Impact Of Flexible Work Arrangement Management Essay
The anxiety employees face at work have increased significantly over the past years Duxbury and Higgins; 2005. This increasing anxiety is disturbing and depressing as increased work demands leads to harmful and destructive consequences on employees and employers (Duxbury, 2005). Work conflicts with individual’s personal life when work demands make it difficult for the employee to fulfill his/her family roles (Klepa, 1991.) There are large number of factors that encourage the employers to promote polices focusing on work-life balance (Drew et al, 2003). Flexible work arrangements are the vital source for maintaining job satisfaction, commitment and motivation of employees and reducing work life conflicts. A research was conducted in Britain in which the researchers get to know that men use flexible starting times to increase working hours and to diminish work-life conflict (White et al, 2003)
The research problem
Organizations are progressively facing more competition pressure to perform better, more rapidly and be more cost effective (Duxbury and Higgins, 2003). Flexi-time is one of the most widespread and frequently used flexible work arrangements and is still increasing with time (Lewis and Cooper, 2005). Workplaces are experiencing the effect of a rapid pace of change, characterized by technological changes and globalization (Castells, 2000). Introduction of new technologies and changes in the nature of work led many workers struggle to balance role in their work and personal lives (Hayman; 2009). Surveys have reported that work pressure experienced by employees has increased when their job requires working to tight deadlines (McIntosh, 2001). Employees working under these circumstances face more work-related stress and get exhausted (Clutter buck, 2003). When work burden and job tasks make it more difficult for employee to carry out family responsibilities then work creates interference with family and this leads to imbalance (Gutek; Searle 1991). Work life imbalance has a negative impact on
Flexible work arrangements are considered one of the most feasible ways to diminish work-life conflict (Chris Hingins; 2008)
In this research specifically I want to recognize the impact of flexi-time on the outcomes of organization and employees. Also, to identify the benefits and challenges experienced by employees regarding the implementation of flexi-time.
1.2 The objectives of the study
The objectives of this particular research are to:
To determine the impact of flexible work arrangement (flexi time) on the organizational outcomes.
To determine the impact of flexible work arrangement (flexi-time) on the employee outcomes.
To determine the benefits employees enjoy due to the flexi-time policy.
To determine the challenges experienced by the employees with the use of flexi time as flexible work arrangement.
To determine the extent to which flexi-time leads to Work life balance.
1.3 Research question(s)
What is the impact of flexible work arrangement (flexi time) on the organizational outcomes?
What is the impact of flexible work arrangement (flexi time) on the employee outcome?
What benefits employees enjoy due to the flexi- time policy?
What are the challenges experienced by the employees with the use of flexi time as flexible work arrangement?
To what extent flexi-time leads to Work life balance?
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Labor market has experienced number of transitions in the last few decades. Work schedules are emerging in the market and moving from traditional to flexible work arrangements also known as “flexi-time” (Ernest B. 1993). These changes have emerged in the market in order to balance work life environment to ensure employee satisfaction and retention. Employee’s satisfaction is measured by seeing quits, layoffs and job rotation (Clark 2001) as well as absenteeism and productivity (Fisher and Souza Pouza, 2009; Judge et al., 2001).
Many researches have been done on the work life balance policies, challenges and benefits associated with it. Work life balance is one of the most central issues and concerns for the 21st century civilizations (Downes, 2011). Organizations are forced to lodge number of supply and demand factors regarding employees one of which is the demand for secure, flexible and low cost labor force. This has led to the increase of non-standard jobs resulting in different work hours arrangements in organizations (Blyton et al., 2006). Employees may find themselves working in different shifts, in house jobs as determined by the employer (Blyton et al., 2006).
Part time work and flexi-time tend to reduce work pressure and work life conflict (Russell et al., 2001; Glass and Estes, 1997). Hymen et al., (2003) in their investigation of call center and software developer workers found that temporal flexibility reduce work life conflict. They found that while working from home may reduce time pressure by cutting traveling time and leaving more time for family and other activities. Most researches in this field argue that flexi-time work hours should reduce work-life conflict (Gornick and Mayers, 2003). Part time work in Britain is used to accommodate work and family life (Bonney, 2005). Flexi time may reduce work pressure more generally within the organization (Russel et al., 2007). Flexi-time includes job sharring, compressed work weeks, telecommuting, peak periods, and informal flexibility e.t.c.
Researches show that flexitime leads to more productivity, reduce absenteeism, low turnover and more satisfaction among employees. One recent study conducted by Corporate Leadership Council found that more than 60% of employee’s rank flexible schedules as the most important work life benefit provide by a company. They also found that employees who feel they have control over their time work 21% harder than others. This research has also shown that companies who are offering flexitime have higher rates of employee loyalty and retention (Dexheimer, 2010).
If we see it from an employer perspective flexible work arrangements are used by employer to increase competitiveness among employees as well as to retain qualified personnel (Daniel & Janneka, 2011). Employers can use this to accommodate the fluctuating workforce and business needs. These arrangements will be helpful in case organization is facing absenteeism and turnover problems. Employers can use these arrangements to increase the motivation of the employees, which can increase the efficiency and performance of the employees. Flexi-time has some disadvantages too as it can increase the supervision and overhead cost of the office. Employers or managers have uneasy task of optimal work flow and the handling of important functions (Ernest B., 1993).
Flexible work arrangements provide employee more control and independence over their life and therefore it allows employees to work during times more suited to their personal needs which may reduce the amount of work and stress elements experienced by the employee (Baltes et al., 1999). Access to flexi-time may indicate to employees that their employer cares about their well-being and their responsibilities outside the work environment (Casper and Harris, 2009). Access to flexi-time to the employees generally enhances job satisfaction, reduces work pressure and stress in employees. Since previous researches have shown that higher job satisfaction transforms into low turnover rates, low absenteeism and increase general well-being, this would be favorable to both employees and employer (Daniel and Janneke, 2011).
It is right time to formalize flexi-time in the organization because it removes the stigma of asking for time off, knowing that you have to complete your work hours, this goes a long way in building morale and improve performance. In the current business environment, executives initially say that flexibility is an unaffordable incentive but in a difficult economy flexible work arrangements allow organization to cut payroll costs without large-scale staff lessening, boosting morale and holding top talent so that these organizations can quickly tackle new business when the economy rebounds (Craig, 2010).
3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design
This study would make use of a qualitative research design with exploratory approach. Using qualitative approach researchers make an effort to recognize the participant’s point of view and disclose their experiences (Kvale, 1996). The nature of this study would be exploratory in which the data would be collected through observations and interviews. The use of interviews would let us know the individual’s experiences, perceptions and attitudes regarding flexible work arrangements. Interviews would also help in identifying and understanding the challenges and benefits employees are enjoying due to the implementation of flexi-time.
3.2 Data sources
3.3 Data collection techniques
Data would be collected by semi-structure interviews. Semi-structure interviews are not standardized and are often used in qualitative analysis (David and Sutton; 2004).The researcher has a proper record of the important issues, problems and things to be covered during the interview (Corbetta, 2003). Semi structure interview is a method of collecting the data in which interviewer is influenced by an adjustable interview schedule and make use of questions to consent thoroughly (Forrester, 2010). The research participants should not feel any difficulty regarding research process because participants are very important for soundness and accomplishment of research outcomes (Hesse-Biber, 2004)
Before the collection of data an interview program would be formulated, stating the questions to be asked during the interview.
3.4 Issues of reliability and validity
3.5 Sampling technique
All the research participants would be chosen in non-random manner. And there would be criteria for to determine which participants tend to be included in the research.
(1) Participant should have been utilized he flexible work arrangement (Flexi-time).
(2) Participants are enthusiastic and willing to participate in the research.
(3)Be ready to make their interview recorded.
3.6 Definition of key terms, concepts and variables
3.7 Data analysis and interpretation
In order to analyze the data interviews would be carefully and comprehensively read. Responses of the participants would be categorized.
3.9 Ethical considerations
This study would be guarantee high standards of ethics and fairness. Participants would be well-informed of all the aspects, reasons, circumstances and purpose of the study. We won’t misinform or delude the participants by providing fake information. Integrity and fairness would be shown towards the participants. Human rights, self respect and self esteem of the participants would be valued. This includes protecting the personal information of the participants like biographical information. All the information regarding participants would be kept anonymous.