Self-appointed protectors against adverse information.
These conditions often create a climate of fear participants.
12.1 How to prevent Group think
Each member of the group should be assigned the role of critical evaluator. This role involves actively voicing objections and doubts.
Top level executive should not use policy committees to rubber stamp decision that have already been made.
Different group with different leaders should explore the same policy questions.
Subgroup debate and outside experts should be used to introduce fresh perspective.
Someone should be given the role of devil’s advocate when discussing major alternatives. This person tries to uncover every conceivable negative factor.
Once a consensus has been reached, everyone should be encouraged to rethink their position to check for flaws.
In the conclusion we can say, Team work success is that all the team efforts are directed towards the same clear goals, this relies heavily on good communication in the team and the harmony in member relationships.
If a good management or supervision is provided to the employees, then the employees will be having a positive feeling on jobs. It is needed to do the right thing on the right time on the right people. In real life teamwork success not often happens by itself without focused team building efforts and activities.
There simply too much space for problems. Because different personalities, instead of complementing and balancing each other. May build up conflicts. So team goals should be very clear and totally understood and accepted by each team member. If there is more team in the same organization, then both teams must be keeping away from overlapping authority. For example, if there is a risk that all team members will compete for control in certain area, try to split that area. So it is important to work as a whole organization, and all member will work as collaboration and members are engage in the decision making process.
Teamwork is one the significant instrument of new forms of work organizations. It is mostly a measured in a particular organization that may display many different features under national context and in the context of individual enterprises. (Renáta VaÅ¡ková ,2007)
Teamwork motivation is classified as an individual phenomenon, which describes as intentional and also is multifaceted. It is the in the Human behavior all around the world which is unique from one another. Hence it is true to say that it is difficult to totally motivate people well in an organization, because the influential factors of motivation are countless. However, team motivation of individuals directly is related to motivation of a team. Managers found out how to motivate individuals well and then based on these to motivate people will in a team in order to fulfill goals of team and also missions of whole organization. It is worth noting that making full use these factors are not only can bring plenty of benefits for individuals but also for organization. Enhancing work performances of team or individuals, it is beneficial for organization to increase competitive advantage in this crucially competitive market. (Xiaorong Sun & Yun Wang, (2007).