Human Resource Management Activities
Human Resource Management is the process of managing people in an organization in systematic and organised manner. The main goal of human Resource management is maximize the productivity by enhancing efficiency of employees in an organisation. According to Armstrong people who are working in an organisation individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its goals. (Tiwari.p, saxena.k 2012) have noted that managing human resources is more challenging than managing capital, machinery and technology. To manage efficiently and accomplish the goals of any organisation, Human Resource Management is composed with various interrelated activities.
Human resource management activities:
1) Recruitment: Recruitment is one of the major functions of HRM. To attract and maintain skilled, experienced, dedicated, and well-motivated employees, a high level of resources and commitment is essential. Recruitment process involves various tasks those are developing the job specifications, advertising, sorting applications, job interviews and posting.
2) Training and Development: on –the-job and refresher training for newly and existing employees is responsible of HR deportment. Training enhances specific skill among personnel of organization. Training programs might be specific job skills, communication skills, team building and legal and policy issues .According Sharma J.N (2002) people learn skills, attitudes and knowledge by training to perform job effectively. Training and development is highly essential to prepare organizations to meet future challenges.
3) Payroll: accurate and on time handling compensation and payroll to everyone at the organisation is a chief duty of the HRM. Compensation might be guaranteed and variable pay. Bonuses or incentive pay is contingent on performance. Hourly wages or fixed salary is guaranteed pay.
4) Employee and Labour/Management Relations: Managing harmonious relations between employees and management is key role of the human resource management deportment. Employee rights must be protected weather they are represented by unions or not. Employee relations function includes negotiating with the labour unions regarding salaries, working conditions and solving disputes and grievances.
5) Human Resource planning: The key functions of planning are anticipating future and avoid predicted problems. According to HRP is dealing with two aspects one is manpower requirements planning and Manpower supplies planning. HRP involves identify future work force requirements. Analysing and identifying specific skilled work force with in right time and designing programmes to achieve human resource requirements.
6) Wage and salary administration: A better wage and salary system in an organisation enable to attract and keep employees long term as well as motivate them to perform their best. Hence, HRM should design effective pay system and implement with utmost care. To design efficient pay system HRM deportment should aware some aspects like Rational Job analysis, proper job evaluation and depth knowledge about an organisation and market factors.
7) Job analysis: Job analysis provides the knowledge about manpower planning. According to Aswathappa (2013) job analysis is a process of collecting job related information, which helps to job description and specification. Job description involves title of job, location, duties, Working conditions, hazards, duties, machines and tools. Job specification contains education, training, communication skills, physical skills, emotional characteristics and initiative.
8) Performance appraisal: performance appraisal is major activity of HRM to provide training and development, making decisions on promotions, transfer and increment to their employees. Performance appraisal is assessment of individual performance in an organisation.it is systematic way to appraise the ability of employee related to performing job. Performance appraisal process involves establishing and communicating standards, measuring actual performance, comparing actual performance with standards and discuss with concerned employee.
10) Industrial relations: progress of any organisation depends on labour management harmonious relations. Hence, managing industrial harmony is one of the key functions of HRM deportment. Employers, employee and government involved in industrial relations. According to Dale relation arises out of employment between employer and employee or organisation and among workers is industrial relation. Industrial peace, high morale and reduced wastage are the outcomes of industrial relations.
9) Compensation: compensation is an important tool to HRM department to attract, motivate and retain employees. Wendell French 1986 Compensation not only dealing with monitory rewards but also non-monitory rewards like insurance, travel allowance, maternity benefits, retirement and other special benefits. Supply and demand of labour, management philosophy, legislations and paying capability of organisation are determinants the compensation.
11) Health, Safety, and Security: health, safety, and security aspects are important in any organisation to work at safe environment and well-being of workers. Traditionally organisations concentrate on safety and security issues like eliminating accidents, injuries, certain hazardous related to machinery and chemicals at work place. In modern concept Physical as well as mental health and problems related to substance abuse, job stress, diversity and discrimination, sexual harassment and violence also concerns through employment assistance programmes.
12. Motivation: Intellectual, biological, emotional and social aspects determine motivation among individuals. Since organisation lies on more and more on people to get competitive advantage (Muscalu E. and Muntean S.2012)) HRM deportment should formulate and implement essential intrinsic and extrinsic programmes to motivate their employees .lack of motivation leads to loss of performance effect on organisation productivity.
Conclusion: In addition to manage inside of organisation, managers should consider outside factors like technological and work force changes, cost ,government policies, lay off and globalisation effect to smooth run of organisation.
Muscalu E. and Muntean S.2012) MOTIVATION – A STIMULATING FACTOR FOR INCREASING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE. Business Excellence and Management Volume 2 Issue 1 / March 2012
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW Pankaj Tiwari Shri Chimanbhai Patel Institute of Management & Research Ahmedabad-380051 (India) Karunesh Saxena Faculty of Management Studies, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001, India 2012PAKISTAN BUSINESS REVIEW JANUARY 2012
Human resource management: text and cases K.Aswathappa( 2013)p138-141mc graw Hill foundation(India)Private Limited.
Human resource management Sarma J.N (2002) mittal publication New Delhi P195
A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice
By Michael Armstrong