Factors For The Implementation Of Quality Management System Management Essay
In this highly developed and competitive world, quality is being emphasized especially in manufacturing and service sectors. According to Joel Baker (1990), there is an epidemic of quality worldwide which you catch it may mean you are nothing the business in ten years’ time. Thus, quality management system (QMS) is adapted by various sectors in order to achieve the standard and also to improve their products and services.(U have to intro what is the definition of quality management system, a general one by some writer’s statement)
A quality management system (QMS) can be expressed as the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management.
The elements of QMS are tubulated as below:
Elements of a Quality Management System
*Note: this can be used for later part.or ur introduction).i do not know which chapter is it but u can use it but it’s up to u)
Nowadays, the standard of living is increasing (Nowadays, the command of the high living standard has already been a norm to everybody in Malaysia.), people are willingly to spend in order to get a better product or service and People do also tend to choose or select the(omit) products or services as they deemed the one that achieved the(omit) ISO standards which is(are) always a(the) better one and it’s (it is)-do not use short form when u’re writing, short form is only used in a conversation) the(omit) (guarantee of quality)(guaranteed in quality).
The quality system was initially created for manufacturing industry. Nowadays, ISO 9000 standards are rapidly implemented in service industries in order to improve their service quality. (U have to briefly explain what is ISO 9000) :
ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO 9000 is maintained by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies. The rules are updated, as the requirements motivate changes over time. Some of the requirements in ISO 9001:2008 (which is one of the standards in the ISO 9000 family) include
a set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business;
monitoring processes to ensure they are effective;
keeping adequate records;
checking output for defects, with appropriate and corrective action where necessary;
regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness; and
facilitating continual improvement
A company or organization that has been independently audited and certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001 may publicly state that it is “ISO 9001 certified” or “ISO 9001 registered”. Certification to an ISO 9001 standard does not guarantee any quality of end products and services; rather, it certifies that formalized business processes are being applied.
Maghrabi (19999) stated that The implementation of ISO 900 was essential because the organisation realized that employee satisfaction at work influence many aspects of organisation performance such as efficiency, productivity, absenteeism, turnovers rate and intention to quit (Maghrabi, 1999). The purpose of implemnetation ISO 9000 standards is to assist organisation in all sectors and sizes to implement and operate an effective quality managements system.
Generally, the implementation if ISO Quality Management System can be divided into five stages: planning (plan), documentation (do), verification and validation (check), deployment (act) and continuous improvement (Nanda, 2005).
(U have to briefly explain what are the 5 stages are) can be in a table or any sample that u can think of) the best is example from books or article)
(My comment: You straight away write the fifth stage how about 1st-4th stage???.(Please do not confuse the reader!!! A good thesis is to make a layman who doesn’t know anything to understand ur writing)
The fifth stage which is Continuous Improvement stage is actually the phase where maintenance of the quality system ISO 9001:2008 is carried out. During the maintenance stage, more emphasis must be placed on continuous improvement and preventive action. Furthermore, Nanda (2005) stated that at the maintenance stage, internal quality audits must be utilized not merely to verify adherence to the defined QMS but also explore the opportunities for continuous improvement. Chin et al. (2000) stressed that continuous maintenance of the ISO 9000 Quality Management System is essential to satisfy the surveillance visits by registrars. Besides that, continuous maintenance is vital for monitor and improves the system. In addition, this phase is important for the organisation to continuously improvement and obtains the long term benefits of having a Quality Management System in place.( My Comment: why suddenly from continius improvement to continius maintainnance, is it inter-related?? If it is u need to explain how is it related, – Please do not introduce a topic out of nowhere )
In every organisation, it is a lie if the management of an organasiation stated that they do not face any difficulties with the implementation of ISO 9000, problems do persists as in this world nothing is perfect. The difficulties that organisations face with ISO 9000 have been well documented. In earlier studies, typical problems consisted of issues related to substantial time and costs involved, gaining the commitment of stakeholders, particularly employees and the top management team, difficulties in interpreting the standard, problems with assessor and consultants, and cumbersome and bureaucratic documentation requirements (Brown and van der Wiele, 1995). According to Lee and Palmer, the major challenges are around the auditing process, particularly the challenges that organisations face with internal audits and corrective action procedures.
Furthermore, successful employee empowerment and involvement are essential components of any management program. Torringtom and Hall (1995) stated that “difficulties experienced in adopting TQM have focused on people. As ISO 9000 Quality Management System is a pathway to achieve Total Quality Management, management also faced the same difficulties during the implementation of QMS ISO 9000.
However, a QMS can help to improve quality and productivity through the elimination of the causes of the non conformance in every activity in the company. An effective QMS allows the client’s requirements to be understood and met first time, every time and at the minimum cost. Based on Skrabec et al. (1997), the benefits of ISO certification includes:
Improvement in documentation.
Improvement in operating standard.
Improvement in quality awareness.
Ability to sustain market share.
Improvement in perception of product quality.
Ability to increase market share.
Reduction in cases of non conformity.
Improvement in customer satisfaction.
Improvement in competitive advantage.
Reduction in quality audits.
The ISO 9000 Quality Management System had a major impact on worldwide commerce and service organizations. It should proceed with the full knowledge on that, otherwise become certified will only be costly, time-consume and disruptive in the short run. However, the benefits can be realized in terms of it is well planned to adapt the organization plus the long-term is required. In addition, the root problems cause to the ineffectiveness of ISO 9000 Quality Management System should be identified and be solved with the purpose of generating the long-term benefits.
1.2 Problem Statement
ISO 9000 standards are getting popularity in educational institutions. The initiative to implement ISO 9000 quality system in Public Higher Education Institution (PuHEIs) was undertaken with the introduction of the Development and Administration Circular by the Malaysian Government in 1996 (Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam, 1996). This circular enforce all government agencies to implement MS ISO 9000 quality system in their organization as a tool to ensure the delivery of quality services to customers is excellence.
Among the pioneer of puHEIs, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia is already certified to ISO 9000.(already certified right?? Got the certificate already right?? then is should be was certified with ISO 9000) In addition, UTM had been announced as a Research University by the Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Mohd Najib Tun Razak in parliament when he presented the 10th Malaysia Plan on 10th June 2010. As(omit) One of the main facilities in UTM which is the academic library of UTM (Perpustakaan Sultanah Zanariah) has achieved the MS ISO 9002: 1994 certification by SIRIM on the 30th May 1998. “Perpustakaan Sultanah Zanariah(PSZ)” is the first department(facility or department???is a library a department??) in UTM which achieved the MS ISO 9002: 1994 certification and upgraded to MS ISO 9001:2000 in 2002. The MS ISO 9001:2000 process approach requires the management of activities and resources, enabling a desired result to be achieved. In addition, the MS ISO 9001:2000 of Perpustakaan Sultanah Zanariah was upgraded to MS ISO 9001:2008 in August 2010.
Definitions of facility on the Web:
a building or place that provides a particular service or is used for a particular industry; “the assembly plant is an enormous facility”
adeptness: skillful performance or ability without difficulty; “his quick adeptness was a product of good design”; “he was famous for his facility as an archer”
a natural effortlessness; “they conversed with great facility”; “a happy readiness of conversation”–Jane Austen
something designed and created to serve a particular function and to afford a particular convenience or service; “catering facilities”; “toilet facilities”; “educational facilities”
a service that an organization or a piece of equipment offers you; “a cell phone with internet facility”
Academic libraries play a significant role as social institutions to support knowledge and research (Katsirikou, 2004). As a service organization, a library consists of a group of people, resources, physical and financial which is operating as a process to achieve organization objective. *Thus, library management of PSZ(aiya u should have intro the short form in the beginning lor not in the later stage) have to do more (put in extra) efforts to maintain the quality management system and also improved(imporving) the system to provide a better service in order to be up to the standard as one of the facilities in Research University.
*Thus, it is a challenge for the management of PSZ to put in extra efforts to maintain the quality management system and also has be keen in improving or enhancing the system to provide a good quality as to be on par as one of the best facility in Research University in Malaysia.
Perpustakaan Sultan Zanariah has successfully maintain the ISO 9000 for 12 years and been upgraded to MS ISO 9001:2008 recently. The internal and external audit have been conducted annually by auditors of PSZ and SIRIM respectively to review the performance of the organisation, identify potential danger spot, eliminate wastage and verify that correction action has been successful achieved. Library management is endeavouring to develop the collection and provide services in such a manner that new demands by users can be met satisfactorily as Malaysia strives to be a regional hub for higher education.
However, does PSZ still facing some problems notwithstanding it has implemented ISO system for twelve years?
A preliminary interview had been conducted by the author with the Management Representative of PSZ, Pn Noraziah (to discuss-omit)inverview already still need to discuss ah??? About(regarding) the current difficulties faced(omit) while maintaining the quality management system. She revealed that there were some problems during the implementation of quality management system and most of the problems were caused by the personnel(employees). Lack of understanding among the employees about ISO system is one of the contributions to(of) the problems. They misinterpreted or u can the use “interrpreted wrongly” the actual requirements of the standard and this had(has indirectly) caused slow down the progression of the system. (Some example of misinteraration??)Besides that, the(omit) enrolment of new staffs will affect to the management system indirectly due to inexperience and do not have much knowledge (lack of knowledge) about ISO. Besides that(Apart of the above mentioned), the time frame also is one of the main problems. The employees have to do their main duty and prepare the documentation of quality at the same time. The employees have to spend more time on the job and this will cause to the resistance of employees about documentation process indirectly.
Apart of above mentioned problems, time frame is also the culprit leading to this problems, not only that the employees have to execute their main duty but they are also required to prepare quality documentation which is time consuming. This has indirectly caused uneasiness and resistances among the employees.
Unfortunately, PSZ do not have a special team specific for quality control and assessment. Normally the special team is formed by quality expertise that is specially dealt with quality management system. Therefore, the internal audit is conducted by audit team of PSZ which is formed by one lecturer from Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and fifteen librarians from different unit. However, this has burdened the works of the librarian who have to do the double job(extra work) (or u can say it has indirectly doubled the job scope) at the same time. In addition, it had been found that some employees are last minutes person as they only rush to finish the documents several days before the audit. (Found by whom??? )
In addition, there were findings that some of the employees do adopt lackadaisical attitude of where they would only do last minute work to rush the submission of the docements/documentation process several day prior to the audit.
The statement of Pn. Noraziah is supported by Nagraj.(The statements made by Pn Nora can be fully supported or seems to be similar as Nagraj(2006) stated/commented that (As stated by Nagraj (2006))-if can, -omit it), “Employees are one of the most valuable assets in any organisation. When an organisation plans to implement ISO 9000, a thorough planning and understanding as well as preparation are required”. 1)However, it is a very natural process that problems do happens or pile up during the implementation process(please choose).2)However, it is only natural for issues and problems to crop up in the implementation process. The inherent characteristics of a quality program such as ISO 9000 demanded the employees to accept the quality pronouncements to attain the desired results.
Besides that, based on the survey conducted by Lipovatz et al. (1999) Lipovstz reported difficulty in training of(the) personnel, allocation of personnel responsibilities, and understanding the importance of the ISO system has always been the problems.(am i correct?? It is a problem right??) The increment in(of) paperwork is positively correlated with negative reactions of staff. For Greek enterprise, a change of mentality and documentation of system appeared to be the main problem during preparation of registration. In addition, the difficulties in changing the mentality of people are positively correlated with time needed for preparation of registration. Based on Lee et al. (1999), the change in quality culture among employees poses as the main difficulties, following by insufficient resources for training and education of employees.
Although an interview was conducted with Management Representative of PSZ, it was not enough to represent the problems and challenges faced by while maintain the ISO 9000 Quality Management System. Notwithstanding, the discussion with Management Representative demonstrate that the problems do exist during the implementation of QMS. So, what are the problems and challenges in maintaining the ISO 9000 in Perpustakaan Sultan Zanariah, University Teknologi Malaysia?
Besides that, how does the quality management team of PSZ resolve this problems and challenges and sustaining their ISO 9000 certification and ensure the system is going smooth. What are the critical successful factors for ISO 9000 maintenance in Perpustakaan Sultan Zanariah, University Teknologi Malaysia Skudai to ensure the certification of ISO 9001:2008 been sustained and generate the long term benefits?
Besides that, how does the quality management team of PSZ resolve these problems and challenges in sustaining their ISO 9000 certification and ensuring that the systems are smoothly operated? What are the critical successful factors in ISO 9000 maintenance in PSZ to ensure that ISO 9001:2008 will always be sustained and to generate long term benefits??
1.3 Research Objectives:
Based on the statement above, the objectives of the study are clarified as below:
To identify the implementation problems of ISO 9000 Quality Management System.
To identify the critical successful factors for the implementation of ISO 9000 Quality Management System.
1.4 Scope of Study
The scope of study only focuses on the academic library in University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) Skudai, Perpustakaan Sultan Zanariah. There are 170 employees while 37 of them are officers, and support staff for the rest (PSZ UTM, 2010). This study, involved the participation of 80 employees of Perpustakaan Sultanah Zanariah (PSZ), University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) Skudai who are formed from top management, middle management and lower management. However, there is a limitation of this study, it is only conducted based on the objectives stated in sub topic 1.4.
1.5 Significant of Study:
This study will have a significant contribution knowledge in the field of QM systems during the post-certifcation period of where such implemention are very limited especially in service sector. By doing this research, the study will show the benefits that will be gained with the implementation of QM system in the academic library. The challenges and difficulties faced during the implementation in library’s management will be reviewed and acknowledged in this study as this can be referenced or can be served as a guidance to the QMS’s committee to ensure that the Ceritificate of ISO 9000 shall always been maintained. Apart of that, these critical successful factors on maintaining the ISO 9000 will be identified in this study. With these identifications, the library’s management could refer on how to improve the management system to provide a better service. Lastly but now least, this study could also serve the reader as added value for general knowledge or for their future working world.
This study makes a contribution to the body(what body??) of knowledge in the field of quality management systems during the post-certification period where such work(what work) is limited, especially in service sector. By doing this research, the study will show the benefits gained (with the implementation of) by implementing quality management system in academic library. As the challenges and difficulties faced in(during) the implementation of quality management system in library management will be verify(verified) from the(this) study, it can be a reference or guidance to the quality management system committee (in order to find out) (to apply) the appropriate solutions to ensure the certificated(Certificate) of ISO 9000 will be maintained. Furthermore, these critical successful factors of maintaining ISO 9000 also(omit) will be identify(identified) from this study. By(With) this, the library management (can get the suggestion) (could refer) on how to improve the management system and(to) provide the a better service. (Furthermore, the study also benefits to the readers as ensuring the knowledge about the concept of quality management system to be applied in the management.)
1.6 Research Methodology:
The research methodology is designed based on the following approaches:
Reviewing on the existing literature of ISO 9000 quality management system, benefits of implementing ISO 9001 quality management system, barriers of ISO 9000 implementation, maintenance of ISO 9000, problems faced during the implementation of ISO 9000 and critical successful factors in ISO 9000 Quality Management System maintenance. This can be obtained from books, journals, articles, online materials and reports. This review will provide a sound background of the subject matter and shall be used as guidance in development of the checklist form and preparation of questions during questionnaire survey.
Before the distribution of questionnaire, a preliminary interview was carried out with the management representative of PSZ to ensure whether there are problems exist in the maintenance of ISO 9000 Quality Management System. The questionnaire survey was a systematic complication of questions that was distributed to the respondents in order to collect relevant data for the study. The questionnaire was developed based on the literature review. A set of questionnaire was distributed to the employees of Perpustakaan Sultan Zanariah, UTM Skudai who were formed by top management to lower management in order to collect relevant data for the purpose of this study such as the problems during the implementation of ISO 9000 QMS and critical successful factors to sustain the certification of ISO 9001:2008.
Analysis of the data and the descriptions collected from the questionnaire survey. This can be carried out using the quantitative analysis with the aid from SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) to verify the authenticity of the result. The data will be analysed using the frequency analysis. This study intends to identify the problems during the implementation and also the critical successful factors to sustain the certification of ISO 9000.
Detailed research methodologies will be discussed in the Chapter 3.
1.7 Research Flow Chart
There are four phases involved in this study to achieve the determined objectives, which are: Phase 1: Identifying the Study, Phase 2: Data Collection, Phase 3: Data Analysis and Findings plus Phase 4: Conclusion and Recommendations. (Refer to Figure 1.1)
A preliminary interview with the Management Representation of PSZ is conducted to discuss the problems in the ISO 9000 maintenance. PSZ still face some problems even though implements ISO 9000 for 12 years.
Critical Successful Factors For The Implementation Of ISO 9001:2008
Quality Management System
To identify the implementation problems of ISO 9000 Quality Management System.
To identify the Critical Successful Factors for the implementation of ISO 9000 Quality Management System.
ISO 9000 Quality Management System
Significant of Study
Contribution to the body of knowledge in the field of QMS, especially in service sector.
A reference or guidance to the quality management system committee of library management
benefits to the readers as ensuring the knowledge about the concept of quality management system
SPSS – Frequency Analysis
Conclusion and Recommendation
Figure 1.1: Research Flow Chat
1.8 Chapters Arrangement
The arrangement of the chapters for this study is shown as follow:
1.8.1 Chapter 1: Introduction
Generally this chapter gives reader a broad idea on ISO 9000 quality management system. It tries to highlights the issues encountered and the importance of the study. The introduction includes background of the study, problem statement, objectives of study, scopes of study, significant of study, research methodology, research flow chart and chapters arrangement.
1.8.2 Chapter 2: ISO 9000 Quality Management System
This chapter contains both the theoretical aspects and review of relevant literature. This chapter brief explains concept of quality management system, which included the definition of quality, introduction and implementation of ISO 9000 quality management system, the benefits gain, the barriers and the problems faced by others certified organisation. In addition, critical successful factors in maintaining the certification of ISO 9000 will be discussed in this chapter.
This chapter consists of overall processes from the sample selection, initial stage of data collection, instrument of data collection and data analysis technique. The research flow in this study consisted of three stage which are preliminary work, field work and data analysis technique. For the research methodology, it is explained according to the objectives of the study. The first objective is achieved through primary data (questionnaire) and the second objective is achieved by using second data (books and journal). All the data collected will be process in order to identify the problems faced during the implementation of ISO 9000 Quality Management System and critical successful factors in maintaining the certification of ISO 9000.
1.8.4 Data Analysis
The data obtained from the questionnaire will be used to identify the problems faced by the quality management team and the critical successful factors in maintaining the certification of ISO 9000. The data collected will be analysis using frequency analysis.
1.8.5 Conclusion and Recommendations
The chapter concludes and recommends the results that have been analyzed in this study, the summary findings of the study are determined. Furthermore, this chapter also outlines the limitations of the study and the recommendation for future research.