Identify The Current Level Of Employee Job Satisfaction Management Essay
Nowadays, the employees are the key in enhancing the organization efficiency and productivity in order to grow rapidly and be successful. Same goes to Melakas Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) employees where their jobs need more productivity as they are important assets to the government. JKR was established in 1872 as the technical arm of the Government of Malaysia and serves as the main implementing agency for development projects throughout the country. The company’s objectives are firstly is to develop the infrastructure and public utilities such as roads, water, supplies, buildings, airports, ports and jetties to meet the needs of the nation. JKR implements development projects for various ministries, departments, statutory bodies and state government.
JKR organization consists of a total staff’s establishment of about 40,000 posts, the majority of which are State posts throughout Malaysia. Approximately there are 374 support personnel in Melaka’s branch which entrusted with the planning, implementation and maintenance of state development projects such as roads and government buildings. With engineers as the company’s main asset, it is crucial to keep this employees or engineers satisfied at all times. Human resource or employees of any organization are the most central part so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards tasks fulfillment (Quratul Ain, 2012).
But these employees must be committed and satisfied with the organization in order for them to feel committed in performing their duties. According to Markos (2010), an engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. Generally, employees’ job satisfaction derived from factors such as benefits, pay roles, salary, empowerment, bonuses but for JKR, since the organization is a government sector, with that, the salary, pay roles, benefits and so forth are most likely to not change and bring that much impact on job satisfaction. Due to this, leadership styles might be one of the factors that may also lead to employees’ job satisfaction in JKR. Leadership and its styles are considered to be an act of influencing the individual of an organization such that they make effort eagerly towards achieving group goals (Mohsen, Hamid and Zynalabedin, 2011).
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Managers and higher-level executives play a big role in keeping the employees satisfy with their job in term of pay, work, promotion, supervision, and coworkers in the organization. As said by M.L. Voon et al. (2011) organizations need to have capable leaders to lead and motivate their employees in their daily operation and achieve the organizational goals. Thus, this raises the issues whether transformational, transactional or laissez-faire leadership style is suited for this purposes.
Besides, there is no research have been conducted before in JKR Melaka to examine the influences of leadership style on job satisfaction. According to M.L. Voon et al. (2011) the researchers should focus on other organizations either on private or government sectors in other states in Malaysia instead of Selangor. Research done previously by them only focuses on Selangor and randomly targeted at various public sector of the state.
State Director of JKR Melaka is being accountable to the Deputy Director General of JKR Malaysia. At the same time, state JKR higher level staff is required to monitor and supervise federal projects, carried out in the state as its main task where it should be reflected in its leadership style. Therefore, the challenge for the organization is to ensure that leadership style is keeping up with the organization goals and the employee job satisfaction. As said by Saari & Judge (2004), happy employees are productive employees. Therefore, this research would like to study the impact of leadership style towards employee job satisfaction among government servant in JKR Melaka.
Another issue in this study is different leadership implies can lead to dissatisfaction. Therefore it will result whether job satisfaction is high or low. This can also lead to earlier job retirement or resign from the organization. This questions whether leadership styles make differences in employee’s development.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.3.1 To identify the current level of employee job satisfaction among government servant in JKR Melaka.
1.3.2 To examine the relationship of transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership style on employee job satisfaction.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.4.1 What is the current level of employee job satisfaction among government servant in JKR Melaka?
How the transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership influences employee job satisfaction?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study is conducted to identify the impact of leadership style towards employee job satisfaction among government servant in JKR Melaka.
First, this study will give significant towards the organization itself. This study gives the different impact of leadership styles towards employee satisfaction. Each leadership styles which are laissez-faire, transactional and transformational leadership have a different impact towards employee job satisfaction whether it gives negative or positive impact.
Secondly, this study also will significant towards employee. The leaders can identify what the problem enhances to the employee job satisfaction. Once the problems have been discovered, the leaders identify the solution to solve the problems. If the problems reduced, the employee can increase their job performance and will have their current level of job satisfaction when do their job. This also helps to improve whether the leadership styles give the impact towards their job satisfaction.
Lastly, the future researcher also can get significant through this study. This study helps the future researcher to regain more knowledge regarding the employee job satisfaction in the organization. They can use them as a guideline when they do their research later.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this study only covers among government servant in Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) organization in Melaka. Therefore, it only concerns with the government organization only, the results do not apply to the private organizations. Moreover, by choosing JKR organization in Melaka as the target location of the research, the findings also cannot be generalized to the other company or another branch of JKR in Malaysia.
Moreover, findings of this research also will be limited to transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership style and the influence on five (5) types of employee job satisfaction: pay, work, promotion, supervision and coworkers. Thus, other types of leadership style such as autocratic and democratic do not included in this study. Same goes for the employee jobs satisfaction facet. Only five (5) are included and other types of employee job satisfaction such as work environment, compensation and benefits would not be applied here.
Another limitation in this study is the target population. It is limited to the employees of JKR Melaka only. The finding would generalize only to the employees in the lower and middle level management from various departments. Therefore, the result will not applicable towards the top level management.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.7.1 Leadership Styles
Leadership style defined as the extent to which the leader shares the responsibility of decision making with his followers (Wright, 1996).
According to Bass (1985), transformational leadership is a leadership perspective that explains how leaders change teams or organizations by creating, communicating and modeling a vision for the organization or work unit and inspiring employees to strive for that vision.
Robbins defined the transactional leadership as “Leaders who lead primarily by using social exchanges for transactions” (Robbins, 2007, p.475).
Jones and Rudd (2007) said that laissez-faire leadership style is where an inactive form of leadership characterized by a reluctance to become actively involved and a view that the best leadership is to disassociate from the action.
1.7.6 Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction can be viewed as a reaction to a job, arising from what an individual seeks in a job comparison with the actual outcomes that the job provides to the individual (Rothman & Coetzer, 2002).
This study proposed to identify the impact of leadership style towards employee job satisfaction among government servant in Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) Melaka. This chapter reviews literature on three (3) types of leadership style and five (5) employee job satisfaction facets including pay, work, promotion, supervision and coworkers.
In Malaysia, there is research on the influence of leadership styles on employees’ job satisfaction (M.L. Voon et al. 2011). On the contrary, studies in United States and Middle East are numerous.
2.2 EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION
Employee satisfaction is generally referred as important ingredient for organizational success (M.L. Voon et al. 2011). There are various facet of employee job satisfaction. But, in this study, the researcher only uses five of it: pay, work, promotion, supervision and coworkers. Employee job satisfaction will reflect on how the leader manages its organization. Some researcher believes that the way employee is treated will reflect on the job satisfaction. Negative leader-employee relations reduce the organization productivity and increase the rate of absenteeism and the turnover rate (Ribelin, 2003). A good working condition will become a key factor for workers to develop a value and improving the job performance and retention in the organization (M.L. Voon et al. 2011).
There are many types of job satisfaction. A study by M.L. Voon et al. 2011, proposed there are two job satisfaction which is intrinsic an extrinsic job satisfaction wheras Fatemeh Hamidifar, 2009 proposed there are 9 job satisfaction adapted from JSS model (Spector, 1997). But, in this study, the researcher will focus only at five job satisfaction same as the Okpara, 2004 model of job satisfaction facets including pay, work, promotion, supervision and coworkers. These factors also have been used in Fatemeh Hamidifar, 2009 study. The reason of using only this factor is because a good working condition with support from supervision, coworkers, pay, promotion and the work itself will give impact on the employees in enhancing their productivity and growth.
According to (Spector, 2008), pay is associated with global satisfaction and even more closely with the facet of pay satisfaction. Although, money is important to individuals, research has shown that individuals who earn more are not necessarily more satisfied in their jobs. Robbins (2003) believes that salary is a key determinant of job satisfaction because it serves as a symbol of achievement and a source of recognition; this is applicable if the pay is adequate.
It is evident that pay is an essential aspect of job satisfaction for sport administrators and coaches despite self report surveys which place pay as being of low importance to overall job satisfaction (McShane and Von Glinow, 2002). Employees often see pay as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the organization (Luthans, 2002). Synder (2002) analyzed the relationship between job characteristics and compensation satisfaction of public and private recreation managers.
Employees should find their work meaningful, interesting and challenging. It is only when individuals value the objectives and goals, and if the goals are personally challenging, that the work itself is valued. People have a preference for interesting and challenging tasks that provide opportunities for self actualization and recognition (Gerber et al., 2002). Once the worker is very hardworking in their job, they always continue with this behavior to make sure that they satisfied with their work and can give something to the organization so that the organizations can success in the future.
According to Martin and Roodt (2008), employees value certain conditions of work, and that if these conditions are evident and congruent with the individual’s own needs, employees will be more satisfied and committed and less likely to leave the organization. When the employee comfortable with their work, they become more serious with their job and do not think to quit from the job.
According to Westlund and Hannon (2008), nature of work significantly related to an employee’s intention to remain with an organization. Sometimes, worker choose the work that they comfortable with it although the work become challenge for them. People have a preference for interesting and challenging tasks that provide opportunities for self actualization and recognition (Gerberet al., 2002).
One of the ways to attract employees’ commitment is through promotion. Promotion here is a selection to a position requiring higher qualifications such as greater skill or longer experience and involving a higher level of responsibility, a higher rate of pay, and a title change is considered a promotion and will be classified as such in all personnel documents. Promotions will be made without regard to the race, color, sex, religion, age, ethnic origin, or disability of the employee. According to Asvir, Ahmad and Fatima (2011), by promotion, the employees themselves feel to be an effective contributor and thus will be more satisfied with their job.
Promotion can also be considered as a tool to satisfy employees by which it is also one of a reward to employees for their achievements and good productivity that they provide for the organization. Previous research shows how job rewards are strong determinant of job satisfaction (Zia et al. 2010). Moreover employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just, unambiguous and in line with their expectations (Neeraj, 2011). Neeraj even stated that when pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level, and community pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result.
With more rewards given to employees the more organization commitment build in the organization. According to Ehsan, Samina, Basharat, and Rizwan (2010), organization commitment here refers to the employee’s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. But sometimes, promotion does not bring any impact to some employees as to these employees, promotion is not what makes them satisfy with the organization but other factors do. According to Brikend (2011), he stated that the model taken by Lawler and Porter, (1967) the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are not directly connected with job satisfaction, because of the employees’ perceptions regarding the deserved level of pay.
Another factor that can contribute to employees’ satisfactions is supervision. Employee supervision is the role of the front line supervisor in a company or organization where the supervisor will directly contact with the employees who they supervise. Supervision helps establish order in the workplace and all the activities happen in the organization the supervisors will report to managers in the organization hierarchy. Effective supervision is a foundation of a successful organization.
According to Shahid, Imran and Hafiz (2010), one aspect of supervision is to train these people, correct them, tell them what to do and also bring improvement in their deficiencies in service. Supervision is most likely a supervisor’s job. With good supervision or a well supervisor, this can lead to a satisfy employee. A supervisor’s task is not only giving instructions, where else motivate employees is also a part of a supervisor’s responsibilities. Moreover, these supervisors will always have check on the employees’ jobs and what they observed, they give feedback to the employees indicating their positives and negatives regarding the employees’ performance (Shahid, Imran and Hafiz, 2010).
However some employees prefer empowerment where having the power to make decisions or the power to lead will make them more satisfy rather than having a supervisor or manager supervising them. Benefits of staff empowerment include the enhancing of organization responsiveness to client needs, reducing some of the alienating processes of bureaucracy, increased life satisfaction and sense of well-being among employees, the facilitating of meaningful and viable relationships among workers at different levels, increased worker satisfaction with various aspects of the work place, and enhancement of commitment and morale (Vasugi & Manicka, 2011).
Top level managers may not only be the ones who contribute to employee job satisfaction but even co-workers can contribute to employees’ job satisfaction. Co-workers here are also same as managers where people who supports other employees in the organization. According to Martinez-Corts, Benitez, Boz, Munduate and J. Madina (2011), in small businesses, the importance of supervisor and co-worker support can become even more salient due to the proximity in relationships and centralized control of the organizational dynamics.
Like managers, positive co-workers will make employees more satisfy but negative co-workers, this will only add more stress to the employee. However not all employees look co-workers may affect their job satisfaction. According to Dogan (2009), external satisfactory factors are not directly related to work itself (such as good relationships with colleagues, high salary, good welfare and utilities).
Leadership is a process of interaction between leaders and followers where the leader attempts to influence followers to achieve a common goal (Northhouse, 2010; Yukl, 2005). To achieve an employee job satisfaction, leadership is important in the organization. A capable leader provides direction for the organization and lead followers towards achieving desired goals (M.L. Voon et al. 2011). A leader will influence the subordinates to achieve targets of the organizations. According by Fatemeh Hamidifar (2009), what is meant by influence is that the relationship among people is not passive but multidirectional instead; superiors influence subordinates and subordinates influence superiors.
Variety of research has been done using different types of leadership. Al-Ababneh used 3 types of leadership in his research includes autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire whereas M.L. Voon et al. 2011 focused only at transactional and transformational leadership. However in this study, focus on only three types of leadership because different leadership style will give different impact on how employee performs in their task. Fatemeh Hamidifar (2009) also used the same leadership styles like this study which is, transformational, transactional and laissez faire leadership style.
2.3.1 Transformational Style
Transformational leader do more with followers and colleagues than transactional leaders do (Avolio et al. 1991). Transformational leadership theorists suggest that leaders must go further than just initiation and consideration of the structure (Mu-Li Yang, 2012). They need to inspire the employees with their creativities and ideas of improving the company performance. By developing and enthusiastic and attractive vision, it will help the employee believes and follow their leadership. Transformational leadership involves the ability to inspire and motivate followers (Jones & Rudd, 2007).
Transformational leadership creates a sensible vision with appealing picture of the future (Reddy, 2011). A simple exchange and agreement between the higher-up and employees will inspire the employees and leaders will gain respect and trust from the employees. Bass and Avolio, 1994 pointed, leaders adopting the inspirational motivation have an ability to strengthen their followers’ responses. The basic ideas of leadership theory state that transformational leadership is more humane leadership theory, as compared to the militaristic transactional theory (Reddy, 2011).
2.3.2 Transactional Style
As said by Avolio et al., 1991, transactional leaders communicate with their subordinates to explain how a task must be done and let them know that here will be a rewards for a job done well. Transactional leadership is centered on leader-follower exchanges. Followers perform according to the will and direction of the leader and leaders positively reward the efforts (Riaz & Haider, 2010).
By adapting to transactional leadership, a company may determine their success. But then, in some situation, it may not achieve the employee level of satisfaction due to the different way of thinking from the employee’s side and the employer’s side. In contrast, transactional leadership style provides high satisfaction and organizational identification as compared to transformational leadership style (Wu, 2009).
As said by Chaudry & Javed (2012), in transactional leadership style if you are working very well than you will be rewarded due to good work and if you are not showing your commitment with your organization you will be punish. This shows that what you do will give you benefits or vise versa.
2.3.3 Laissez-faire Style
Laissez-faire is refers to “hands-off, let things-ride” approach in its original French phrase. According to (Northouse, 2010), leader of laissez-faire are said to relinquish responsibility, give no feedback, delays in decision making and not keen to help followers in satisfying their needs. Laissez-faire leadership is a passive kind of leadership style. There is no relationship exchange between the leader and the followers. It represents a non-transactional kind of leadership style in which necessary decisions are not made, actions are delayed, leadership responsibilities ignored, and authority unused. A leader displaying this form of non-leadership is perceived as not caring at all about others’ issues.
Moreover, this leadership make employee and leader cannot cooperate with each other and leader can’t use their authority as the leader to make the decision and give full authority to the employee to make the decisions. In contrast to transformational and transactional leaderships, according to Robbins et al. (2010), laissez-faire leadership is a passive kind of leadership style. This type of leader generally gives his or her followers or employees complete freedom to make decisions or to complete a task in whichever way they deems fit and appropriate.
2.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES AND EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION
Past literature suggests that leaders whom practices transformational, transactional, and laissez faire leadership styles gives impact on employee job satisfaction. A study by M.L. Voon et al. (2011) proved that transformational leadership increase job satisfaction. It is supported by Hinduan et al. (2009) and Clabough et al. (2000). Research by Reddy, 2011 confirms that transformational leadership style will boost employees’ job satisfaction and performance.
A study by Fatemeh Hamidifar resulted that there is negative relationship of laissez-faire leadership with employee job satisfaction. This proves that employees are not satisfied with laissez-faire leadership. But, positive relationship may be achieved in another study conduct with different sample size. Power differences shows by a leader gives different impact on employee job satisfaction.
A study by Jones & Rudd (2007) resulted positive relationship occurs between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with employee job satisfaction. It becomes evident for higher education institution to continue recruiting diverse leaders with diverse background whereas the outcomes of Al-Ababneh leadership styles also could not be proved but neither could the relationship be discounted. Therefore, this study also will prove whether transformational, transactional, and laissez faire leadership styles have positive or negative impact on employee job satisfaction.
2.5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Figure 1 – Theoretical Framework
Employee Job Satisfaction
Source: Fatemeh Hamidifar, 2009
This research theoretical framework is a modification of Fatemeh Hamidifar, 2009. As in the figure 1 shows, it increases the fact that pay, work, promotion, supervision and co-workers from the employee job satisfaction dependent variable can be influenced by the three different leadership style.
In this research, the independent variable includes 3 types of leadership styles: transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. The leadership style model is adapted from Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) model by Fatemeh Hamidifar, 2009.
H1: Employee job satisfaction as measured in terms of pay is significantly influence by one of the leadership style.
H2: Employee job satisfaction as measured in terms of work is significantly influenced by one of the leadership style.
H3: Employee job satisfaction as measured in term of promotion is significantly influenced by one of the leadership style.
H4: Employee job satisfaction as measured in term of supervision is significantly influenced by one of the leadership style.
H5: Employee job satisfaction as measured in term of coworkers is significantly influenced by one of the leadership style.
The previous chapter reviewed relevant literature on three main leadership styles that normally organization uses and also five factors that contribute to employees’ job satisfaction in Jabatan Kerja Raya Melaka (JKR). This chapter discusses aspects of the research methodology including research design, data collection and data analysis methods. Under this chapter also will be discussed on what methods to be use, what samples can be used in gathering data and the analysis of the data that has been collected and lastly would be the conclusion for this chapter.
The aim of the study is to investigate the impact on leadership style in influencing employees’ job satisfaction in JKR Melaka. Therefore this study will be conducted to meet the following objectives:
To measure the current level of employee job satisfaction among government servant in JKR Melaka.
To study the relationship of transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership style on employee job satisfaction.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study is carried out in Jabatan Kerja Raya Melaka (JKR). The main purpose of the research is to investigate whether or not there is a relationship between JKR’s leadership styles and also JKR’s employees’ job satisfaction. The type of research that is suitable for this study is correlational research. First and foremost, correlational research here examines the relationship between variables an correlational research also provide some indication as to how two or more things that are related to one another or, in effect, what they share or have in common, or how well a specific outcome might be predicted by one or more pieces of information (Salkind J, 2012).
The purpose of this study is related to this research design which is to examine what type of leadership styles do JKR Melaka uses and to find out what do these leadership styles which are transformational, transactional and laissez-faire does and the impact they give on employee job satisfaction in JKR Melaka. Moreover, this study is also focuses on finding out whether these leadership styles bring negative or positive contribution to employees’ job satisfaction in JKR Melaka. Since the purpose of this study is to examine the relationship leadership styles and employees’ job satisfaction, information will be collect and analyze as much as possible within this specific area. The main populations that will be focus in this research are the organization’s managers and supervisors themselves and the employees that are working under JKR Melaka.
According to Salkind (2012), population is a group of potential participants to whom you want to generalize the results of the study. A sample is a subset of that population. A result can be generalized from a sample to a population, do the result have meaning beyond the limited setting in which they were originally obtained. When results are generalizable, they can be applied to different populations with the same characteristics in different settings.
Therefore, the population of this study will be consisting of employees in the lower level management and middle level management. Employees includes in the lower level management are driver, clerk and supporting staff whereas in middle level management includes accountant, administrative staff, technician and junior executives. As been informed by the organization, there are approximately 374 employees working in various departments at JKR Melaka. The sample will be obtained randomly from the name list of employees and the list will be served as sampling frame for this study.
3.4 SAMPLING DESIGN
There are two types of sampling strategies: probability and non probability sampling. In the contexts of this study, probability sampling strategies was selected because the selection of participants was determined by chance (Salkind, 2011). In this sampling design, the researcher will chose a simple random sampling. This is because simple random samplings have a high generalizability of findings. To obtain a representative sample of employee of the organization (the target population), the researcher choose a 374 employees to do the simple random sampling.
The sample size of this research includes the population of office support staffs in the administrations department. The sample size will be acquired from the table of Krejcie and Morgan (1970) that simplified the sample size decision in order to ensure a good decision model. Therefore, the sample size for this study will be 181 respondents. The study will focused to male and female respondents.
TABLE 1: TABLE FOR DETERMINING SAMPLE SIZE FROM A GIVEN POPULATION
Note: “N” is population size
“S” is sample size.
Krejcie, Robert V., Morgan, Daryle W., “Determining Sample Size for Research Activities”, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1970.
3.5 DATA COLLECTION METHOD
For this study, the data collected through a set of self administered questionnaire. For this study, the data collected was primary data. This method was chosen because questionnaires are an efficient data collection mechanism when the researcher knows exactly what is required and how to measure the variables of interest. The leadership style questionnaire was adapted from the leadership style survey developed by Bass & Avolio (1997) originally consisting was collected of 45 descriptive statements. A five-point Likert-type scale was used in the instruments. The questionnaires will be handed over to the various of department in the organization.
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS
In order to achieve the purpose of this study and test the hypothesis, all the data will be analyzed through SPSS version 18.00.
The data will be analyzed using descriptive and Pearson correlational coefficient techniques. The purpose of descriptive research is to describe the current state of affairs at the time of the study. The descriptive research does not include a treatment or control group. The descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviations, etc) for each of the variables, along with the reliability and correlation coefficients. The correlation shows the general pattern of relationships between the variables. It will reflect the degree of relationship between variables.
In addition, SPSS will be used in order to generate tables and graphs for the analysis.
3.7 WORK SCHEDULE
TABLE 2: WORK SCHEDULE
Asking the Question
Identifying the Important Factor
Formulating a Hypothesis
Collecting Relevant Information
Testing the Hypothesis
Working with the Hypothesis
Reconsidering the Theory
In conclusion, from the overall chapter, the purpose of investigating the impact on JKR Melaka leadership styles on influencing its employees’ job satisfaction can be achieve through the data and information that will be gathered. In this chapter it will be more focus on the methodology that will be used for the research. Under this chapter also explains on the methods and samples that will be used in order to determine and get the results of the overall study. Moreover, the population of the study will also be verified.
It is hoped that this study will be a successful study and will provide some insights on the impacts of leadership styles in influencing employees’ job satisfaction in JKR Malacca. Furthermore, this study can be used as a guide to further research where it may be necessary to understand how other variables apart from these leadership styles may explain the employees’ job satisfaction in government sector.