Groups And Team Effectiveness
Organisational behaviour is a methodical learning of the behaviour and reactions of persons, groups and sub systems that actions to understand, explain, predict and change human behaviour that occurs in the organizational context.
Organizational behavior can be defined as – “the study and application of knowledge about human behavior related to other elements of an organization such as structure, technology and social systems (LM Prasad).
Stephen P Robins defines “Organizational behavior as a systematic study of the actions and attitudes that people exhibit within organizations
Groups and Teams
Groups and teams in the association play a very significant in the performance of the association. For every achievement and breakdown in the organization teams and groups play a major role. Some groups and teams within the association function effectively while other disfunction. The employ of groups and teams inside an organization have enlarged on a worldwide scale in current years
A group is nothing but two or additional persons who are interacting and mutually dependent, contain come together to attain a common objective. A work group is one which first and foremost interacts to share information and make decisions and to assist their collection members of their area. They don’t enclose the chance to connect in collective work which wants joint attempt. Here production is just the adding up of individual’s split work. Hence there is no much superior performance of work group.
A figure of people who act together with one other are mentally aware of one another perceives themselves to be a compilation.
Uniqueness of groups:
A sense of shared purpose and identity
Shared communication and net work
Groups play a very important role on organizations. Groups are an essential feature of the work patterns of organizations.
Types of groups:
There are two types of groups:
Formal groups are created to achieve specific managerial objectives as well as be worried through the management of work activities
Formal group include command groups, task groups, affinity groups
Command groups are usually included in the organizational chart
Task groups is created to perform specific task
Affinity groups is created for new product development
Formal groups tend to be relatively permanent, although there may be a change in the membership of the team
In-formal groups serve to please the emotional and communal want of group members not connected essentially to the farm duties to be undertaken
In-formal groups includes friendship groups and interest groups
Friendship groups arises out of the cordial relationships among members and the enjoyment
They get from being together.
Interest groups are organized around a common activity or interest.
They may be based on individual relations and association is able to hack across the official arrangement of the organization.
Team: A team is a collection of people planned to work to gather interdependently and helpfully to gather the requirements of their clients by accomplishing a principle and goals. Teams are created for both long period and short period communication.
Work teams have optimistic synergy which comes by their mutual effort. Hence the presentation level is better than sum of human being inputs and consequently work teams have superior capability and better production than employment group. Hence an association must own employment teams with following characteristics which are collective presentation, optimistic synergy, personality and mutual responsibility and balancing skills.
Team work can increase competitiveness by –
Improving quality and encouraging innovation
Improving employee motivation and commitment
Types of teams:
There are different types of teams exist in organizations today. Some evolved naturally in the organizations others have been formally created at the suggestion of enlightened management. The most common type of teams is quality circles, problem solving, virtual teams, and management teams.
Minute groups of workers as of the similar job region who frequently meets to talk about and advise solutions to occupation lay problems. Quality circles are
Problem solving teams are temporary teams establish to attack specific problems in the work place
Teams where the major interaction amongst members is by various electronic information and message procedure
Consists of managers on or after a range of areas; they manage work teams.
Motivation refers to the psychological forces that determine the direction of peoples behavior, their level of effort and level of persistence. Motivation is an internal state that directs individuals toward certain goals and objectives.
Source of motivation:
How does employee motivation impact organizational performance?
Employee motivation plays a great fraction in an organizations presentation and output consequences. Motivation encourages populace to try and attain their chosen job and goals. For many, motivation provides a sense of accomplishment and the good emotion of belonging to an association in control of their destination. Being part of something structured can frequently offer much motivation for employees. Lack of motivation among the work strength can result in low encouragement to achieve, promote negative feeling about the association and the organizations concerns about its workers. Organizations who promote optimistic motivation express consciousness and acknowledgement about their staff further attractive creativity and efficiency results
Related to tangible rewards, e.g. salary, security, conditions of work promotion,
Related to psychological rewards, e.g. a sense of challenge and achievement, receiving appreciation
Management and leadership plays a major role in the behaviour of the organization, now we will see the relation they have towards there groups and teams.
How Google motivate their employees?
Google wrote a programme related to their employees they use their engineers what they did by the end of the week .Google use to send them email on every Monday, and focus the emails to collect in a file that everybody can examine. The mail will be transfer to every person and shames who did not respond by putting them top of the list. It has been fallowed every week from the time when we started, so each week of our company’s history will have a evidence of what each person did. it`s good for presentation reviews, and if you are joining a development team, in a small number of minutes you can examine what your team members did the most recent weeks or months.
Management is about changing behaviour and making things happen, it is an everyday activity involving interactions between people. Management is defined as the process of achieving organizational effectiveness with in altering surroundings by matching competence, efficiency and fairness, obtaining the majority from incomplete resources, and functioning with and through other people.
Elements of management:
Leader ship is a matter of making difference and is a combination of persuasion and compulsion that results in making people do things they might not otherwise have done.
Good management leadership helps to develop team work and the mixing of person and assembly goals, it aids essential motivation by emphasize the significance of the work people do and importance on interpersonal behaviour in a broader situation.
A balance between management and leadership:
In the organization the team leader seems to be halo affixed, whereas the phase manager is seen to have incredible of sigma. Leader establish direction for group and gain the group members commitment and motivate them to achieve goals to move in that direction, whereas manager brings to brain less-charismatic persons annoying to construct people in to more competent device in the business engine.
Considering the definition of management we can see that leadership is actually a sub-category of management.
Applying these concepts for manager and leader within the location of a team, we discover attractive results: If there be a team leader that is obvious to be uninterrupted by income of the team member necessities, or have a personality plan more important than the team’s goals, then the leader is obvious to be more of a “manager” and become alienated from the team members. On the other hand, the team leaders most conventional and loyally followed are persons who reveal worry for the team members as folks with actual necessities, and are persons who put “The reason” of the group above there.
Google’s Organizational Behavior
Main factors and procedures that organisational behaviour contributed to the success of Google:
Google is one of the majority flourishing internet based industry.
The achievement of the Google is fixed on its exceptional organizational practices and core competencies.
Google formulae of accomplishment are not only its knowledgeable expertise but also its insistent ability to come up with both inventive and profit oriented projects.
The inventive ability of Google combined with incorporated process in the supportive culture creates sustainable competitive benefit.
For instance ,Google describes as investigate engine leader to facilitate create latest fangled opinion by physically powerful speed or what they call the” 70-20-10rule” where the staff predominantly engineers are buoyant to use 70%of their functioning time on top of central trade functions,20% on related business functions ,and 10% on areas completely of their own choice.
The Google’s are aggravated to put in their suggestions, thoughts, or no matter which that pertains to possible income gaining actions all the way through a range of means like meetings, intranet, and additional forms of message.
Team work is another main factor for Google achievement. it is confirmed that engineers effort in teams in doing projects. The teams have whole independence relating to their projects and the habits in which they will attempt on it.
Organizational communication is also a core means of Google. Communication serves four most important functions within a group or organization as well as control, motivation, emotional expression, and information. This serves as the lane through which ideas , suggestions, and in sights that would potentially produce alter and innovative features within the organization or discussed.
On the feature of HRM, Google has a distinct employment method that is surrounded on the improved significance on appreciated intelligence and mind power more than experience.
Major factors that make a payment to the extraordinary achievement of google are the capability on the way to innovate, exceptional teamwork in the middle of Google’s, flourishing message process, and distintinctive service events. These are given critical factors and core competencies that make up the successful organizational. http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2009/08/googles-organisational-culture.html
Negative aspects of Google culture:
When there is positive aspect there are chances for negative aspects in the same way there are some negative aspects for Google.
Google is having a very good reputation in the internet industry though they have a very good status in the internet business here are a small number of criticisms in the organizational background of the company.
The negative features of Google culture are nonappearance of clear organization structure, work principles, poor worker relations and its casual work culture.
The unclear definition of management structure leads to organizational divergence. Divergence is a hazard because staff has conflicting values and practice different situations.
Management theory’s used as a corpse of awareness that will direct the engineers and project managers in constructing excellent decisions for the advantage of the whole organization.
Google is also criticized for its unique recruitment process. Critics describes the process of Google recruitment is narrow.
Google is also called up on its problematic employee relations and in efficient organizational behavior
Google on no account kept their schedule or activity’s on time and forever turns up late for client’s presentation.
Positive and negative aspects of organisation will have influence of groups and teams .in the organisation some teams and groups function effectively while some other groups and teams in organisation dysfunction. This will directly reflect on the positive and negative aspects of the organisation, now we will critically evaluate why some teams and groups in the organisation function effectively while some others dysfunctional?
The exercise of groups and teams within organisations has enlarged on an international scale in current years. This detail on your own suggests with the intention of a group demographic confers several concrete benefits to an organisation. Group is a set of people brought jointly through the set of plan that their personality skills resolve to higher productivity when combined. The employees may comprise similar skills in a particular field of the company’s movement. For ex. The group research and development employees brought to gather for the focus groups involved in the development of Google chrome.
Google chrome is a browser designed by the Google to work exclusively with web applications. Designed goals and directions of Google chrome are as follows:
Remote application access
Hard ware support
Integrated media player
Groups may also have complementary skills that allow them assist in the direction of a common goal. The staffs with in the corporation have enormous impact upon how the corporation functions and on its output, so it is significant for business to inspect and re-examine their organisational behaviour.
Factors and process which influence group effectiveness:
Task orientation- an efficient groups is the majority possible to stay alert on its aims and targets that some one personality on your own and will be a great deal more focused than a dysfunctional group. This possibly will be achieved of through an organization goals and targets for the group as they progress through a task.
Motivation through hierarchical flattening- The introduction of equality by the adding up of management within the group structure. The crash of barriers stuck between support staff and organization can lead to extra stress-free working environment. Also organization with in group can uphold the focus and direction of the group. A successful group will be skilled to introduce a new member to the culture of the organization rapidly so the new member may not waste time in settling in.
Group norms can serve to facilitate goal achievement- if each group member knows how he is to behave and what is expected of them, and then greater productivity is sure to ensue.
If suitable rewards are deliberately offered to the maximum performing group then opposition will increase
In a successful group the aims and targets are complete clear to all members, no one is puzzled or left exclusive of a task, nor are farm duties duplicated.
Based up on social identify theory and the ordinary desire to uphold optimistic self perception; people like to identify with high status groups and subsequently will work hard to stay associated with them.
The stereotyping of out-group factors can facilitate in -group unity
High expectations placed upon a group can lead its members to function more effectively. Some possible benefits of high expectations are:
Independence and trust
Room for creativity
Over look minor setback
A group working successfully will make easy cultural differences, for example, Americans and French tend to prefer not to work in a group where as the Japanese do.
The construction of a successful group may be due to its members living and socializing jointly, for example; the Google employees live together in apartment style accommodation; this creates a sense of group harmony and also defines each member’s role in the strict hierarchy within the organization.
Factors and process which influence groups to dysfunction:
Group norms can delay goal achievement, particularly if an associate of the group is intractable. In a group where norms are unidentified or deviated as of certain employees; as an alternative of tolerant and adhering to the norms, it takes longer for upcoming members to connect in and be accepted.
One of the major flaws in a dysfunctional group is similar to to be communal loafing; the responsibility of each person is diminished, they everyone feel they can get away with a minor amount of work than if they are functioning alone. This might be due to the idleness on the part of staff or inaccurate organizational behavior on the division of the employer, for example having groups consisting of too numerous members or not allocating the accurate quantity of work to a group.
Unclear instructions or briefs provided by higher authority could lead to a team performing poorly.
If a new member of the group joins, it will take time for them to learn the group norms, dysfunctional groups may be the result of regular membership reshuffling
A dysfunctional group may be the result of combining contrasting cultures; an example of this is the fusion of Chrysler and Daimler-Benz-the cultures clashed and the groups of the two sets of employees did not get along.
Motivational incentives can cause disharmony among group members, if members of the group pitted against one another in competition this can often backfire and be counterproductive with the faster slowing down to keep pace with their slower working friends.
Competition for leadership can lead to loss of focus and productivity
A social phenomenon called groupthink can result from certain conditions, usually when the group is successfully and has excited for a while. The symptoms of group think are:
Pressure to conform applied by other members of the group- this can stifle individual input.
Self censorship-a group member may hold their tongue if they feel they are in the minority
Feeling of unanimity and invulnerability-individuals in a group, especially a successful one, may develop an arrogance that could lead the group in rash and risky directions
A group may become dysfunctional if it is under threat; this is called the crises factor and can panic group members in to rash choices and sub-par work.
A group can deteriorate in performance if it is rife with negative stereotyping-the perception-the perception of a whole individual based up on specific attributes has implications for selection, promotion and performance evaluation.
If individuals do not feel pride in a group then they will attempt to change the status of the group and try to detach themselves from it
A group may become dysfunctional if low expectations are placed upon them. Some negative impacts of low expectations include:
Emphasis of mistakes
Less attention paid to comments/suggestions
To predict how groups behave; certain psychological models can be applied; specifically tuck man’s model of group development and Gersick’s punctuated equilibrium model. The following is a representation of tuck man and gersicks model superimposed:
A group working effectively will progress through the stages quickly to the performing stage after resolving any leadership disputes and establishing norms early on. Effective groups will contain members that have complementary skills and personalities, a group may work well if they have been formed for a long time or if they have worked to gather before as this greatly diminishes the effects of stages1-3 of tuckman`s model. A dysfunctional group will spend longer on the earlier stages not performing this could be due to number of factors either attributable to the individuals within the group or the management that assembled the group. The management may have chosen individuals that are not suited to the task they may not posess the necessary skills, or have little cooperation or leadership qualitys. It could simply be due to the fact the group members do not get along socially, this can lead to lower productivity so it may be wise to form a group of individuals of prior acquaintance. This could however have a negative impact if the colleagues have a social relationship they may not focus up on the task in hand.
General Electric – Case Study
Managing Groups and Teams within Organizations
Recognize and understand group dynamics and development Understand the difference between groups and teams Compare and contrast different types of teams Understand how to design effective teams Explore teams and ethics Understand cross-cultural influences on teams In Durham, North Carolina, Robert Henderson was opening a factory for General Electric (GE). The goal of the factory was to manufacture the largest commercial jet engine in the world. Henderson’s opportunity was great and so were his challenges. GE hadn’t designed a jet engine from the ground up for over two decades. Developing the jet engine project had already cost GE $1.5 billion. That was a huge sum of money to invest-and an unacceptable sum to lose should things go wrong in the manufacturing stage. How could one person fulfill such a vital corporate mission? The answer, Henderson decided, was that one person couldn’t fulfill the mission. Even Jack Welch, GE’s CEO at the time said, “We now know where productivity comes from. It comes from challenged, empowered, excited, rewarded teams of peopleâ€¦” Empowering factory workers to contribute to GE’s success sounded great in theory. But how to accomplish these goals in real life was a more challenging question. Factory floors, traditionally, are unempowered workplaces where workers are more like cogs in a vast machine than self-determining team members. In the name of teamwork and profitability, Henderson traveled to other factories looking for places where worker autonomy was high. He implemented his favorite ideas at the factory at Durham. Instead of hiring generic “mechanics,” for example, Henderson hired staffers with FAA mechanic’s licenses. This superior training created a team capable of making vital decisions with minimal oversight, a fact that upped the factory’s output and his workers’ feelings of worth. Henderson’s “self-managing” factory functioned beautifully. And it looked different, too. Plant manager Jack Fish described Henderson’s radical factory, saying Henderson “didn’t want to see supervisors, he didn’t want to see forklifts running all over the place, he didn’t even want it to look traditional. There’s clutter in most plants, racks of parts and so on. He didn’t want that.” Henderson also contracted out non-job-related chores, like bathroom cleaning, that might have been assigned to workers in traditional factories. His insistence that his workers should contribute their highest talents to the team showed how much he valued them. And his team valued their jobs in turn. Six years later, a Fast Company reporter visiting the plant noted, “GE/Durham team members take such pride in the engines they make that they routinely take brooms in hand to sweep out the beds of the 18-wheelers that transport those engines-just to make sure that no damage occurs in transit.” For his part, Henderson, who remained at GE beyond the project, noted “I was just constantly amazed by what was accomplished there.” Â© 2010 Jupiterimages Corporation Teamwork can make something as complex as an airplane engine possible. GE’s bottom line showed the benefits of teamwork, too. From the early 1980s, when Welch became CEO, until 2000, when he retired, GE generated more wealth than any organization in the history of the world. Sources: Fishman, C. (September 1999). How teamwork took flight. Fast Company Issue 28, http://www.fastcompany.com/node/38322/print; Lear, R. (Jul/Aug 1998). Jack Welch speaks: Wisdom from the world’s greatest business leader, Chief Executive; Guttman, H. (Jan-Feb 2008). Leading high-performance teams: horizontal, high-performance teams with real decision-making clout and accountability for results can transform a company, Chief Executive, 231, 33.
Many factors and process that influences group effectiveness or dysfunction has been highlighted. Organization should consider carefully when assembling and structuring any group or team because both the market and the organization should work under the organization .