HRM in an international context
In a nutshell, international human resource management could be understood as a method of obtaining, assigning and effectively making use of human resources in macro firms. The overall work of Global human resource manager is comparatively effortless in the case of MNCs performing its business to a very few extent. However in macro firms HR managers must incorporate HR policies & practices to achieve overall objectives and to attain some conflicting global intentions. Simultaneously human resource management should be flexible or elastic to permit major variation in the different kinds of efficient policies and practices (Kidger, 1991).
When compared to National Human Resource Management, Intercontinental Human Resource Management demands a wider perception. International human resource managers must be in touch with subjects like global Taxation, International Repositioning & Management, different other managerial services for expatriates, choosing, teaching and valuing regional and global member of staff and managing relations with multitude authority in a number of countries around the world (Wright, P.M. and McMahan, G.C., 1992)
When dealing with one specific HR utility part like reward, the global HR managers is featured with a great diversity of country & world wide concerns. For Example: If we consider with the payments, the Head Quarter based Human resource manager should look after the payments in various countries with related currency that may differ in virtual significance when compared to other eventually. An American expatriate in Tokyo who collects a salary of $10,000 may rapidly find the business control of that income rapidly decreased if the Japanese yen becomes stronger in value related to US $.
Transferring official and supervisory employees, to arrange and watch over the company work place in overseas locality is a test for HRM and thus expatriation is a difficult and expensive event. In this phenomenon, HR team has to think about the necessity of global placement when recruiting employees for expatriation (Brewster, C. and Scullion, H, 1997).
2.1: key issues in the management of expatriates:
For the efficient expatriate management, the planning phase plays a vital role in the entire expatriate cycle. Usually, expatriate have been sent overseas for the subsequent motives (Collins, S., 1995):
Organizing & synchronization of procedures.
Relocate of talent & information.
Decision making achievement.
For strategically functioning, organization needs to connect foreign work more strongly to the strategic equipped provisions. This involves a lot of care in deciding whether an expatriate is the most excellent option for global work.
3: Cross- cultural Shock:
The habitant traditions of an expatriate influence and permits them functioning well in the homeland. However shifting to another country makes their primary software less capable and waste. Thus culture is important when expatriating staff for global work (Dowling, P.J. and Welch, D., 2004). Training could be useful to certain extent in this situation. Not only making possible communication in the bureaucratic intelligence and responsive to the cultural differences, this enable migrant to better understand the back ground of why their foreign counterparts act in definite ways or require certain things in negotiations. Improved cultural knowledge about the host country helps the expatriate in better performing their duty (Brewster, C. and Scullion, H, 1997).
4: Intercultural Communication:
For better expatriate performance, intercultural communication is also considered to be very important because it makes one capable to grasp and understand foreign cultures, their particular theory in perception, thinking, feeling & acting (Thomas, D.C., 2006). According to Jackson, T. 2002, the concept of international communication takes place when the message arises from two different cultural backgrounds. Because of cultural dissimilarities in these kinds of relations, the chance for difference of opinion is enormous. Such problems could be overcome by studying intercultural communication.
5: International Recruitment and Selection:
According to Ward, K., 2004, the more effective is the selection criteria, the more probability to retain satisfied employees. Thus better recruitment and selection tactics effect in enhanced organizations results. In case of expatriates, fundamental selection process begins with analysis of practical capability, examination of cross cultural necessities such as social understandings, flexibility, talking capability, optimistic approach, the amount of knowledge transfer is intrinsic in the expatriate’s job etc (Sparrow P.R., 2006). The success of expatriates can be verified from the subsequent features
Eager & provoked to go abroad.
Theoretically proficient to work.
Adaptable to work atmosphere.
Excellent capability of interaction and inter personal ability.
6: International Training and development:
Working globally and cross culturally needs specific skills which could be acquired autonomously and some of which could be taught. In this context, a training program concentrating on cross cultural communications will have to spend a lot of time for self introduction, conversation, and his practical knowledge towards the concept.
The most significant component of any cross-cultural training plan is self acquaintance. Trainees who have initiated to grasp how their personal background and values influence their fondness at work are fit near to considerate how these methods may work. However a manager who is blind to the alternatives made at home, considering “this is the only way” will not be competent in varying the decision making process used in other cultures ( Marsden, D., 1999).
7: International Performance Management:
The main aim of the performance management system is to invite, hold and make use of employees in such a way
To improve originality in their work
To improve committed and dedicated staff
To reduce the cost of external resources.
To reduce the outflow of experience and know-how (Sparrow, P.R, 2006)
According to the Scullion and Starkey 2000, performance management is considered to be one of the main component or reason for the success of the international business.
The main reason for the growth of the internationalization with respect to employment is the cultural differences in terms of national values and attitudes. Thus the knowledge of the above mentioned differences plays a vital role in the kit of international human resource managers as they are answerable for all strategies, operations, practices, principles, functions, activities, factors and methods relating to the management of people. Thus a lot of care must be taken to adopt, improve and standardize culturally suitable human resource management plan, policy and performance. (Sparrow, P.R. 2006)