Identify Human Resources For A Work Area Management Essay

Human Resource Development is the framework for helping employees develops their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Organizations have many opportunities for human resources or employee development, both within and outside of the workplace. By the end of this paper i will be able to devise a human resource plan for a work area, to meet organizational objectives, identify and plan for individual development to meet organizational objectives and also initiate a personal development plan for an individual and evaluate progress. Healthy organizations believe in Human Resource Development and cover all of these bases.

Task 1

Evaluate criteria required by you to identify human resources for a work area

Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. HRM is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. (Heathfield)

In addition to the traditional personnel and human resource management (HRM), there is a need for a new approach to personnel management, which we will call Human Capital Management (HCM). HCM emphasizes an alignment between the individual and the organization and in our view offers the challenge and the key to successful management in the future. Over the past decades, the developments and speed of change in our industrialized society have been tremendous, with subsequent consequences for “the human side of business”. (Marrewijk, 2002)

Describe techniques you use to assess the capabilities of a team to meet objectives

The HRM function assigns itself a strategically important position as a sounding board for top management, and facilitator and change agent and transformation processes. Objectives have long been considered a basis for sound decision making. This research examines the ability of decision makers to generate self-relevant objectives for consequential decisions. In three empirical studies, participants consistently omitted nearly half of the objectives that they later identified as personally relevant. More surprisingly, omitted objectives were perceived to be almost as important as those generated by participants on their own. (Bond & Carlson, 2008)

Every objective must be matched to an improvement plan. I must state specifically how to plan to achieve objectives. What processes will be changed? How are they going to be changed? What intermediate steps will be taken? Lay out the means in a logical manner so they can be implemented. Change requires resources. These might include funds, time, people, facilities, equipment and/or information. Document the necessary resources, and then make sure they’re available before trying to implement the plan. Who’s responsible for each step of the plan? Clearly designate and communicate responsibilities, and hold people accountable. Don’t leave anything to chance. Plans for establishing objectives take time to implement. How much time do you think you’ll need? Sometimes progress on a plan is contingent on other, unrelated variables. Examples include the actions of competitors, suppliers, regulators, lawmakers, communities and the economy. State the external issues that could possibly affect the plan’s success then define what you must do to help manage contingencies. (Cochran, 2006)

Critically appraise how performance management (including the management of under-performance) is undertaken within the organisation

Most performance management endeavor takes organizational strategy and objectives as given, and seeks to develop managerial instruments within that frame-work. Intellectual effort has concentrated on the cross-sectional approach, although the extent to which senior management is interested in disentangling cross-sectional sources of variation may vary considerably, depending on context. In principle, an interest in managerial performance suggests that the analysis should seek to adjust for all sources of variation not attributable to managerial action. This is not always achieved. For example, the early league tables of academic success in English schools were published without correction for any of the above types of variation, in spite of impassioned appeals from academics to do so, and the existence of techniques to address the complex analytic problem. Designed incentives seek to link a target to some aspect of measured performance, and attach a reward (or penalty) to performance achieved in relation to the target. Rewards can be at the individual or organizational level, and may be financial or otherwise. The important characteristic of ‘designed’ incentives is that the rules of the game are set in advance and are observable by all parties. (Palgrave Macmillan Journals, 2002)

A huge proportion of performance problems can be traced back simply to a failure to explain and agree expectations and/or a failure to understand and provide the help that the person needs. These are the responsibilities of the manager – not the employee. Don’t assume everything is understood and perfectly within people’s capabilities. Instead, take time to explain, check and ask until everyone concerned is happy and sure of what needs doing, why, and how. Certain expectations of performance are mandatory standards that are effectively written into employment contracts, or at least referred to in appropriate operational procedures. Such expectations and standards form part of the ‘psychological contract’ that exists between employer and employee. Other less firm responsibilities and activities (for instance optional developmental opportunities) of course often also form a part of the ‘psychological contract’, but basic standards and job requirements are generally non-negotiable. (Chapman, 2005)

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Construct a human resource plan for a work area

The key component of all projects is the human resources on the project. Be sure to plan properly for human resources to ensure success. The Human Resource Plan is a tool which aids in the management of all projects. At the very least it defines things such as roles and responsibilities, organizational charts, how resources will be acquired, time when each resource will be needed and any specialized training requirements. The human resources management plan includes: Roles and Responsibilities of team members throughout the Project; Project Organization Charts Staffing management plan to include: How resources will be acquired Timeline for resources/skill sets, training required to develop skills, performance reviews will be conducted, recognition and rewards system. (Mark Piscopo, 2012)

The purpose of the human resources management plan is to achieve project success by ensuring the appropriate human resources are acquired with the necessary skills, resources are trained if any gaps in skills are identified, team building strategies are clearly defines, and team activities are effectively managed. Project Manager is responsible for the overall success of the Software Upgrade Project. The PM must authorize and approve all project expenditures. The PM will evaluate the performance of all project team members and communicate their performance to functional managers. The PM is also responsible for acquiring human resources for the project through coordination with functional managers. The PM must possess the following skills: leadership/management, budgeting, scheduling, and effective communication. (Mark Piscopo, 2012)

Task 2

Assess the abilities and capabilities of staff to meet current and future objectives

The way in which a firm manages its human resources is increasingly recognized as centrally important to execution of its strategy. firms will differ in the ways they utilize and combine factor inputs, thus yielding outputs whose ‘services’ cannot be pre- dicted ex ante, even with a comprehensive under- standing of the input resources utilized in their production. Hence, firms with superior human resource utilization are likely to experience superior performance. Achieving a high degree of labor productivity is an outcome that most would agree is desirable. Labor productivity taps the extent to which the human capital is delivering value to the firm. If a firm’s strategy is effective, it should be able to find good people and put them to good use. A firm that excels in the creation of human capital resources should have people who are highly productive relative to the competition. (Koch & McGrath, 1996)

Superior employees create superiority both in primary value chain activities and in support activities (such as development of a high-quality infrastructure). Porter thus posits strong interactions between the quality of a firm’s human resource management practices and its sources of advantage in competitive markets. Selection tests seek to identify candidates with both desirable properties (such as aptitude) and undesirable properties (such as substance abuse). The goal is to hire those with desirable characteristics, and to avoid those with undesirable characteristics. In either case performance should be enhanced by using selection tests, since their use results in both a workforce of individuals who are better matched to their jobs than would be possible sans screening, and a workforce that does not include those who have undesirable qualities. (Koch & McGrath, 1996)

Develop a personal development plan for an individual to meet current and future objectives.

PDP is defined as ‘a structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning, performance and/or achievement and to plan for their personal, educational and career development’. Relative performance evaluation (RPE) entails evaluating individual or organizational unit performance relative to the performance of others. PDP embraces a range of approaches to learning that connect planning (an individual’s goals and intentions for learning or achievement), doing (aligning actions to intentions), recording (thoughts, ideas, experiences, in order to understand and evidence the process and results of learning) and reflection (reviewing and evaluating experiences and the results of learning). (The Higher Education Academy)

Although economic theory shows that RPE can provide benefits when there is common uncertainty, several factors rest outside the theory. Drawing on referent cognitions theory, several studies on budgeting provide evidence that unfair budget targets are associated with lower performance when employees perceive the budgeting process is unfair. Even though an RPE incentive plan appears to induce agents to exert more effort by reducing risk and introducing competition, a significant level of dysfunctional responses can occur, for example, due to decreased morale or skepticism brought on by employees’ perceived unfairness of benchmarked targets. (Matsumura & Shin, 2006)

Conduct a training needs analysis for an individual or group of staff

The purpose of a training needs assessment is to identify performance requirements and the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by an agency’s workforce to achieve the requirements. An effective training needs assessment will help direct resources to areas of greatest demand. The assessment should address resources needed to fulfill organizational mission, improve productivity, and provide quality products and services. A needs assessment is the process of identifying the “gap” between performance required and current performance. When a difference exists, it explores the causes and reasons for the gap and methods for closing or eliminating the gap. A complete needs assessment also considers the consequences for ignoring the gaps. (U.S. Office of Personnel Management)

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Organizational assessment evaluates the level of organizational performance. An assessment of this type will determine what skills, knowledge, and abilities an agency needs. It determines what is required to alleviate the problems and weaknesses of the agency as well as to enhance strengths and competencies, especially for Mission Critical Occupation’s (MCO). Organizational assessment takes into consideration various additional factors, including changing demographics, political trends, technology, and the economy. Occupational assessment examines the skills, knowledge, and abilities required for affected occupational groups. Occupational assessment identifies how and which occupational discrepancies or gaps exist, potentially introduced by the new direction of an agency. It also examines new ways to do work that can eliminate the discrepancies or gaps. Individual assessment analyzes how well an individual employee is doing a job and determines the individual’s capacity to do new or different work. Individual assessment provides information on which employees need training and what kind. (U.S. Office of Personnel Management)

Agree personal development plans with individuals.

PDPs are designed to promote the fulfillment of individual development needs and aspirations within the general framework of the Office’s human resources objectives and needs. PDPs are an integral part of a career-development approach applying throughout the ILO, and will be conducted in accordance with due process, fair procedures and natural justice, having regard to relevant international law, labor standards and the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. PDPs should provide guidelines to assist staff members to formulate realistic and achievable development goals; facilitate discussions between staff members and their applicable line managers and the Human Resources Development Department about ways and means to implement development goals, including through a personal development action plan; provide the framework within which the Office shall make available to staff members information about the Office’s current and planned skills needs; provide inputs into the Office’s training and development planning process; contribute to greater job satisfaction. (Wild & Dror, 2001)

The PDP form consists of three parts: the first part is the “Self-Assessment “component. “Self-assessment” will guide the staff member in identifying areas of work where s/he can do better, those that require further development and those reflecting his/her career aspirations; the second part entitled “PDP Summary” documents the outcome of the interview between the staff member and the applicable line manager, lists possible next steps and outlines a 12-month personal development action plan; the third part, the “PDP Progress Review”, serves as an optional tracking tool for the staff member to monitor the achievement of objectives. The Office will prepare a PDP manual which will provide guidelines to staff members and to managers on the conduct of the PDP interview, describe competencies, refer to career counseling options, provide examples of development activities and present information in the form of frequently asked questions. The manual shall be updated as needed. (Wild & Dror, 2001)

Task 3

Identify those for whom support is required to initiate the personal development plan.

The concept covers a wider field than self-development or self-help. Personal development also includes developing other people (inter-personal development) and, by extension, covers personal development methods, programs, tools, techniques and assessment systems. Any level of development economic, political, biological, organizational or personal requires a framework to know whether change has actually occurred. For personal development the individual serves as the primary judge of improvement, but validation requires assessment using standard criteria. Personal development frameworks may include goals or benchmarks that define the end-points, strategies or plans for reaching goals, measurement and assessment of progress, levels or stages that define milestones along the development path, and a feedback-system to provide information on changes. (Psychometric Success, 2012)

The personal development resources here at Uncommon Knowledge are sound, research-based and practical. This example self-improvement plan provides a basis for personal development which utilizes proven success factors of highly successful people: having a vision, a plan, and executing the plan. Customize the example plan for even greater effectiveness. A Sample Personal Development Program provides supporting information for the topic of focus in each of the nineteen weeks. Proven success factors of highly successful people include having a personal improvement plan and sticking to it. This example personal development plan will provide a structure and template for personal improvement. Focusing on one aspect of personal growth each week for nineteen weeks will typically bring significant cumulative growth benefits. (Psychometric Success, 2012)

Initiate the plan, review and monitor progress against agreed objectives

Planning for problems isn’t for everyone, but it’s the business of leading. Being a visionary is crucial, but foreseeing how to move obstacles out of the way of a team is equally essential. People who coach on hiring and firing often say that whoever you’re firing probably should have been fired months ago, and that you (as their leader) were either too inept or too much of a procrastinator to take care of the problem when it arose. This same lesson can be applied to all leadership settings. If we plan, the problems should be minimal, not crises: our plans should build in time to take care of today’s problems today and time to re-plan as necessary. And there must be contingency built in for when the small problems arise. If we can’t anticipate the future, we will fail. Things will happen that are unexpected, but the schedule and budget must have enough flex to allow for it. (Barry, 2012)

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Monitoring progress towards green growth requires indicators based on internationally comparable data. These need to be embedded in a conceptual framework and selected according to well specified criteria. Ultimately, they need to be capable of sending clear messages which speak to policy makers and the public at large. Considerations about keeping society’s asset base intact relate directly to one dimension of the quality of life that is relevant for the work at hand, namely the direct impact of the environment on people. Another central aspect in the context of economic opportunities is innovation and technology. These are drivers of multi factor productivity change through new products, entrepreneurship and business models, and new consumption patterns. General innovation has to be distinguished from green innovation. (OECD Indicators, 2011)

Evaluate the plan on completion and its contribution to organizational objectives

The aim of employee personal development plan is to define the activities that ensure diffusion of knowledge and skills needed to eliminate deficit of qualifications, ensure an increase in employee performance with the criterion of movement within his career. The aim is also the controlled education within the succession plan, especially leading the employee to obtain the necessary competencies and preparation for greater responsibility. All organizations that recognize the value and importance of people (human capital) care about employee’s development. It must be naturally controlled and planned in accordance with the overall strategy of the organization. Expression of such compliance and the use of individual personality characteristics and personal qualifications of each person in the organization is then expressed by a personal development plan. Personal development plan may include formal education, self-learning, distance learning, project work, participation in internships, work activities leading to improve qualification and the contribution to the organization and other activities intended to broaden the knowledge and skills development, in particular. (, 2012)

Describe methods of giving informal and formal feedback and assessment of individual’s progress

There are many opportunities for giving informal feedback to learners on a day-to-day basis. Such techniques often involve giving feedback to learners on their performance or understanding, but the feedback is built into everyday practice. Providing informal on-the-job feedback can take only a few minutes of the clinician’s time. To be the most effective, feedback should take place at the time of the activity or as soon as possible after so that the learner (and teacher) can remember the events accurately. The feedback should be positive and specific, focusing on the trainee’s strengths and helping to reinforce desirable behaviour: ‘You maintained eye contact with Mrs X during the consultation; I feel this helped to reassure her’. Negative feedback should also be specific and non-judgmental, possibly offering a suggestion: ‘Have you thought of approaching the patient in such a way’. Focus on some of the positive aspects before the areas for improvement: ‘You picked up most of the key points in the history, including X and Y, but you did not ask about Z…’ Avoid giving negative feedback in front of other people, especially patients. (London Deanery, 2012)

Formal feedback, if well managed, is the solution to these challenges. Feedback-intensive programs are workshops or classes designed to provide managers with a range of feedback in various formats and from several sources. Similarly, 360-degree assessments provide feedback from a variety of sources (boss, peers, direct reports, etc.), but they are tools either paper or online instruments intended to measure specific behaviours and skills. Both provide a structured, neutral, yet powerful format for giving and receiving feedback. Perhaps the greatest benefit of formal feedback is the opportunity to focus, reflect and make change. “Taking a 360-degree assessment or a feedback-intensive program may be the only time you consciously stop to take stock of your performance and effectiveness,” says Chappelow. (Chappelow, 2003)



The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers. We need to learn new skills and develop new abilities, to respond to these changes in our lives, our careers, and our organizations. We can deal with these constructively, using change for our competitive advantage and as opportunities for personal and organizational growth, or we can be overwhelmed by them. With all the downsizing, outsourcing and team building, responsibility and accountability are being downloaded to individuals. So everyone is now a manager. Everyone will need to acquire and/or increase their skills, knowledge and abilities to perform their jobs. By developing our knowledge and skills, our actions and standards, our motivation, incentives, attitudes and work environment we will be able to cope up with the everchanging work environment.

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