Human Nature And Managerial Behaviour

A managerial style this is also to guide me along the way and take a picture to draw won my attention to difference bits of knowledge. If I have a good managerial style then I can take with me on my journey to becoming a better manager. And also manager need to some master basic skills and we have to find out what is management is the vital skills involved the most important tasks that I have to carry out and how I am become to be a good manager.

1. About human nature and managerial behaviour:

Human nature is the common qualities of all human being people behave according to certain principles of human nature. Human needs are an important part of human nature. Values, beliefs, and custom, differ from country to country and even within group to group, but in general, all people have a few basic needs. As a manager or leader we must understand these needs because they can be powerful motivations.

The models which make suppositions about human nature and behaviour at work:

Our sense of self worth of significant is related to our social human nature behaviour. But it is not only an image presently by oneself or attributed to us by others. It is also depends with expectation and obligation about how to behave.

Assumption: the theory X managers believes that people have an inherent dislike to work, wish to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment in order to achieve result. Truly a manager is likely, therefore, to be interested in only limited schemes of delegation, within clearly defined limits and with an easy way to reward and punishment.

On other hand, theory Y manager believes that people find work a natural and rewarding activity, they learn to accept and to seek responsibility, and they will respond positively to opportunities for personal growth and sympathetic leadership such a manager is more likely to be interested in winder schemes of delegation based on consultation with subordinates, and with responsibility willingly accepted out of personal communication (According to Mullins, J. L., 2002).

If we can see this theory of Maslow was slightly different from the other researchers during that time. These needs of Maslow’s usually affect the human nature and behaviour at work in a great extent. If we see the diagram below we can see these needs according to the level of significance and importance.

aslow Hierarchy of Needs

If we can see deeply that the lower level needs are more important and emergency than the other needs moving upwards. But according to this model about human nature does Leadership and Human behaviour (1997)

1.2 How attitudes and assumptions can influence managerial behaviour:

The basic question important attitude is whatever it possible to influence team by moving and development. If our attitude could not be changed they should be considered in describing requirement of a particular job and choosing manager but they could be ignored determined turning needs. There is no single or sort answer to this question experience shows that attitude do not change easily but may change under certain circumstances on the basic of one’s own experience and feedback from other people if they individual concerned has enough will talent and interest to understand to modify his attitude.

For example if a manager “can organise teamwork and motivate people for working with him on difficult new task under time pressure” skill there are underlying assumption concerning both his or her knowledge and attitudes needed for work planning communicating with people and motivating, and organise team and while respecting strict time schedules. Basically speaking, the skills involved in managerial jobs include technical subject skills, general management an organisation skills, analytical subject skills, social and cultural skills, management of people, communication and leadership skills, and political skills (Milan Kubr,1989).

We can also look at the McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y (McGregor 1957) where the theory X suggest that people have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible. It also states that people prefer to be directed, do not want responsibility, and have little or no ambition and also seek security above all else. These, specially the theory X suggest how the attitude and assumption can influence managerial behaviour at the end of the day. Applying and controlling through these factors will give a positive grip on managerial behaviours in workplace.

1.3 Evaluation a model of managerial style in which the manager can apply skills to identify study and review their patterns of behaviour:

A managerial style is not an end it every time itself but it means an end. Generally a manager judged by result. Different manager may achieve the same result by using different means. There is main key of effective management matching the style to the situation. And despite the deference between management and leadership. Also this can provide a rough and ready way of evaluating the effectiveness of managerial style (according to David R. W. 1996).

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As a way of main manager and the appropriateness of their style, and identify on or more manager rank them on following under the six point scale.

Excellent

Very good

Good

Meet the minimum standards (fair)

Dose not meet minimum standards

Should be dismissed

As a good manager he or she can evaluate the effectiveness and they have to find out how to get good output in organisation goals. If manager used the McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. the main thing manager have to know which theory they have to use if use theory X how its work or theory Y because every people are not same some of deferent people have different type of human behaviour.

2. How management style can influence managerial style:

If we see a management style describes the way in which another manager set about achieving the result through people. It is also how manager behave as team leader and how they exercise authority. A manager can be autocratic and democratic, tough or soft, demanding or easy going directive the way influence a managerial style.

2.1 Describe Style of management

An organisation will be achieve more efficiently when the people who work in it have drive and commitment, in other words, when people they are motivated. Every manager tries to increase his motivation by using motivators by their style of management and the way they practices leadership. Some of the earlier motivation theories have already been covered (maslow’s hierarchy of needs herzberg’s, hygiene factors and motivators and so on) and theories can be grouped under three heading. by Terence Lucey (2005)

Satisfaction: in this stage also suggest a satisfied employee will work hard and there is a little evidence to support this view.

Incentive: that one also suggests that a person will work hard to obtain a reword. There is some evidence that positive reinforcement can work if the individual performances can be recognised and reworded.

And Intrinsic: this is also given to suggest people will work hard to realise higher order needs contained in the job itself – fulfilment, responsibility and participation.

Management style it should like laissez, fair, distant or accessible, distractive or supportive, task oriented or people oriented, rigid or flexible, considerate or unfeeling, friendly, or cool keyed up or relaxed, so many behave depends partly on themselves their natural inclination, partly on the example given to them by manager, partly on the way which they have been trained and partly on organisation value and norms accepted typical ways of management behaviour.

Management can influence the evaluation of culture by being aware of the symbolic consequences of their action by attempting to foster desired values, but they can never control culture in the sense they many management writers advocate; by Gillian Watson et all (2005)

2.2 Measures of managerial effectiveness:

The Managerial effectiveness at first I have to define as the goal and achieving behaviour. Managerial effectiveness is achieving if a person is an effective manager. An effective manager is one who is positive in his personality, his managerial process and the results of his process. One of the main attributes that will contribute to the managerial effectiveness is leadership. And also define in terms of the quantity and quality of standards of performance and the satisfaction and commitment of subordinates.

Primarily what comes first is the manager’s style that is how others see the manager. This is through the reorganization of others behavioural styles to increase support and communication.

Secondly how well the manager can manage teams in an organization. This includes the development, creation and managing a successful team.

Managerial effectiveness also fowling the organizational main goals is concerned with doing the right thing and relates to outputs of the business and what the manager actually achieves. Managerial effectiveness it must relate to the achievement of some purpose, objective or task to the performances of the process of management and the execution of work.

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For example the listening skill is one of the most important as a team member or group. Team member also following tips will help to listen well. And doing these things will also demonstrate to the speaker that we are paying attention. While we may in fact be able to listen while looking down at the floor, doing so may imply that we are not. Look for non-verbal cues such as facial expressions and posture to get the full gist of what the speaker is telling me. By Dawn Rosenberg McKay

maintain eye contact;

don’t interrupt the speaker;

sit still;

nod your head;

lean toward the speaker;

Repeat instructions and ask appropriate questions when the speaker has finished.

At the end measures can be identified by executing, leadership, delegation, watching return on investment, motivation and considerations by the manager.

2.3 links between management style and managerial effectiveness and efficiency:

Managers have to perform many roles in an organization and how he/she handle various situations will depend on their style of management. A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager. Seeing things as they are Organisation, Authoritarian organisation, Participative organisation, Degree of participation.

There are three sharply contrasting styles.

Autocratic

Paternalistic

Democratic

Managerial efficiency it can be deferent from managerial effectiveness.

Efficiency is concerned with doing things right and relates to inputs and what the manager dose.

And Effectiveness is concerned with doing the right thing and relates to outputs of the job and what the manager actually achieves.

Efficient the manager must attend to the input requirements of the job to clarification of objectives, planning, organisation, direction and control. And in order to be effective the manager must give attention to output of the job to performances in team.

Effectiveness must relate to the achievement of some purpose, objective or task to the performances of the process of management and the execution of work.

If we see the Stewart suggests the effectiveness is more important than efficiency. By Laurie J. M. (2002)

There is a big link between management style and management effectiveness and efficiency. If we observe closely, we can see that some employees no matter what happen will keep on doing the same mistake again and again therefore, certain managerial style is necessary to deal with these situations. For example the manager may need to be autocratic and strict to mend these situations. The point of autocratic style also comes when employee’s behaviour reaches at a certain point when it can affect the whole organization. At these situations the manager needs to intervene and act as autocrat to take control of the situation.

3. The need to apply a range of managerial styles:

Most of the managers will develop a personalized managerial style soon after being placed in a position of greater responsibility. The managerial style developed by these managers might have been influence by the following formal managerial training, such as leadership and management education and training. Fore examples set by other managers the examples set by authority figures earlier in the manager’s life.

3.1 Situations and circumstances which would require application of differing management style and behaviour:

As managers also try to adjust their styles according to the situation that they are presented with. There are four types of situational leadership that depend on the total of support and guidance which needed.

Telling: Works best when employees are neither willing not able to do the job. For example (high need of support and high need of guidance).

Delegating: Works best when the employees are willing to do the job and know how to go about it (low need of support and low need of guidance).

Participating: Works best when employees have the ability to do the job, but need a high amount of support (low need of guidance but high need of support).

Selling: when employees are willing to do the job, but don’t know how to do it (low need of support but high need of guidance). Management style.

Differing management style and behaviour:

If we discussed earlier in this topic there are many circumstances when the management style needs to be changed. For example, in restaurants the most common style of management used is the Laissez-faire. Under this category not only restaurants but many other firms practicing proper management fall. From (Food industry, Food Company 2010) the most effective restaurant managers have the ability to adapt their managing style in the situations they encounter in daily operations. Basically all depends on the situation to fluctuate or play with the management style which best fits the environment and will benefit the company and its stakeholders.

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Sometimes it is seen in educational institutes where the autocratic management style is applied for some benefits but it might not always give expected results or outputs from the students. In those cases a democratic management can be applied from the mentors toward the students. This has a huge impact on the output as a student might find out a new discovery but the faculty might not have any knowledge about the discovery in that field or concentration.

Finally another situation can be described where management style needs to be changed. Suppose at times a manager needs to avoid appearing adversarial, for example the manager may need to convince the employee. That meeting is in essence a collaborative effort. Handing all the power to the employees may not be adequate for this realization and a more or less a paternalistic style may be needed in this situation. So through the above mentioned situations and circumstances we can see how a changed management style at times can benefit the organization wholly.

3.2 The relationship between individual managerial performance and expected organisational managerial performance and behaviour:

Management relationship it or performance is extremely important that a manger understand the Key Performance Indicators of his job. Apart from knowing we should know the different key performance indicators are, it is important that he/she understands these indicator have been framed and what their importance are. Once this understanding sets in the How of implementing these indicators is the next most important requirement.

The first thing which we need to discuss again is the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, as this is a very vital element at the start of this discussion. A person who is not satisfied with basic needs like food, water and shelter will not quiet certainly perform the way who satisfies with all the stages described by Maslow.

A good manager is to motivate the employees to move towards high performance. Managerial talent is a very important requirement and a major challenge in many organizations.

Nowadays are willing to spend huge amounts on Manager Development course and seminars. A good manager therefore is a real asset to the company. by T. Crescentia,(2007)

The organization behaviour and performances found the main fact that organization interventions to change organizational design and behaviour lead to improved performances, supports the view that behaviour cause performances, which is good performances could behaviour, also cause change in behaviour given new lesson and resources from the managerial point of view however, planned change in organization in organizational behaviour is the essential first step to improving performances may, however reinforce management planned changed efforts and provide resources which enable further investment in organization development. by M. Santa at all (1980)

Conclusion:

At last I can say a managerial style demand like business opportunity seeking, bearing individual responsibility, possessing knowledge of modern management concepts and techniques, and having entrepreurial creativity and capabilities for political lobbying. All these finally concludes that, the specific style should be maintained which best suits the specific organization. The management leader style is not something synthetic which is donned as we walk through the reception area. It is the real we tempered and improved by our knowledge of how to get the best out of people, and acting within the context of the organization culture.

Reference/Bibliography:

Books:

Herbert B.(1970) Human nature and collective behaviour. Tamostsu shibutani, Prentice-hall, Inc.

David Knights, Hugh Willmott.(2007),Introducing Organizational Behaviour and Management. Thomson Learning, high Holborn House.

Milan Kubr at all (1989) Diagnosing management training and development

Needs.

David Rees W. at all (1996) The skills of management, fifth edition, Thomson.

Gillian W. at all (2005) Managing for results, published by chartered institute of personal development.

Terence, L. (2005) Management information systems,Thomson.

Laurie J. M. (2007) Eighth edition, Management and organisational behaviour

Crescentia, T. at all (2007) Copyright – Central Test International, Relationship between Personality and Managerial Performance.

Santa, M. at all (1980) Organization change and development.

Managerial effectiveness-practitioners perspective, access at 19-Oct-2011 http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/g.swekrish-476757-managerial-effectiveness-practitioners-perspective/

Dawn R. mckay, by http://careerplanning.about.com/cs/miscskills/a/listening_skill.htm

Management style access at 10 pm 19-Oct, 2011 http://www.rpi.edu/dept/advising/free_enterprise/business_structures/management_styles.htm

Food industry, Food Company. (2010) Available at http://www.thecompanymarketing.com/food/different-styles-for-different-situations-restaurant-management/ [Accessed 10 Oct 2011].

Laissez faire management style (2010). Available at http://www.learnmanagement2.com/leadership%20styles.htm [Accessed 10 Oct 2011].

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