Identify Various Approaches To Workload Planning Management Essay

Workload planning and work allocation is described within London University of Art Estate as a way to ensure an equitable and transparent approach to allocate work activities across estate staff’.

Approach to work planning and decision are solely on the senior management within the UAL which require a number of critical decisions in relation to the model design and parameters. These decisions include:

Scenario planning- How unit of activities be achieved, recorded and measured.

Demand forecasting- the type of future activities and level of detail skills required to achieve these unit within SLA’s.

Action planning – activities to measure inputs and plans to achieve these activities such as training, promotion and recruitment.

There are numerous benefits from the principles use in successful workload planning and allocation for any organization. Whether a senior manager, a planner or a member of the finance team, workload planning will help you to:

understand what you want to achieve with workload planning

identify the best approach for your institution

get the most out of your workload planning data

implement workload planning effectively across the organisation

The success of any workload planning is essential for any organization. This can be done by considering certain factors during planning and allocating work for staff. These factors are:

The availability of resources in terms of staff skills and if necessary recruit using head hunt, agency and advertisement. Also tools like spreadsheets, software and common sense.

Understand the business priorities, goal and future development.

Workload planning; using the resources available to achieve the business goals.

Continual regular review to meet the changing environment

On the other hand, any organization where workload planning is not a priority finds it business operation not meeting the business goals and even if it does, there are factors that slow the business operation. These factors may include:

Staff not sure what they are working on day by day and may or may not succeed

Wasting time on a single project hence missing dead lines

Wasting resources on a single structure

Organisation which becomes affected by such factor loses it business client and customer relationships and in a long run will be out of business.

1.2

Evaluate their effectiveness within the context of an organisation’s overall strategy

London University of the Arts (UAL) Estates Department’s mission is to deliver high quality facilities services which are fit for purpose and cost effective and fully meet the University’s present and future needs.

To achieve these goals, the estate has a set system in delivering, measuring and monitoring service delivery which meets stakeholder’s satisfaction. The IT platform is a system constantly in used for work planning, allocation and training and development. This system has a time limit for job to be completed. Measurement is by the time the job is responded; log off the system, monthly group meeting and debriefing.

Where target are not met and our customers lodge complain (which is used in measuring performance and time wastage) the issues are assess and the reasons are corrected. Non-productive are the time we not working on projects that led us closer to our goals. Example time spent chatting with two friends, reading emails not related to work, and reading internet marketing news not crucial to the business. To calculate non-productivity in percentage form; is time not working divided by the total time available to complete the job.

The training and development plays a key role in updating skills that are mandatory for services delivery, improve wasted time, job satisfaction and also personal development using both internal and external professional. The system has made job completion promptly and effectively within the facilities team across the UAL campuses in London.

2.1

Evaluate the extent to which an organisation’s process enables the Facilities Manager to

recruit the right people with the right skills, experience and approach for the role in

question

Recruitment is the process of identifying and attracting a group of potential candidates from within

and outside the organization to evaluate for employment. This means collecting, measuring, and evaluating information about candidates’ qualifications for specified positions. Organizations use these practices to increase the likelihood of hiring individuals who have the right skills and abilities to be successful in the target job.

Recruitment in the UAL Estate department takes a longer time due to the involvement of professionals within the estate and agency consultants. Detail job creation specifications involve the site manager (AFM), senior manager (SFM), head of the estate (HFM) and the Human Resources (HR). The need for a staff is raise by the college FM then is discuss with SFM and HFM.

Depending on the position and skills the college FM/SFM is/are looking for; staffs are normally source from outside. The key person needs to have hands on experience, be ready to learn, contribute to the team and able to understand the culture of both estate and the university.

The Job is then advertised on the university website, Facilities Management worldwide, total jobs and the agency website. Potential candidates are short listed followed by sites visits then interviews. Although this system of advertisement maybe expensive, it attracts people with different experiences from the diverse and also serves as equal opportunity of employment for all.

2.2

Analyse and develop selection criteria to ensure the right people are recruited within

facilities management

Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment. Such employment could be either a first time position for employee or a different position for a current employee. The selection process is performed under legal and environmental constraints and addresses the future interests of the organization and the individual.

Once candidates are identified the process of selecting appropriate employee(s) for employment begins. There is a choice to be made between the selection methods but the process used should be fair to all. Poor selection can lead to significant cost for the organisation in terms of financial cost of rehiring, indirect cost in poor performance, additional training, de-motivation and absenteeism and also legal cost if it goes to industrial tribunal for unfair treatment. It is therefore important to make sure that proper procedures are followed, the person specification meets both job and business requirement in terms of:

Relevant qualifications: example BIFM, Degree, NEBOSH

Relevant experience: years of experience and what they will bring to the position

Skills: technology, innovation

Attribute

Essential role requirement: basic knowledge and understanding of the job

Beneficial role requirement

Required approach to work.

Within the UAL facilities department, selections of the right candidate for job involve the following process; application forms, interviews and reference. After the consultant has advertised the job and has received enough candidates for the position and short listed. The short listed are invited for initial interview with the consultants in charge of that recruitment to select the best among the candidate.

They are then pass on to the estate professional team including the site FM, SFM and HFM or director of estate management for final recruitment process and job offer for the right person(s).

2.3

Analyse the strengths and weaknesses in the recruitment process and make recommendations

for change

The strengths and weaknesses of the recruitment process can have a direct bearing on the employer’s ability to achieve its business goals. The analysis should cover the reputation of the organization, pay, employee benefits, working conditions, security of employment, training and development. (Micheal Amstrong, 2003).

Although people will do anything to earn ends meats, they do have preference and do a lot of consideration during job application. Employers should therefore consider what will attract or prevent the right candidate in very cost effective way.

The strength in the recruitment processes could include:

The pay structure

Employee benefits

Working condition

Security of the job

Opportunity to develop

Systems in place

Style

Skills

Professionals within the UAL and consultants from agency are use when the best candidates are selected for staff. A larger interview panels are convene because there are number of parties interested in the selection decision. The only advantage of selection board is that they enable a number of different people to have a look at the applicants and compare notes on the spot.

The disadvantages are that the questions tend to be unplanned and delivered at random, the prejudices of a dominating member of the board can overwhelm the judgements of the other members, and the candidates are unable to do justice to them-selves because they are seldom allowed to expand.

It is always advisable to clearly define the terms and conditions of the jobs in terms of pay and benefit and think about the job, to attract good candidates so that the most can be made in the advertisement. Consider also what might put them off, example the location of the job, in other that objections can be anticipated.

Analyse previous successes and failures to establish what does or does not work. Last but not the least ensure induction process is planned and appropriate and given enough attention.

3.1

Analyse appropriate theories, principles and practices for motivating and retaining staff.

One of the most important factors affecting human behaviour and performance is motivation. Different writers have defined motivation in different ways these include:

Rensis Likert- motivation is the core of management

Stephen R. Covey – motivation is a fire from within. If someone else tries to light that fire under you, chances are it will burn very briefly

Dwight D. Eisenhower- Motivation is the art of getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it.

From the sample definitions above, the term ‘Motivation’ is a broad concept used to explain the inner psychological forces and processes in an individual which arouse and give them the desire to act or not to act in a particular way.

It is now generally accepted that, an increase in global competitiveness within different organisation no longer lies in the products and technology they use but the willingness of the employees to render their services to the organisation. It is only through the employees that creativity, diversity and energy that bring the company to it best. For all these to be done, the people need to be empowered, appreciated and acknowledge for their good work done.

Arnold et al (1991) determined that there are three components of motivation namely:

Direction

Effort

Persistence

The theory of motivation involves the processes that describe why and how human behaviour is activated and directed. There are different categories of motivation theories but the question is; ‘What motivates people in an organization most? Findings from different researchers argued that the theories are affected by country, time and circumstance. But all these theories base their attention on the basics of human needs, which differ considerably. Among major theories propose by writers includes:

Taylor:

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1917) proposes a theory with an idea that employees are motivated mainly by pay. Taylor developed his theory of “scientific management” as he worked his way up from a labourer to a works manager in a US steelworks.

From his observations, Taylor made three key assumptions about human behaviour at work:

Man is a rational economic animal concerned with maximising his economic gain;

People respond as individuals, not as groups

People can be treated in a standardised fashion, like machines

Mayo

Elton Mayo (1880-1949) believes workers are not just concern about money but also their social needs met when at work place. Based on his well-known Hawthorne experiments conducted in Western Electric Company in Chicago, Mayo’s management theories grew from his observations of employee productivity levels under varying environmental conditions.

Mayo management theory states that employees are motivated far more by relational factors such as attention and camaraderie than by monetary rewards or environmental factors such as lighting, humidity, better communication, team work and management involvement.

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Maslow

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) along with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950’s which focus on the psychology needs of employees. According to Maslow, various needs of human beings are put in hierarchy determine the most pressing needs. The hierarchy of needs means the order to satisfy the needs with the basic needs have to be attained before the others can be reached.

In the pyramid hierarchy it can be seen that the lower four layers of the pyramid refers to ‘deficiency need’. The order of the pyramid from Maslow is as below:

Physiological →Safety→ Social→ Esteem→ Self actualization

Principles of Motivation and Practices:

Motivation can be put into two groups. These are the: 1. Pull- bonuses and sharing vision, 2 Push- threats and fear. Every one of us is motivated by different things and a majority of these factors are not money related but rather incentive that offer personal recognition and achievement. In this case management should determine what motivate individual at work place.

Examples of motivation strategies that can be put in practice include:

Pay Managing

Induction Performance management process

Family and friendly HR practice Job design

Training and development

Fundamental practices that can be use in motivating Staff include:

Give incentive

Regular feed backs

Training and development

Share company goal with staff and making sure they understand

3.2

Apply appropriate theories, principles and practice to motivating and retaining staff and

review their effectiveness

Every employee is unique in their own way hence what will motivate one worker will not be the same for the other. It is therefore the responsibility of the employer and manager to find out what works well with individual in the team and must be equitable and transparent. From 3.1 we can conclude the following are some examples that will motivate and keep staffs in employment.

Pay: this should be structured, equitable, transparent and understandable.

Induction: this should be put in place during recruitment to prevent lower retention or early exit.

Training and development: although many employers see training and developing as equipping their staff to leave the organisation for more challenging roll elsewhere, it can also be a strong support for a worker to commit to the organisation as they self develop.

Job design: this should be practical to motivate individual satisfaction and also the company perspectives, not an opportunity for individual to redesign a job but to vary skill and task.

Performance management: regular appraisal is put in place to monitor performance management process between line manager and employee

Management in the UAL use these methods to motivate employees for better job satisfaction.

Job enlargement- this involves doing more work of a similar but difference in operations at the same time to what employee already does.

Empowerment- give the employee the opportunity by delegating reasonable work to them to make their own decision in solving problem.

Job Enrichment- giving responsibility of higher order this will lead to higher morale.

The following can be use to review the effectiveness of management processes in a work place.

Using job performance statistics

Client feed back

Improved morale

Staff feedback

Reduced turn over

3.3

Evaluate the application of the dynamics of reward and recognition within facilities

management function

Internal and external motivations are both important components in motivating employee in the workplace. Most often people get confuse with reward and recognition. Reward are mostly financial or physical benefit when behaviour has been demonstrated whiles Recognition is a psychological benefit after a specific behaviour has occurred.

Programmes that reward employees for upholding the organisation values and goals within facilities department of Universities of the Arts, London are generally focus on recognition. The PACE Awards Good Performance exist in the UAL. However rewards and recognition may have some advantage and disadvantages which includes

Benefit: Different people are motivated by different things, e.g a young health person will prefer gym membership than private medical hence blend of both should be considered.

Pension: this tend to attract some employees at some stages of their career hence positive for others and not so for others.

Education and training: this appeal to a lot of employee especially those beginning their career in facilities but unfortunately the university training are tailored to suit the job you are employed for. This has effect on good workers who also want personal development hence they turn living for where their personal development will be met.

Genuine appreciation: human in general feel sense of belonging when they are appreciated for a good job done. The university do well in recognising good and extra-effort from employee saying thank you ‘the magic word’.

Time/flexible time: this helps in time of family issues, studies

With all the different forms of motivations in the organisation, the essential component is maintaining it to all staff both part time and full time. Motivation increases as people aim for and achieve recognition and for that matter incentive that focus on team work should be encourage, equitable and transparent. These factors will help staff work hard and will enjoy coming to work.

3.4

Evaluate the extent to which they are successful

Many organizations have recognized the competitive edge achieved by more effective recognition and reward to employees. Recent studies by the Forum for People Performance Management and Measurement, have found a direct link between engaged workers and satisfied customers, and between satisfied customers and profitability.

Any one who shows the ability to self develop within UAL receives the support. An attempt to achieve knowledge and personal growth using the available resources example the internal training for managers like project management will be supported, example while this program is directed to managers, junior member that show interest are allowed to take part in the course. This helps staff by taking regular extra responsibility (e.g co-ordinating projects and managing contractors) aside main duties.

While receiving tangible rewards for my commitment, the recognition received helps to perform duties and the extra responsibilities. 

The success of reward and recognition in any organisation is the ability of the employer or organisation to willingly encourage the processes that will not only motivate the employees but also the employer. Frustration sets in when the employees realise they have no value even if they are trying harder in the company hence seek employment somewhere. Other incentives include addition holiday for all staff and free vouchers for team achievement.

3.5

Analyse ways to develop staff

Development can be defined as the learning opportunities within organisation designed specifically to help the employee grow while Training is required to cover essential work-related skills, techniques and knowledge. Development is not necessarily skill oriented but rather it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher position.

A survey carried out for Investors in People UK in 1996 showed that today’s young generation appreciate training and development opportunities over pay and incentives. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Some examples of development and it benefits include:

Coaching: This is first step to improve employee performance. Coaching is part of the day-to-day interaction between a supervisor and an employee daily operation. This often provides positive feedback for employee contributions but also, regular coaching brings performance issues to an employee’s attention when they are minor.

Mentoring: This is a formal or informal relationship between experienced, knowledgeable employee and inexperienced or new employee either selected by the employee or appointed by the company. The purpose is to help the employee to quickly absorb the organization cultural and to personal develop. A possible limitation is that the individual depends on one person for support which will cause alienation from other source of expertise.

Internal and external training: using external trainers to develop course specifically for the organisation or using the internal expertise to train in specific topics which is more cost effective than the external e.g BIFM and PM although they are costly.

Self development groups: these are group of like mind people acting in their own interest. They may appoint a facilitator who will guild them till are well established. Topics of their interest work related issues. There is little or no financial cost but when the meeting are held during work time it indirectly the cost of the organisation.

Project management and work experiences: employees should be giving a task to self manage and the opportunity to try new things in the organisation without altering their responsibilities. This will increase their sense of motivation and reduce boredom from the same job

3.6

Analyse ways to promote a learning culture within an organisation

The objective is to see the value and encourage learning and understand its importance in developing individual, team and the whole organisation. Creating a learning culture environment in an organisation is a step ahead of obtaining the skills that you need to deliver product and services.

Being a learning organisation is the sacrifice any employer has to make in accepting the attitude, values and practices that support continuous learning in the organisation. It empowers the staff to achieve results and targets as it helps them to:

Easily adapt to changes

Actually anticipate change

Be more responsible

Grow by innovation and inspiration

Learning culture is not only considered to be great motivator for staff but also way a company can maintain increase advantage in the ever changing environment. This can not happen in a sudden way hence the following key point need to be considered.

Commitment by senior management and Directors

Learning should fit and be line with business goals and strategies

Regular employee feed back to determine progress of the culture

Clear objectives implementation should be set

Learning should be in appropriate environment that can flourish and where self learning is encouraged and knowledge shared.

Measurements that help develop and improve a learning culture in UAL estate include;

Reward learning via promotion and acknowledgement through news letters

Offer training and opportunity to transfer skills

Encourage feedback from those opportunities

Appraisals which include personal development plans

Coaching and mentoring programme

4.1

Analyse the reasons why staff leave and review implications.

In recent years there has been a mismatch about staff leaving and reality hence there is nothing like job for life. There has been a debate why staff leaves for other employment and some common reason include following:

Poor management: uncaring and unprofessional managers; overworking staff; no respect, putting people in wrong jobs; poor manager selection processes.

Lack of career growth and advancement opportunities: no perceivable career paths; not posting job openings or filling from within; unfair promotions.

Pay: paid under-market or less than contributions warrant, pay inequities, slow raises and favouritism for bonuses.

Lack of recognition: that says it all.

Poor leadership at strategic apex of the organisation: not listening, not investing in employees; unresponsiveness and mixed messages.

Lack of training: superficial training, nothing for new staff to move up.

Excessive workload: doing more with less; sacrificing quality and customer service for numbers.

Since employees has eye on better opportunities it is important for any organisation to provide system to find out what really makes staff leave for other employer. In view of this, exit interview will be ideal for staff leaving. This can be formal or informal with standard questionnaire. Although there is no entire honesty from the employee, it will serve as a guide for future. The following can be included during exit interview could:

What is the main reason for leaving?

What are the other reasons for leaving?

What do you feel about the organisation?

What has been your difficult moment in time us?

What can you say about our motivation, appraisal and your development with us?

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Are you happy to say where you are going?

What particular about them that makes you want to join them?

If possible could you be persuaded stay and possibility of staying?

Although some employee departure is more welcome than others, employers should adopt methods to address employee turnover problem. Staff turnover rate varies from one organisation to the other but the following rules can help reduced the rate. These rules are:

Employers should ensure equitable and transparent pay structure if possible use bands

Job design should maximise variety of skills, opportunity to learn and develop

Ensure selection and promoting procedures are appropriate for all

Induction should be well planed and implemented during and after recruitment process

Remove unpleasant working condition including bullying and harassment and monitor stress

The above systems of approach can be enhancing further by developing a learning culture in the organisation. Hence the practices can assist to improve retention through:

Regular performance review

Personal development plans

Open recruitment policy

Mentoring

Shadowing

Development and training

4.2

Investigate the application of succession planning including its benefits.

Succession planning is planning the future of the business or organisation in terms of finding someone within the organisation to replace the key people. Through succession planning process, you recruit superior employees, develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities and prepare them for ever more challenging roles. It is a long term thing that a company need to see into before action is taken.

CIPD defined Succession planning as a process for identifying and developing potential future leaders or senior managers, as well as individuals to fill other business-critical positions either in short-term or long-term. Beside the training and development activities, succession planning should include the provision of practical tailored work experience that will be relevant for future key role.

Having this process in place help in the success of the organization because the individuals identified in the plan will eventually be responsible for ensuring the company is able to tackle future challenges. These “high potential” candidates must be carefully selected and then provided training and development that gives them skills and competencies needed for tomorrow’s business environment. It is best practice to grow one’s own that is developing internal staff for the position.

It also important to consider certain fundament point before the person(s) is/are selected. A formal succession planning process is used together vital data regarding the potential candidates from different source. Point to be considered should include:

Are there enough potential successors- individuals who are experience and that has shown potential leadership

Are these people with sufficient quality in terms of must and desirable characteristics

Do they have the right attitude, skills and competencies for the business future

The benefits of a succession planning process include:

Staff motivation- everyone can see there is a progress in their career as they are giving the chance to develop and also appreciated for their contribution.

Work load planning- shadowing successors to assist their development which in turn give them more insight of the business or organisation goals and future plans

Continuity- identified candidate can be part of the management team for the business future in the changing environments

4.3

Investigate skill transference within the working environment including its benefits

Skill transference is the ability for an employee to use an acquire knowledge in another position. In other words it is where competencies in performing a specific job can be used in another job. It is a valuable asset particularly in a tight economy such as now.

Example of skill transference:

Interpersonal skills- e.g team work

Planning-time management, being organised, able to research and think ahead

Communication- it should be two way, giving and receiving instruction

Self awareness- appreciate your strength and weakness

Commitment and motivation

Decision making

In the current economy people with more transferable skills are luckier to be kept on job or hired than those with one or no skills. These multi-skills individual are able to carry out different jobs especially the small businesses. The benefits of skills transference include:

Staff training and development- Gains new knowledge and skills by performing a different job that requires new skills and provides different responsibilities.

Staff relations: learn and understand new group of co-workers and managers.

Succession planning- the organisation will have a pool of potential leaders for the future

Headcount risk efficiency- all round person will fulfil a variety of role hence lesson hiring

Business continuity planning: there is a transfer of business knowledge which stays within

4.4

Evaluate the effectiveness of disciplinary and grievance procedures within an organisation

Within any organisation both employers and employees may come across problems, hence it is essential for every organisations to have policies and procedures in place.

Discipline and grievance are two sides of the same coin. Whiles discipline is for employer to address any misconduct in the organisation, Grievances are for employees to voice out their concern on their employers. In each case attempt should be made to sort out the issue before proceeds to court.

The CIPD (2010) states that ‘disciplinary and grievance procedures provide a clear and transparent framework to deal with difficulties which may arise as part of the working relationship from either the employer’s or employee’s perspective. There are procedures to help deal with work related issues by ACAS. These include:

Identify the issue in the organisation

Investigate and carry out informal meeting to discuss

Agree on out come and action.

Record, monitor assess the success of the action

Formal meeting, sanction and agreed action plan

Termination of employment

HR should be present to support employee and management

These procedures can be considered as both good practice and a legal requirement; they are used in order to benefit both employers and the employees in any problematic situation.

Discipline procedure

Features in the process of discipline include the following:

Authorisation of penalties: the law requires that managers should not normally have the power to dismiss their immediate subordinates without discussing with senior managers.

Investigation: action should not be taken until there is evidence to justify the action.

Information and explanation: the person to be penalised should be told what the issue is and they understand the outcome of the decision.

Grievance Procedure

Employees will normally not raise work related problem with their immediate line manager for fear that they will be singled out. For these ACAS has put forward a formality every employer has to use in line with the organisation structure within which every employee can reasonably voice out their concern. The key feature of this process should be fair, facilities for representation, procedural steps and promptness. (see appdx II)

Effective and well structured discipline and grievance procedures within any organisation will benefit both employee and the employer. These include;

Helps to understand issues that may arise or area of weakness

Encourage open two way system of communication

Offer the ability to improve and make amends

Improve staff retention

Reduce recruitment time and cost

5.1

Apply the principles of staff monitoring and performance appraisal in a facilities

management context

The need to develop and maintain a performance is integral part of every organisation. Every human get satisfy and the need to do more when they see the result of what their effort has achieved. Performance is a two way system in any organisation; it concerns incorporating the different dimensions of the organisational goal but also individual manager’s expecting responsibilities to be shared by all members of the organisation.

Managing performance effectively involve monitoring the processes and progress towards that objective, if necessaries adjustment should be made to the original plan to meet changes. In the UAL it is a two-way communication between the line manger and the employee. The ability of a manager to monitor staff progress with the set objective helps appraise the team members from informed position.

A positive appraisal acts as motivator for employee which helps them set career objective through training and development as in UAL estate. Performance appraisals are most often annually formal meetings where the performance of each team member is measured against various objectives. Appraisals that are carried out in line with staff monitoring do form a more holistic and albeit simple performance management system. Processes for appraisal may include items as:

Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

360 degree feed back

Competency framework

The methods use for employee appraisal depends on the organisation and it size. This can be formal which is normally annual e.g facilities departments, London University of Arts or informal at regular interval through the year by the line manager. Whichever method is use, the appraisal system should be the same in measuring everyone’s performance without any bias from line managers.

Some of the phases that can be use for effective performance appraisal include the following:

Evaluate performance

Obtain feedback from appropriate other

Open discussion on performance including areas of good and delivery

Agree on future target

Identify gabs and strength

Agree on an improvement plan and develop strength

Agree ongoing training and development opportunities

Agree on measuring of actions

Characteristics of successful performance appraisal are:

Informal monitoring has taken place regularly since the previous appraisal meeting- making sure less threat of immediacy.

Time is giving for employees to prepare properly and thoroughly for the appraisal

Line manager should sought input from addition appropriate people to ensure he/she has a rounded and unbiased view.

Managers are giving enough training in conducting appraisals appropriately.

Honest and open two-way communication where employees are encourage to talk for most of the meeting but manager clear on good and bad performance.

The use of SMART goals.

5.2

Analyse their impact on productivity and recruitment costs

The benefits of performance appraisal to both employer and employee include:

Employee professional development and training

It helps meet the company’s objectives and contributing to the company’s bottom line

Enhanced communications

An opportunity to effectively address performance problems

Improve employee understanding and direction hence their morale.

The primary reason for monitoring performance appraisal is to monitor employees’ performance, motivate staff and improve company morale. Monitoring employee performance requires completing a performance appraisal form. When employees are aware that the company is mindful of their performance and that they could be rewarded with merit increases and promotions, they are motivated to work harder. Morale is improved when employees receive recognition or reward for their work hence reduce cost of recruiting new staff as it ensure staff retention.

Through identifying the training needs, staff can perform their jobs at the highest level and be in a better position to address clients’, members’ and customers’ concerns and questions. Although there is a cost involve, a well-developed staff is more likely to be proactive, productive and resourceful, all of which helps give the company a competitive edge, from improved customer relations to increased profits. As staff motivation improves, staff retention increases and recruitment cost are reduced.

On the other hand where staff are under develop or no training at all, the organisation waste time and money on single projects and targets, customers not satisfied, legal fees and compensation which can lead to bad reputation and company closure.

5.3

Analyse methods used for improving team and individual performance

Individual motivation and team performance happens when you carry out a series of things, consistently, regularly and on an ongoing basis. Make the best use of your team and its members to achieve organisations objectives, work allocation, agreeing objectives and setting out plans and methods of working. It also involves monitoring and evaluating your team’s work and providing feedback to them on their performance.

In 1965 Tuckman propose a model of how team is formed and how it can develop. He believes any team passes through some stages of development. These are:

Forming→ Storming→ Norming→ Performing. He later added ‘Adjourning’. Some writers also believe there is a need for ‘Mourning’ with argument that when a team breaks after project completion or departure of a member has effect on individuals.

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Among the methods that can be used to improve the performance of a team and individual as whole include:

Coaching: this is usually one to one communication between an individual and an experience staff focused on a particular area of ability. Internal experts can be use for junior staff or external for most senior employer and junior to develop a course.

Collaboration: working hand in hand with other members on a project helps sharing and learning from each other. It benefits the team as a whole in improving performance.

Mentoring: This is an effective way of helping individuals to progress in their careers and is becoming increasing popular as its potential is realised. An individual in any organisation should be giving mentorship choice opportunity as it is one to one basis and more effective.

Skill transfer: the ability for an individual to use their acquired skills within any organisation is by given them chance. Delegating job to employee to make their own decision is another way of improving their performance as they feel part and recognised in the organisation.

Job rotation: staff should be given different jobs within the same job to get understanding of different task and how they fit together.

All the above methods of improving employee in an organisation can be achieved through: team meeting, team feedback, shared team objective and coaching or mentoring system which will help the organisation meet changes in the current business climate.

5.4

Explain how training and development is used to support improvement in performance

From the survey carried out by Investors in People UK in 1996, training and development should be part of any organisation as it acts as a back bone for performance management system. That is preparation, meeting and follow up.

Since each individual is different in a learning process, data collected during appraisal can be use to form training and development plan for everyone in the department.

The reason for training and development is to improve performance. It is important to apply the principles after attending the course; this will reflect the knowledge again and improve performance. A proper two-way communication system between the employee and manager is important for learning and development.

For training and development be translated into performance the following characteristics need to be in place.

Two way communication between manager and employee

Regular informal meeting

Regular formal appraisals against agreed goals

Opportunity to apply learning within controlled workplace environment

Learning is supported and recognised

Development is measured against assessment criteria

Applied learning and development is recognised through reward mechanisms.

6.1

Analyse different communication methods for different situations

Managers need to communicate and communication is a two-way process, otherwise it might as well be called ‘munication’ according to Derek Rowntree (1988). The two-way process is not just questioning and answer but also the employee giving the chance to comment. There are many methods of communications used in different circumstances but this can be grouped into spoken word, written word and non-verbal.

Communication through spoken word includes; face-to-face between individuals and groups, presentation and speeches, telephone conversations and video conferencing/skype.

Written communication includes letters, memos, reports, newsletters, emails, books and intranet.

Non-verbal form of communication include tone of voice, facial expression, gestures and lifestyle

There are different forms of communication use by UAL estate department for different reasons during day-to-day operation. Examples

Staff performance

Project kick off and update

Redundancy issue

Disciplinary for misconduct

Information to team or audience as a whole

Meeting

These different methods have benefits and falls when and where is used. Either ways it should be clear and meaningful to the receiver. As facilities manager, it is important to know your team and what communication system work for them. Individual formal or informal may be somehow problematic when the same information is not carried out to the other member in the same quality, accuracy and acceptability. Individual face-to-face include interview, appraisal, redundancy and disciplinary process.

Sometimes there is a necessity to have a group of individual to hear the same information at the same time, e,g team debriefing, redundancy procedures etc. This helps other team members to learn from each others question. Although face-to-face is most effective way of communication, it is also important to follow your conversation with a writing e.g email for further clarification.

6.2

Review the effectiveness of the communication methods within a range of different

situations

The need to use variety of communication methods to reach every employee is important within facilities management. A manager needs to consider the right approach to address different situation with a team. Either formal or informal, individual or group the approach will depend on the content of your message. The effectiveness of your communication depends upon how appropriate it content and planning.

It is always important to consider which way and reason before acting. The following list of instances may be considered appropriate way of communication a manager should use to inform the team:

Interview: face-to-face, telephone, video link

Offer of appointment: written

Personal performance: individual face-to-face

Team briefing: informal face- to- face, conference call

Reminder about a meeting: email and phone call

Project meeting: formal or informal, face-to-face

Disciplinary meeting: formal face-to-face

Redundancy meeting: formal face-to-face, group or individual

All UAL employees in management or supervisor position have the responsibility of communicating employment information to the employees who report directly to them. For employees who do not regularly work at a computer or who might be on an extended leave, supervisors are the best avenue to ensure all information is received. The methods mainly use are the Internet, lips services and face-to-face communications. In addition managers prompt HR to occasionally mail information to employee’s home addresses for update and changes.

7.1

Analyse the extent and causes of work-related stress

Stress can be defined as a personal experience caused by pressure on an individual and impacts upon the individual’s ability to cope or his/her perception of that ability.

Work-related stress occurs when there is a mismatch between the demands of the job and the resources and capabilities of the individual worker to meet those demands. Subjective and self reported evaluations of stress are just as valid as ‘objective’ data, such as statistics on accidents or absenteeism.

According to the CIPD October, 2011 report, stress is the most common cause of long-term illness which cause absence with both manual and non-manual worker in UK. Among the cause of work related stress that affects employee performance and cost the employer includes:

Work overload: the demand and the pressures of deadlines are source of stress.

Work relationships: Poor relationships with colleagues and managers can be potential source of pressure. Also isolation or unfairly treated.

Job security: lack of job security and changes can be source of pressure, example: redundancy

Work-life balance: working additional hours at home affect personal life and family relationships due to over-demanding and inflexible work schedules.

Anyone at any level can experience some form of stress and for that matter, supervisors and line managers need to focus on gaining the trust of employees and discuss in details the changing processes happening in the organisation to avoid unnecessary stress and absence.

Sometimes stress can be good as some people work under pressure to meet demand. Either case there should be a measure to the extent of stress at work place. Additional causes such as lack of understanding or clarity, lack of support and lack of control can also cause stress.

7.2

Propose ways of creating an organisational culture that will minimise stress levels

Workplace is an important source of both demands and pressures causing stress and structural and social resources to counteract stress. The impact of stress from workplace affects the employees in so many ways which includes:

On their physical health: High stressful environment can cause e.g head ach, tiredness and heart related diseases.

Impact on their mental health and state of mind: this can cause anxiety and depression, reduce concentration, forgetfulness and sometimes fear

On employee motivation and commitment

High level of stressful working environment can have impact on the organisation in many cases, by law; employers have the duty to ensure that employees do not become ill. It is also in their long term economic interests to prevent stress, as stress is likely to lead to high staff turnover, an increase in sickness absence and early retirement, increased stress in staff still at work, reduced work performance and increased rate of accidents, and reduced client satisfaction.

Looking at areas that create stress in working environment (e.g work demand, control the individual have, support receive at workplace, relationship, communication and clear instruction) can help minimise employee stress level and increase performance.

Resources that help meet the pressures and demands faced at work include personal characteristics such as coping skills (example, problem solving, assertiveness, time management) and the work situation such as a good working environment and social support. These resources can be increased by investment in work infrastructure, training, good management and employment practices, policies (e.g stress policy) and the way that work is organised.

7.3

Explain how to manage own and staff stress issues

Most interventions to reduce the risk to health associated with stress in the workplace involve both individual and organisational approaches. The approaches that can be used include training, staffing levels, work schedules, physical environment, social support, control over work, participation, communication and one-to-one psychology services-clinical, occupational, health or counselling.

The approach should aim to change individual skills and resources and help the individual change their situation. The primary aim of the approach should be to develop people’s skills and confidence to change their situation, not to help them adapt to and accept a stressful situation. Employees should be encouraged to be open about their concerns and issues so that they can be resolved. This will lead to happier, more motivated staff and reduced levels of stress in the organisation.

8.1

Analyse and evaluate the implications and impact of legislation relating to employment upon

an organisation.

The patterns of legal system of employment have changed considerably in the past two decades in Britain. Due to this changes which includes incorporation EU regulation, it is expected for individual managers to have general knowledge of the broad framework of it organisation legal obligations. The most important institution in Britain in ACAS (Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Services) helps both individual and organisations in employment related issues.

The following are some of the legislation that has been introduced concerning employment:

Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act  

Immigration Law  

Equality Act  

European Communities (TUPE) Regulations

Working Time Regulations

National Minimum Wage Act

Contract Law

The Disability Discrimination Act, 1995

Data Protection Act

The Sex Discrimination Act, 1975

Agency Workers Regulations 2010

The general purpose of employment laws and regulations is to prohibit unfair discrimination in employment and provide equal employment opportunity for all. Unfair discrimination occurs when employment decisions are based on race, sex, religion, ethnicity, age, or disability rather than on job-relevant knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics.

Employers who do not comply with the these regulation end up ruining the reputation of the organisation in terms of negative personal relations with clients and employees, legal actions including fines which affect the ability to do and stay in business.

Some organisations do not or delay in complying with these regulations and laws due to length in dealing with the issue. The organisation that stays in line with policies and procedures benefits from retaining and attracting talented employees and positive organisation reputation.


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