Impact Of Conflict And Its Consequences On Performance Management Essay

The rationale of the research was to find out that various types of conflict whether emotional or task related, had any impact on performance of the employee or not. According to the assumption of the research both the dimensions of conflict (task and emotional) not only had made a significant impact on performance of the employee working in the organization directly but also made a variation in the performance level through the other consequences of conflict that were lower organizational commitment, lower job satisfaction, increase turnover intension. The purpose of the research was although conflict was an unavoidable state in every organization, the presence was not always non productive. Existence of Conflict among employees in any organization could also be functional and beneficial for the employees and the organization. The higher level of conflict among employees could show negativity in the organizational commitment of the employees but also in the job satisfaction of the employees working in the organization. The lower level of these two variables could increase turnover intension among employees working in an organization. As a result increase of conflict whether emotional or task related came up with various outcomes such as low organizational commitment, low job satisfaction, increase turnover intension and all the outcomes could made an impact on performance.

1.2 Problem Statement:

There was a great impact of conflict among employees on their performance or came to be a cause in the compromise of professional standards. The purpose of the research was that how emotional and task conflict effect performance of employees directly and indirectly through the dysfunctional consequences of conflict such as lower organizational commitment, lower job satisfaction and increase turnover intension.

1.3 Hypotheses:

H1: Increase of emotional conflict was supposed to decrease performance.

H2: Increase of task conflict was supposed to increase performance.

H3: Higher level of conflict was supposed to lower organization commitment.

H4: High level of conflict was supposed to lower job satisfaction.

H5: Lower level of organization commitment was supposed to higher turnover intension

H6: Lower level of job satisfaction was supposed to higher turnover intension

H7: Higher turnover intension was supposed to lower performance.

H8: Lower organizational commitment was supposed to lower performance.

H9: Lower job satisfaction was supposed to lower performance.

1.4 Outline of the Study:

The extent of the research was to evaluate and assess the performance level of physiotherapists in the presence of conflict which was an unavoidable phenomenon in every organization. The fundamental of the research was to find out whether presence of conflict in organizations was always dysfunctional for the employees or not conflict had several dimensions, the two important and significant dimensions were emotional conflict which was a clash due to personnel issue, which involved hatred, frustration among the employees in the hospital. Second dimension was task conflict which was the conflict due to disagreements in the procedures, ways to use equipments, diagnose a patient. Hence task conflict was due to the arguments in their roles or functions. Both the two dimensions of conflict had some impact on the productivity and profit of the organization and could affect the performance of the employee. These two dimensions of conflict could affect performance of the physiotherapists by influencing the performance directly. Increase of conflict whether its emotional or task related could come up with various outcomes such as low organizational commitment, low job satisfaction , increase turnover intension could made an impact on performance . Due to all the consequences of higher conflict among employees such as, lower organizational commitment, lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intension could affect the performance of the employees.

1.5 Definitions:

Conflict:

The concept of conflict was a social phenomenon, where there was a disagreement between two groups or individuals who had different opinion, conflict was a state of opposition between persons, ideas, or interests. Existence of conflict was due to the reason of insufficiency of resources, policy differences, stress, perceived or actual opposition of needs, values and interest; it was due to tension, hostility and anxiety among the members of any organization. Another reason for the cause of conflicts was that the perception and awareness of any conflict full situation by the employee. Conflict was a struggle to resist or overcome. There was a painful tension which was set up by the various clashes between opposed impulses. There was a feeling of antagonism between the opposed members.

Task Conflict:

Task conflict was a condition where employees of the organization differed about task issues that included objectives, aims of the organization, important decision areas, procedures, ideas, appropriate choice for action in any organization among employees. Task conflict was due to the reason that every individual had different role. Task conflict which was the conflict due to disagreements in the procedures, ways to use equipments, diagnoses a patient. Hence task conflict was due to the arguments in the roles or functions in the organization (Jehn, 1994).

Emotional Conflict:

Emotional conflict was a clash due to personnel issue, which involved hatred, frustration among the employees in the hospital. Emotional conflict was a state in which employees of the organization had interpersonal clashes, which were characterized by irritation, aggravation, jealousy, hatred, distrust, and other negative feelings in the organization (Jehn, 1994; Bourgeois, 1997). Affective or Emotional conflict was the perception among groups that there were interpersonal clashes characterized by anger, distrust, fear, frustration, and other form of negative effect. Affective conflict was described as a state due to hostility, frustration, non-work related communication could be either a positive, friendly interaction or a frustrating , hostile interaction (Palled, 1996). Amason (1996) demonstrated that emotional conflict impairs the decision making quality of the employees, making an impact on their performance.

Organizational Commitment:

Organizational commitment was defined as a feeling of trust and confidence in organizational objective, purposes and values .It was a feeling of loyalty and sincerity towards the organization. It was a state where there was firm aspiration of the employee to maintain association in the organization stated by (Mowday, 1979). Committed employees were characterized as loyal, productive members of work organizations (Porter, Steers, Mowday and Boulian, 1974) who not only recognized the vision and goals of the organizational and but also identified the principles of organization (Buchanan, 1974). Organizational Commitment to the organization was defined as an attitudinal variable characterized by an enduring psychological attachment of the employee to the organization. Mowday et al; (1982) further concluded that the different levels of organizational commitment of an employee could be different from other employee’s level as the tendency of being committed to the organization was different in every employee. The attractive opportunities and alternatives that was available to the employees caused the difference in their commitment level to the organization (Mowday, Koberg and

McArthur, 1984).

Job Satisfaction:

Job satisfaction was the variable used to explain whether employees were happy, pleased and contented with their jobs. Fisher (2003) stated that job satisfaction was a variable that was found as a evaluative judgment as job satisfaction could be measured by comparison of the employees job to his or her needs, wants or expectations. Job satisfaction explained the ease, affirmative emotions, comfort, contentment, pleasure of the employee at the workplace he/ she was working in. Job satisfaction was defined as the approach of physiotherapists toward the organization, their job, job environment, culture in the organization, achievements from the organization. A positive attitude of the employees towards the organization indicated their job satisfaction and vice versa. Job satisfaction explained the ease level, positive emotions, comfort, happiness, pleasure at the organization in which he/ she was working. The reason of job satisfaction could vary from individual to individual.

Turnover Intension:

Turn over intention was the best predictor of whether an employee would leave the organization (Steel, 2002) and job satisfaction was one of the major factors affecting an individual’s decision (Hom and Kinicki, 2 001; Griffeth, Hom and Gaertner, 2000). It was described as the propensity to leave the organization; it was a behavioral intension that preceded actual turnover (Futrell, 1984). Propensity to leave was explained as predictor to turnover by (Johnston, 1987). Johnston, (1987), Fern and Avila (1989) had explained that propensity to leave the organization had a significant impact on performance. Turnover intension was a variable that linked with various work related outcomes such as job satisfaction, performance, pay, pay satisfaction. Ton and Huckman (2008) concluded that the propensity to leave the organization of an employee is linked with diminished performance of the employee when profit of the organization and customer satisfaction is considered. Turnover intension was a variable that was found to be adverse for the organization (Campion, 1991).

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Performance:

Performance in any organization had a multifaceted and a complex nature related to a predetermined set of expectations. Organizational performance could similarly be evaluated by comparing the performance profitability and achievement of various organizations in specific measurable areas (e.g. production output, number of clients seen, percentage increase in profit), or evaluation of the organization performance by predetermined set of expectations. Organizational effectiveness was likely to be characterized in terms of the attainment of specified goals such as financial or productivity outcomes and the satisfaction of strategic constituencies such as owners, shareholders, customers, suppliers and creditors (Robbins and Barnwell 1994).

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Conflict among Employees

It was observed that several researches were done on conflict among the employees in the organization. Conflict was a phenomenon that occurred whenever disagreements existed in a social situation over issues of substance or whenever emotional antagonisms created frictions between individual and groups. It was always important to recognize the situations that had the potential for conflict to avoid the adverse impact that happened due to the existence of conflict. Conflict in any organization reflected the environment and culture of the organization. Conflict was a social phenomenon that was unpredictable and also unavoidable; it appeared to be as a clash, argument, disagreement between two individuals, teams and groups. Conflict reflected opposition and difference in point of views, opinions, school of thought ideas and interests of individuals or groups working in the organization. Conflict was a dynamic process where sometimes the employees were even unaware of the starting point of the conflict situation, the members of the organization involved in the dispute showed various traits of conflicting behavior in which there was a lot of discomfort, unfriendly attitude, disagreements, arguments related to the job, jealousy, hatred, frustration and unwillingness to work together in an organization. Another reason of the existence of conflict was opposition and variation in values, needs among the employees that could trigger anxiety and stress leading to further disturbance among them. During conflict there was a feeling of antagonism, aggression and rivalry among the employees who were involved in this phenomenon. Conflict was a social phenomenon which had several dimensions that became cause for psychological behavior, emotional or sentimental attitude, behavior or attitude depending on conditions. The three most important dimensions of conflict were attitudes of conflict, where the approaches, outlook, feelings, and mind-sets of the individuals in conflict were involved. Second dimension was the conflict situation in which the two opposed groups or individuals were involved. It showed the condition and state of conflict between the individuals. Third dimension was conflict behavior that was about consequent actions, activities, change in performance, dealings with the opposed group or individual. Conflict among two opposed individuals was not just behavior or actions that were said to be the consequences of the conflict full situation, whereas it also dealt with perception, different thinking, disagreements, arguments, it was related to emotional issues or task related issues.The conflict in the employees further leaded to some functional and dysfunctional work related outcomes. In order to conduct the research some of the famous hospitals were chosen, specially where physiotherapy was done.

2.2 Hospitals of Karachi:

The industry chosen for the research was hospitals of Karachi. The hospitals in which the research was done had a separate physiotherapy department, in which there were qualified physiotherapists who were qualified and trained from a known institute. Those departments of physiotherapy also had equipments which were used in the rehabilitation of the patients. Four famous hospitals of Karachi were chosen for the research, they were Agha khan hospital, Liaquat national hospital, Zubaida hospital, National hospital, Tabba hospital. Reason to select those hospitals for the research purpose was that in those hospitals highly qualified physiotherapists who were well trained and also equipped with sophisticated and latest modalities to treat neurological, neuromuscular, musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary hence all type of disorders, and assured to improve the quality of the patients.

2.3 Field of Physiotherapy:

Physiotherapy was a profession that involved evaluating, diagnosing, and treating a range of diseases, disorders, and disabilities using physical means. Physiotherapist began his/her duty by the evaluation of the patient’s condition. It was a health care profession that assessed and provided treatment to individuals to increase, preserve and bring back maximum movement. The profession of physiotherapy tried to make the patient capable of doing maximum movements by his/ her own self. Physiotherapy played a vital role where the day to day movements of life of the patient was restricted. That was a profession in which the physiotherapist did their level best to rehabilitate the patient. Physiotherapist not only served the patient physically but also treated him mentally, emotionally and psychologically. During the service there was a interaction between physical therapist (PT), patients, professionals, families, other Para medical staff, doctors, concerned surgeons, and communities. Physical therapy was done in several departments of the hospital including cardiopulmonary department, geriatrics department, neurologic department, orthopedic department and pediatrics department. Physiotherapists took care of patients having physical complications resulting from poor health, injury, disability or ageing. It was observed that people were getting aware of physiotherapy. It was found that in Pakistan the field of Physiotherapy was developing and growing day by day. In most of the hospitals in Pakistan there were separate department of physiotherapy, where there were latest equipments and qualified and trained physiotherapists. Physiotherapists of Pakistan were playing a vital role in healthcare system; they were the people who cured diseases from exercises. Physiotherapists in Pakistan were helping in patient’s rehabilitation process. They were not only providing their best services but were also teaching the patients how to prevent themselves from further complications by providing them awareness.

2.4 Direct Impact of the two dimensions of Conflict:

According to the research of (Shafer, 2002) conflict had certain consequences related to performance directly as conflict had several dimensions, the two important and significant dimensions discussed in the study were emotional conflict which was a clash due to personnel issue, which involved hatred, frustration among the employees in the hospital. Emotional conflict was a state in which employees of the organization had interpersonal clashes, which were characterized by irritation, aggravation, jealousy, hatred, distrust, and other negative feelings in the organization (Jehn, 1994; Bourgeois, 1997). Affective or Emotional conflict was the perception among groups that there were interpersonal clashes characterized by anger, distrust, fear, frustration, and other form of negative effect. Due to anxiety, a feeling when present in employees characterized the emotional conflict, made them not to consider the solutions and views of each other when certain problems has to be solved in the organization (Sarason, 1984). Affective conflict was described as a state due to hostility, frustration; non-work related communication could either a positive, friendly interaction or a frustrating, hostile interaction (Palled, 1996). Second dimension was Task conflict which was the conflict due to disagreements in the procedures, ways to use equipments and diagnose a patient. Hence task conflict was due to the arguments in their roles or functions. Task conflict was a condition where employees of the organization differed about task issues that includes objectives, aims of the organization, important decision areas , procedures, ideas and appropriate choice for action in any organization among employees. Task conflict was due to the reason that every individual had different role in the organization. (Jehn,1994). Guetzkow and Gyr (1954) concluded that substantive conflict or task related conflict among employees was defined as an opposition between the employees that was intellectual and logical for the organization. Both the two dimensions of conflict had some impact on the productivity and profit of the organization it affected the performance of the employee.

The two dimensions of conflict effected performance of the physiotherapists directly according to the research of (Shafer, 2002). Task conflict which was generated by the disagreements in task related issues was supposed to improve the performance of the employees as the substantial conflict allowed group members to come up with new ideas, it made the employees to think in a new direction. Due to the arguments, the employees heard each other’s point of views, the individuals came up with new solutions of their problems (Tjosvold, 1985). Janis (1982) concluded that the employees in an organization are too much anxious about how to preserve synchronization and harmony , they would fail to criticize each others point of view which is not healthy for the organization. Whereas Emotional conflict among employees in the organization was supposed to diminish and decrease the performance (Hope, Kathleen and Eisenhardt, 2009). Emotional conflict among the employees in an organization gave negative and unfavorable consequences of performance (Palled, 1996).

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2.5 Indirect Impact of Conflict through its consequences on Performance:

Shafer (2002) had tried to focus on the influence of conflict on organizational commitment and job satisfaction which indirectly affected the level of performance. The researcher proved that higher level of conflict among employees showed negativity not only in the organizational commitment of the employees but also in the job satisfaction of the employees working in the organization. The low level of the two variables was supposed to increase turnover intension among employees working in an organization. The increased level of conflict whether its emotional or task related came up with various outcomes such as low organizational commitment, low job satisfaction, increase turnover intension and all these made an impact on performance explained by (Bercovitch) .The conflict reduced organizational commitment and job satisfaction and the reduction of these two variables increased the likelihood of employee turnover intension. The difference between organizational commitment and job satisfaction explained by Williams and Hazer (1986) was that the former was an emotional and sentimental response to the whole organization, whereas the latter represented an emotional attachment to specific dimensions of job. According to (Shafer, 2002) presence of conflict in any organization caused lower level of organization commitment and job satisfaction. The dysfunctional outcomes further supposed to increase the turnover intension of employees explained by (Shafer, 2002).

Considering the organizational commitment among the employees in the organization, was the variable that defined the involvement of the employee with the organization. Organizational commitment was about believes and acceptance organizational goals and values; it was defined as a willingness to perform well than before, for the sake of the organization. Employee having strong organizational commitment had a strong sense of loyalty, sincerity, responsiveness with the values of the organization. Second variable had a significant impact by the existence of conflict among the employees working in an organization. Job satisfaction among the employees was defined as variable that measured whether the employee was happy, contented and pleased with the job, organization, culture and work place. Job satisfaction explained the ease level, positive emotions, comfort, happiness, pleasure at the organization in which he/ she was working. The reason of job satisfaction varied from individual to individual. High level of conflict lowered both the variables Job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The lower level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment further gave rise to increase in turnover intension. Turnover intension was the variable that predicted whether the employee wanted to leave the organization. It showed whether the employee had the willingness to remain associated with the organization he /she was working in or whether there was a desire to leave the organization and be a part of some other organization. Turnover intension of the employees was either useful or dysfunctional for the organization. The loss of poor performing employees from the organization could be beneficial for the organization whereas loss of high performing employees from the organization could be dysfunctional for the organization (Beadles et al., 2000; Dalton, Tudor and Krackhardt, 1982).

According to the research conducted turnover intension had significant links with various consequences; turnover intension was highly associated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. There was an inverse relationship between turnover intension and job satisfaction. Lower level of job satisfaction gave rise to higher level of turnover intension among employees. This showed that the employees who were less satisfied with their jobs, organizations, cultures and locations were much more willing to leave the organization. There was an inverse relationship of organizational commitment among the employees and turnover intension. The employees working in an organization who were less committed to the organization and showing less loyalty, sincerity, trustworthiness, devotion were more prone to turn over intension. Mobley (1982) stated that turnover disturbed performance as employee who was willing to leave became less competent , whereas when a knowledgeable and experienced employee had left the organization , time and cost of the organization were lost to secure a substitute.

Finally due to all the consequences, that were lower organizational commitment, lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intension affected the performance of the employees. Performance was defined as the profitability of the organization when the desired result was achieved by the employee. If the employee had achieved the goals set by the organization it was said that he had performed well. Whereas if the employee hadn’t done well in achieving his targets it was said that he hadn’t performed well. Performance referred to output results and their outcomes. To analyze the performance of the employee, there were certain targets, standards, past results that were set by the management of the organization. The measurement of performance of the employee was fundamental to the improvement of the productivity of the organization. Another importance of performance analysis was to uncover several perspectives on the problem and opportunity determining any barrier to successful performance.

2.6 Interrelationship of the three variables:

The three variables that were studied as the consequence of conflict among employees in the organization , job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intension were further explained as job satisfaction was an work related outcome that was defined as optimistic feeling of the employee had toward his or her organization, job policies, way of work done in that organization (Locke, 1976). Organizational commitment was the variable that explained as the degree to which employees felt themselves dedicated towards the organization (Price, 1997) and turnover intention was the work related variable that defined as employee’s propensity to leave the organization (Lyons, 1971). The three variables were interlinked with each other. The largest view was that job satisfaction was an originator of organizational commitment as higher job satisfaction was supposed to increase the organizational commitment of the employees working in the organization (Kalleberg and Lincoln 1990; Porter, Steers and Mowday, 1982; Mueller, Boyer, and Iverson, 1994; Hazer and William, 1986). Whereas organizational commitment was supposed to be a precursor of job satisfaction explained by (Vandenberg and Lance, 1992). There was a mutual relationship between commitment and turnover intention, with lower commitment it was thought to be greater intention to quit where as if there was high turnover intension in any organization it was supposed to be lowers commitment among employees (Elangovan 2001). The variable job satisfaction among the employees had several consequences. Organizational commitment was one of the consequences, For example, job satisfaction influenced organizational commitment among the employees toward the organization. If an employee was contented with pay he was getting from the organization, (satisfied with pay relates to satisfaction with organization), it was supposed that this employee was dedicated to the organization in which he or she was associated. Conversely, higher job satisfaction with the organization was considered as a cause for higher organizational commitment toward the organization. Sorensen (1974) and Aranya and Ferris (1984) explained that higher level of organizational conflict were associated with lower level of job satisfaction and lower level of organizational commitment as a result showed higher turnover intension. According to (Bluedorn, 1982) in any organization, job satisfaction of the employees and their organizational commitment showed a relationship which was positively correlated to each other. Shore and Martin (1989) concluded that although both organizational commitment and job satisfaction were related to turnover intension, but organizational commitment was more strongly related to turnover intension. Mathieu and Zajac, (1990); Randall, (1990), have demonstrated that the organizational commitment and turnover have produced highly significant link between each other.

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Job satisfaction and organizational commitment both had an impact on turnover intension. Job satisfaction had an opposite relation to turnover intention of the employees, (Gaertner, 2000; Currivan, 1999; Griffeth and Horn, 2000). According to a research organizational commitment and turnover intension were found to be inversely related to one another (Horn and Griffith, 1995; Mathieu and Zajac, 1990; Mowday, et al., 1982).

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction was manipulated by many factors, for example, one’s relationship with their supervisor, physical environment in which they was degree of achievement in their work, etc. Job satisfaction in the employees of any organization gave remarkable advantage to any organization, as high in spirits workers were supposed to work better and produce more, take fewer days off, and stayed devoted to the company. Job satisfaction was defined as the approach of physiotherapists toward the organization, their job, job environment, culture in the organization and achievements from the organization. A positive attitude of the employee towards all the aspects indicated job satisfaction and vice versa. Job satisfaction was analyzed directly through a survey by asking the physiotherapists questions about the company and the job etc. The physiotherapists were asked to respond in a manner which was quantifiable. Job satisfaction was inversely proportional to turnover intension. It showed that lower level of job satisfaction gave rise to greater turnover intension among employees in any organization. There was a positive relationship between person-organization fit and job satisfaction (Kristof, 1996). Job satisfaction had been negatively related to turnover intension (Eby, 1999). Low job satisfaction at the organizational level, was considered to be responsible for decrease performance of the employees, enhanced rate of absenteeism, increase in job turnover of employees, and declined morale of the organization. (Mathieu and Hamel, 1989; Petty, McGee and Cavender,1984)

Organizational commitment:

Organizational commitment was defined as relative strength of individual recognition with and connectivity and attachment with the organization (Steers, 1977). Organizational Commitment was a work related variable that was fond to have relation with other variables such as turnover, absenteeism, and performance (Angel and Perry, 1981) the variable is also related to job satisfaction, job involvement and job tension.( Hall and Schneider,1972). Organizational commitment had three components. First component was about the feel of conviction and accepting the organizational goal. Second component showed the desire to make better attempts on behalf of organization. It was a willingness in the employee to be loyal with the organization. Third component showed the individuals willingness or desire to maintain membership in the organization explained by (Porter, Steers, Mowday, and Boulian, 1974). Allen and Meyer (1996) refined that Organizational commitment was further divided in three distinct types of employee commitment to an organization: Affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Affective commitment was defined as the emotional attachment and affection with the culture, place, location, co-workers, environment and organization itself. (Meyer and Allen, 1996) explained that employee who had high level of affective commitment wanted to stay with the organization for more than merely economical reasons. Continuance commitment was a commitment which was due to the threat of losses that an employee had to incur if he/she had to leave the organization. For example if an employee had developed his skills in an organization, he would be scared that if he left the organization the skills would be ineffective in any other organization. In continuance commitment the employee had the fear that the decision of quitting the organization would be costly for him or her explained by (Allen and Meyer, 1996). Affective commitment of an employee to the organization was positively related to the performance of the employees where as continuance commitment and the performance of the employees was found to be negatively associated with each other (Hackett, Bycio and Hausdorf, 1994). Third type of commitment is the normative commitment, it was a feeling that due to the benefits given by the organization such as training, career growth, learning, opportunities, skill development, medical facilitation employee felt that he/ she was supposed to be responsible, loyal and should associated with the organization. The feeling that the organization had given the employee empowerment, learning , opportunities and had invested in term of his/ her training capabilities made the employees felt that he/ she was supposed to remain associated with the organization the employee was working in. Meyer and Allen (1991) explained about normative commitment of the employees that due to the perceived debt to the organization for benefits such as training and education cost , the employee felt to stay with the organization. Higher organizational commitment was found in organizations where there was higher compatibility between organizational characteristics and individual characteristics stated by (Kristof, 1996). The organization played a vital role in developing the organizational commitment among the employees, if the organization was fulfilling the expectations of the employee, providing a healthy environment, personnel development, professional values, and the employee was more committed to the organization and there was more willingness to perform better for the organization. There were positive as well as some negative consequences of organizational commitment. Negative impacts of low level of organizational commitment of the employees in any organization were shown as high turnover (Koch and Steers, 1978; Porter, Crampon and Smith, 1976; Steers, 1977; Wiener and Vardi, 1980), it also gave high absenteeism (Mowday, Steers and Porter, 1979; Smith, 1977; Steers, 1977), greater tardiness (Angle and Perry, 1981), a lack of intention to stay with the firm (Angle & Perry, 1981; Mowday et al., 1979; Steers, 1977; Wiener, 1982), low quantity of work (Steers, 1977), disloyalty to the firm (Schein, 1968). It appeared that low levels of commitment were largely dysfunctional for both the individual and the organization. The organization suffered from an unstable and disloyal work force due to low committed employees. There were some of the positive consequences which were seen among the behavior of employees working in any organization. Positive consequences for employees and therefore for the organization could include longer tenure (Mowday et al., 1982), limited intention to quit (Steers, 1977), limited subsequent turnover (Stumpf and Hartman, 1984), and greater job satisfaction (Hall and Schneider, 1972; Porter et al., 1974). Committed employees were characterized as loyal, productive members of work organizations (Porter, Steers, Mowday and Boulian, 1974) who not only recognized the vision and goals of the organizational and but also identified the principles of organization (Buchanan, 1974). A wide array of desirable behavioral outcomes were linked to work-related commitment of the employees working in the organization including: employee retention, job performance, attendance, work quantity, work quality, and personal sacrifice on behalf of the organization (London, 1983; Rabinowitz and Hall, 1977; Randall, 1990). Proposed linkages between commitment and job performance were initially driven by the properties recognized to each form of work-related commitment. One of the hypothesized benefits of being committed at work (to the job, career and/or organization) was improved job performance. There was a direct relation between organizational commitment and performance and productivity of the employees working in any organization. Organizational commitment was considered to be an important variable due to many reasons. Organizational commitment was a better analyst of turnover intension of the employee than was job satisfaction described by (Koch and Steers, 1976). According to the research of (Morday, Porter and Dubin, 1974) highly committed employees performed better than the employees who were less committed or loyal to the organization they were working in. Organizational commitment was said to be associated by various outcomes among which turnover intension was an important consequence explained by (Chang, 1999). There was a negative relation between organizational commitment and turnover intension, which meant that if an individual was less loyal or less committed to the organization he/ she was working, the intension to quit from the organization of that individual was more.

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS

3.1 Method of Data Collection

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