Impact Of Job Design Employee Performance Management Essay

This research Impact of job design on employee performance was carried out to identify factors which play important role in job design so that it could best motivates the employees and in return they give best performance.

The objective of this study is to investigate the factors of job design on employee performance in private schools. The survey is designed to analyze five dimensions of the job: Skill Variety, Task Identity, Task Significant, Autonomy, Feedback. And three dimension of the employee performance. Trait , Behavior and Result.

The data was gathered through some secondary sources such as internet while some primary sources were also used. The study was conducted by using a random sampling of any four school. The sample size chosen is 60 employees. The individuals were surveyed through questionnaires.

The study found that the job design is significantly and positively related to its employee performance. An implication is that more attention has to be given to improving task significance and autonomy so as to improve quality level of Job Design for school teachers that they can improve their employees’ performance in achieving quality students.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 11

1.1 Introduction 12

1.1.1 Job Design 13

1.1.2 Benefits of job design……….…………………………………………………………………………………………….13

1.1.3 Technique of job design……….………………………………………………………………………………………….14

1.1.4 Job design approach……………….……………………………………………………………………………………….16

1.1.5 Employee performance……………….………………………………………………………………………………….16

1.2 Statement of problem……………………….………………………………………………………………………………17

1.3 Significance of problem………………………….………………………………………………………………………….17

1.4 Scope…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18

1.5 Delimitation……………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………18

Chapter 2 19

2.1 Research design 20

2.2 Purpose of the study 20

2.3 Sampling……………………….…………………………….…………………………………………………………………….20

2.4 Instrument and data collection………………………………………………………………………………………….21

2.5 Scoring for design questionnaire……………………………………………………………………………………….21

Chapter 3 22

3.1 Literature Review 23

3.2 Analysis 26

3.3 Private schools…..………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………..26

3.4 Teacher motivation….……………….……………………………………………………………………………………….27

Chapter 4 29

4.1 Analysis of primary data 30

4.2 Scoring for job design and employee performance questionnaire 30

4.3 Data analysis result……….…………………………………………………………………………………………………..30

Job design

4.4 Skill Variety……………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………31

4.5 Task identity………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

4.6 Task significance………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………33

4.7 Autonomy………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………..34

4.8 Feed back………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………35

Employee Performance

4.9 Trait and behavior……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..36

4.10 Result…………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..37

Chapter 5 38

5.1 Finding 39

5.2 Conclusion 39

5.3 Recommendation……….………………………………………………………………………………………………………40

References 41

Appendix 44

Table of figure:

Figure 1………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………31

Figure 2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

Figure 3……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33

Figure 4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..34

Figure 5 …………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………..35

Figure 6 …………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………36

Figure 7 ….…………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………….37

CHAPTER # 1

BACKGUROND OF THE SUBJECT/TOPIC AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

INTRODUCTION

Human Resource is the most important resource compared with other resources like machine, material, land, etc. In the organizational context, the effectiveness of human resource depends on designing the job according to human capability and characteristics. Job design is the most important function of Human Resource Management. It indicates that, designing of contents, methods, functions of a job.

The education is the most important to produce a total man with the knowledge, attitudes and skills required not only for the present world but also for that of the future. In the case of delivery of quality education, the teachers are the most crucial & valuable resource.

The performance of an employee is that, how well an employee performs his or her task duties and responsibilities. Employees’ performance is also crucial. Because the achievement of goals and objectives of the organization is assessed by performance of its resources, employees’ performance should be assessed and maintained periodically. Teachers also one of the employees category in the education sector. Therefore, the teachers’ performance also is crucial in education sector. (Hussain Ali and Aroosiya, n.d)

There is an established body of knowledge supporting the idea that certain jobs and goal setting can enhance performance. This research focuses on motivating performance through job design. It is experienced that well designed jobs can have a positive impact on both employee satisfaction and the quality of performance. It is proposed that a well-defined job would enhance motivation, satisfaction and performance of the employees. Thus, for both academicians and practitioners, job design takes on special importance in today’s human resource management. It is essential to design jobs so that stress can be reduced, motivation can be enhanced, and satisfaction of employees and their performance can be improved so that organizations can effectively compete in the global marketplace. (Pooja Garg and Renu Rastogi,2005)

JOB DESIGN

Job Design is the process of putting together various elements to form a job, bearing in mind organizational and individual worker requirements, as well as considerations of health, safety, and ergonomics. Job Design typically refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire position is organized.

what tasks are done

when and how the tasks are done

how many tasks are done

in what order the tasks are done

factors which affect the work

organization of the content and tasks

Good design incorporates the relationship with organizational goals and values and should be well understood in order to align and prioritize the job’s responsibilities. The design should: 

Allow for employee input. Employees should have the option to vary activities according to personal needs, work habits, and the circumstances in the workplace.

Give employees a sense of accomplishment.

Include training requirements so employees know what tasks to do and how to do them properly.

Provide good work/rest schedules.

Provide feedback to the employees about their expected performance. (University of Guelph,2012)

BENEFITS OF JOB DESIGN

The following are the benefits of a good job design:

Employee Input: A good job design enables a good job feedback. Employees have the option to vary tasks as per their personal and social needs, habits and circumstances in the workplace.

Employee Training: Training is an integral part of job design. Contrary to the philosophy of “leave them alone’ job design lays due emphasis on training people so that are well aware of what their job demands and how it is to be done.

Work / Rest Schedules: Job design offers good work and rest schedule by clearly defining the number of hours an individual has to spend in his/her job.

Adjustments: A good job designs allows for adjustments for physically demanding jobs by minimizing the energy spent doing the job and by aligning the manpower requirements for the same.

Job design is a continuous and ever evolving process that is aimed at helping employees make adjustments with the changes in the workplace. The end goal is reducing dissatisfaction, enhancing motivation and employee engagement at the workplace.(Management study guide,2008)

TECHNIQUE OF JOB DESIGN

Various techniques of job design are

Job Enlargement

Job Enrichment

Job Rotation

 

Job Enlargement

Job enlargement expands job horizontally. It increases job scope; that is, it increases the number of different operations required in a job and the frequency with which the job cycle is repeated. By increasing the number of tasks an individual performs, job enlargement, increases the job scope, or job diversity. Instead of only sorting the incoming mail by department, for instance, a mail sorter’s job could be enlarged to include physically delivering the mail to the various departments or running outgoing letters through the postage meter. Job enlargement decreases some boredom but it is not enough to motivate as nature of work remain same.

Job Rotation

Job rotation is the systematic and planned rotation of individuals in pre-determined jobs  (other than their own) so they can gain additional knowledge or skills.  It is done quite a bit for developing managers (because they need to be familiar with operations overall) and also used with others who want to advance to a new role or become more knowledgeable in their current job role.

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Some of the major benefits of job rotation are:

It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries

Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes required

It determines the areas where improvement is required

Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position

Job Enrichment

Job enrichment is an approach to job design.  The focus is to increase the depth of the job (by the amount of discretion and responsibility the job holder has).  It is different from job enlargement (which focuses on increasing the number of tasks a job holder is responsible for performing more work /tasks to do).

In job enrichment, additional tasks are not the focus for the goal, but an increase in tasks could be a result of giving the job holder more authority, discretion, and responsibility for decision making in their current role. It is the most effectively motivating tool used by the organizations which enhances the decision making skills of the managers and helps in their overall development. (allsubjectsforyou,nd)

JOB DESIGN APPROACH

The job characteristics approach was popularized by Hackman and Oldham. According to this approach there is a direct relationship between job satisfaction and rewards. They said that employees will be their productive best and committed when they are rewarded appropriately for their work. They laid down five core dimensions that can be used to describe any job – skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback.

Skill variety: The employees must be able to utilize all their skills and develop new skills while dealing with a job.

Task Identity: The extent to which an identifiable task or piece or work is required to be done for completion of the job.

Task Significance: How important is the job to the other people, what impact does it create on their lives?

Autonomy: Does the job offer freedom and independence to the individual performing the same.

Feedback: Is feedback necessary for improving performance. (Management study guide,2008)

EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

Job performance is defined as it focuses directly on employee productivity by assessing the number of units of acceptable quality produced by an employee in a manufacturing environment, within a specific time period. Hence the researcher has developed the working definition for study purpose is that, achievement of targets of the tasks assigned to employees within particular period of time. The success of business depends on employees’ performance. One of the most effective ways to increase business performance and profit is to increase the performance

of employees, from the lowest levels of the organization to senior management .Performance improvement is not only a result of well functioning system but also depends on effective human resource strategies that succeed in recruiting and maintaining a committed and motivated workforce.

The dimensions of performance on which an employee is evaluated are called the criteria

of evaluation. Some several criteria becomes needed in order to evaluate job performance of an employee accurately. The data or information that managers receive on how well employees are performing their jobs can be of three different types. Trait-based information, Behavior-based information, Result based information.

Trait-based information identifies a subjective character of the employee such as attitude, initiative or creativity. Behavior-based evaluations of job performance focus on what is included in the job itself . Results are outcomes produced by the employee. Result based information consider employee accomplishment.

For jobs in which measurement is easy and obvious, a results-based approach works well. (Hussain Ali and Aroosiya, n.d)

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The research identifies the various key factors related to job design on employee’s performance. How an education sector make employees performance better in their jobs through job design.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The main aim of this study is to see the following:-

The purpose of this study is to find reasons of job design that its impact on the performance.

To find out what are the factors through which employees performance can be satisfied.

To explore the aspects of the job that employees value the most.

SCOPE

This research has been undertaken in schools within the Karachi, targeted will be Gulshan-e-Iqbal & Gulshtan-e-Jhaur, primary data has been collected through the school teachers.

DELIMITATION

Study is may be limited due to time and location constraint. The explanation is to the limit of my observational, analytical research skills. The report I have submitted is according to the best of my capabilities.

CHAPTER # 2

RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE

2.1 Research Design

The research design consists of the following steps to be followed:

Purpose of the study

Sampling

Instrument and data collection

2.2 Purpose Of The Study

The purpose of this study is to find reasons employee satisfaction about job design.

2.3 Sampling

Identification Of Target Population

The target population consisted of employees working in private schools.

Sample Size

The sample size consists of 15 employees of any 4 schools who were asked to fill out questionnaires (refer Appendix A). I used the most convenient sampling method any four private schools were taken from 2 randomly selected area of Karachi that is Gulshan-e-Iqbal and Gulshtan-e-Jhaur.

2.4 Instrument And Data Collection

Secondary Data

Secondary sources of data has been the relevant and related published material available in the library and the pertinent data acquired from the web. References thereto, wherever applicable, are given in the last section of the research.

Primary Data

Primary data for this research has been gathered by the help of questionnaire.

2.5 Scoring For Job Designed Questionnaire

To analyze five dimensions of the job design that is Skill variety, Task Identity, Task Significance, Autonomy, and Feedback and three dimensions of employee performance that is Traits, Behavior, and Result likert scale was used.

In likert scoring chart agree shows highly satisfied, slightly agree shows satisfied, disagree shows highly unsatisfied and slightly disagree shows unsatisfied results.

CHAPTER # 3

LITERATURE REVIEW

3.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

A Literature review has been done to know about the various aspects of job design in order to identify those factors that affect the employee performance.

Job Design

By (Kapil Dev n,d) Productivity is vital for any organization. However, managers should take care that the process of productivity improvement does not dehumanize jobs. Dehumanization of jobs could lead to degradation of workers’ performance.

Job design principles can address problems such as work overload, work under load, repetitiveness, limited control over work, isolation, delays in filling vacant positions, excessive working hours, and limited understanding of the whole job process. Managers try to design jobs in such a way that they are technically, behaviorally and economically feasible for workers as well as the organization.

Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one’s work.

Job design is affected by organizational, environmental and behavioral factors. A properly designed job will make it more productive and satisfying. Job design requires the assembly of a number of tasks into a job or a group of jobs. An individual may carry out one main task which consists of a number of inter-related elements or functions. On the other hand, task functions may be split between a team, working closely together or strung along an assembly line. In more complex jobs, individuals may carry out a variety of connected tasks; each with a number of functions, or these tasks may be allocated to a group of workers or divided between them.

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Job design decisions are based on elements like job content, degree of specialization required, and work environment in the organization. Job design helps managers carry out job analysis and develop job specifications.

Thus job design helps managers conduct activities like recruitment and selection, orientation and training. While making the decision to employ a new employee, job design plays an important role in determining factors such as -How many hours per week the job is for? Will the job be ongoing or short term? Where will the job be located? What will the wage be? Can the job be completed in a flexible way?

To hire the right candidates who suit their work environment and requirements recruiters need a platform to get across to the job seekers. It also important for the job seekers to pick up a job that suits their personality and interest as the first step will play a deciding role in shaping their career and position in life.

Another study by Hackam,J.R,&Oldham,

An employer may incorrectly assume that money is the sole motivator for their employees. For many people, job design is as important as fair remuneration in motivating employees to be more effective. Job design has an influence on employee motivation, job satisfaction and commitment to their organization, all of which have a significant impact on the efficiency of your business.

Jobs are often designed in a way that encourages specialization. Work is divided into specific tasks, with the employee assigned to each task becoming very skilled, accurate and efficient at performing it. However, an often overlooked problem with specialization is that it generally has a negative impact on employee motivation.

Whilst an employee may become very efficient and skilled at completing a repetitive task, the lack of variety in their day can lead to boredom and a feeling of detachment from the overall goals and success of the business. They feel that as long as they complete their job satisfactorily, there is no need to be concerned with any other aspect of the business.

A possible solution to this problem involves providing employees with more variety in their work. One technique to do this is introducing job rotation, where employees move between different jobs periodically. Not only will this reduce the monotony of their work, but it will develop a team with a wider range of skills.

Another way to improve employee motivation is through job enlargement. This is where employees are gradually provided with more challenging work and greater responsibility. Whilst you may think this would have the opposite effect, many employees enjoy learning new things and will get more fulfillment from their work if they are given extra responsibility. This also helps you to increase the skill level of your team.

Job enrichment is another motivational technique that you may want to consider. It involves providing employees with more control over the work they do. By providing them with more authority and responsibility, it may encourage them to seek out better and more efficient ways to accomplish their task, leading to a potential increase in productivity. The more interesting a person’s job is, the more likely they will be motivated to apply effort and maximize their productivity. The Job Characteristics Model helps to explain the benefits of job design.

Core Job Characteristics:

Skill Variety

Task Identity

Task significance

Autonomy

Feedback

Outcomes:

Motivation

Performance

Satisfaction

Reduced Absenteeism

Turnover

Psychological States:

Meaningful

Responsibility

Knowledge of results

The core job characteristics will enhance employees’ job satisfaction and motivation, potentially leading to better outcomes for your business.

Well designed jobs that don’t invoke boredom and which increase the job satisfaction of your employees may help you to improve efficiency, productivity and morale within your business. In turn, this could lead to less staff turnover, absenteeism and potentially make your business more profitable.

3.2 Analysis

Hence this literature review satisfy all the variable that there is relationship between job design and employee performance.

3.3 PRIVATE SCHOOLS

By (Tanya Khan) Private schools have a long history in Pakistan. Many trusts, foundations and civil societies established private schools during the last century. The denominational schools run by Christian missionaries and philanthropists were started just before or after independence. These institutions charge low fees and generate funds largely from endowments, individual and institutional grants and donations. Till the last decade, the missionary schools ranked highest in terms of quality of education. Most of these schools are boarding which is seen as contributing to their high quality.

The expansion of private schools demonstrates that the low and middle class understand the value of good quality education, appreciate the need for purposeful schooling for their children, and are willing to pay for it even given their limited income. Some argue that the phenomenal growth in private schools in large cities and small towns is a reflection of poor government policies and the public’s disillusionment with the state education system. Undoubtedly, this creates a crisis of confidence among public school teachers as their schools decline and loses value in the public’s eye.

A typical privately run primary school is owned by an individual operating it on a for profit

basis, has less than one-third trained teachers, and is housed in rented premises. Such schools receive no financial support from the government, and meet all their operational expenses from student fees (Andrabi, March 2002). Private for-profit schools vary considerably according to location (urban/rural). Private schools have managed to create an effective professional environment in their schools by emphasizing accountability in school management.

3.4 TEACHERS MOTIVATION

Teacher motivation is determined by both pecuniary and non-pecuniary factors. Pay levels and other material benefits must be sufficient to meet basic human needs (food, housing, clothing, transport, healthcare, education and training). However, overall job satisfaction among teachers is also strongly determined by higher order emotional and social needs, most notably professional self-esteem, job security, interpersonal relations at work (between teachers, education managers, pupils and parents/communities), opportunities for career progression, the working environment, the workload and productivity/learning outcomes. Another key related issue is the level of accountability of teachers to their school managers, pupils, parents and wider

community. ( Tanya Khan,nd)

Another study by (John Andrius)

Motivation is a vital factor in the teacher’s management of learning and behaviour in the classroom. Motivation signifies the causes or ‘why’ of behaviour; it is concerned with questions of the energising of behaviour and the direction given to behaviour. In the classroom, motivation is observed as students show interest and enthusiasm, and give attention and concentration to learning tasks. Conversely, low levels of motivation are observed in student apathy and misbehaviour.

Motivation is closely related to self-concept and to personal needs. Maslow (1970) has described a hierarchy of needs extending in pyramid fashion from basic physiological and safety needs to needs for belongingness and love, to self-esteem needs, and to the highest level need for self-actualisation. Self-actualisation involves striving for the full realisation of a person’s potential.

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The motivating role of teachers encompasses attempts to create conditions within a classroom which will energise, direct and sustain students’ performance. This role is important for promoting morale and climate, and involves the sustaining of enthusiasm and positive attitudes towards school goals and learning tasks, both those assigned and those self-generated by the students.

CHAPTER # 4

DATA PRESENTATION

4.1 ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY DATA

For data analysis we conducted questionnaire surveys. It consists of 16 questions which are filled in by employees in schools. Sample size of 60 employees was taken which 15 employees from each school. School was selected randomly selected in two areas Gulshtan-Jahur and Gulshan-e-Iqbal

4.2 SCORING FOR JOB DESIGN AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE QUESTIONNAIRE

The survey is designed to analyze five dimensions of the job: Skill Variety, Task Identity, Task Significant, Autonomy, Feedback About Results and three dimension of employee performance Trait and behavior and result.

Total score:

Skill Variety———–Total the scores for questions 1, 9

Task Identity———- Total the scores for questions 2, 6

Task Significant————Total the scores for questions 3,7,11

Autonomy ———Total the scores for questions 4, 8

Feedback————Total the scores for questions 5, 10,

Trait and Behavior————Total scores for questions,12,13

Result————Total score for questions 14, 15,16

4.3 DATA ANALYSIS RESULT

The result from employee survey are shown in graphical method as under:-

Job Design

4.4 SKILL VARIETY:-

Figure 4.1

Following inference can be made on the basis of above graph:

According to the survey large majority i.e (40%) of the employees agree that there is lot of skill variety in job so that they can use their skills in job. minority i.e less than (5%) of the employee disagree that there is variety in job. According to graph result overall satisfaction level is acceptable because majority of employee’s shows their satisfied response regarding skill variety in job.

4.5 Task Identity

Figure 4.2

Following inference can be made on the basis of above graph:

The result in the above figure shows that majority (40%) private school’s task is identified to their employee’s and 20 % of employee s are slightly agree disagree regarding task identity in their job.

4.6 Task Significance

Figure 4.3

Following inference can be made on the basis of above graph:

Our study shows that their work is significant in organization because majority (30%) employee’s agree with task significance and 30 % shows slightly agree and disagree.

4.7 Autonomy

Figure 4.4

Following inference can be made on the basis of above graph:

The above figure shows that majority (35%) private school employees have autonomy in their job and 25% of employee disagree regarding autonomy in their job. In this result satisfaction level is acceptable. But on the other hand we can’t neglect the unsatisfied result of employees.

4.8 Feed Back

Figure 4.5

Following inference can be made on the basis of above graph:

The above figure shows that majority of employee 40% ,16% respectively, agree and slightly agree with feedback of work. This mean that employees are satisfied and happy with recognition of work.

Employee Performance

The survey is to analyze three dimension of Employee Performance:- Trait ,Behavior and Result.

4.9 Trait and Behavior

Figure 4.6

Following inference can be made on the basis of above graph:

The above figure shows that majority of employees 35% , 20% respectively are agree and slightly agree that traits and behavior change according to their job design that makes an association between job design and their performance.

4.10 Result

Figure 4.7

Following inference can be made on the basis of above graph:

The above figure shows that majority of employee 30%, 23% respectively, agree and slightly agree with outcome of their work and accomplishment given by their organization. That means they are satisfied with the results of their work.

CHAPTER # 5

FINDING CONCLUSION AND RECOMMANDATION

5.1 Finding

Employees are getting variety to their work.

Some of the employees think that their knowledge , skills and abilities, are matching the job requirements.

Employees need freedom and authority in their job.

Mostly employees are satisfied with their job but they personally want that his/her work is significant in organization.

Employees are satisfied with their job but not satisfied with salary.

Mostly employees are motivated when they get feedback.

Mostly employees are interacting with other and solve difficulties together.

So the study found that the job design is significantly and positively related to its employee performance. An implication is that more attention has to be given to improving task significance and autonomy so as to improve quality level of Job Design for school teachers that they can improve their employees’ performance in achieving quality students.

5.2 Conclusion

The main theme of this study has been achieved through the response of school teachers. It has been observed that, if we apply job design in job so employees use their abilities and they use their skills with more effort and job will not boredom for them.

The results of the study lead to confirm the there is a significant and positive relationship between Job Design and Employees’ Performance of School Teachers. It is more likely that an improvements of quality of Job Design for School Teachers results in improvements of Employees’ Performance.

5.3 Recommendation

Recruitment of teachers should be merit-based and the politicization of the

teaching profession should be addressed so that teacher management policies are not

unduly influenced by people who have little interest school development.

Informants pointed to the need to improve the working conditions and

remuneration for teachers.

Good schooling environments can have a strong positive effect on teacher’s motivation to teach because of the equally positive environment it connotes.(Tanya Khan,nd)

Rotate tasks among employees; have employees move from one task to another according to a schedule.

Add more tasks to the job.

Incentive systems that reward for the quality of work naturally determine the “right” pace of work.

There should be workshops for teachers so they learn new methodologies for teaching.

There should be appraisal system in schools so that they review their performance every year /periodically.

REFERENCES

Hussain Ali and Aroosiya, 2010, IMPACT OF JOB DESIGN ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE, ICBI 2010 – University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka , viewed 3rd nov 2012

http://www.kln.ac.lk/fcms/ICBI2012/images/ICBM/dccs/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20HRM013.pdf

Pooja Garg, Renu Rastogi, (2006) “New model of job design: motivating employees’ performance”, Journal of Management Development, viewed 1st nov’12

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1556757&show=html

University of Guelph,2012,Human Resourse,Job design,viewed 6th nov 2012

http://www.uoguelph.ca/hr/hr-planning/job-design

Management study guide,2008, Job Design – Meaning, Steps and its Benefits ,viewed 6th nov 2012

http://www.managementstudyguide.com/job-design.htm

Management study guide,2008, Job Design – Approaches to Job Design ,viewed 6th nov 2012

http://www.managementstudyguide.com/job-design.htm

all subjects for you,nd,Job design viewed 6thnov 2012

http://www.allsubjects4you.com/Management-job-design.htm

Job Design – Vital For Organizations,enziarticles, Kapil Dev ,viewed 23rd nov 12

http://ezinearticles.com/?Job-Design—Vital-For-Organizations&id=2828194

Theories of motivation,motivation through job design,by Hackman J.R,Oldham J.R,viewed 26/12/12

http://toolkit.smallbiz.nsw.gov.au/part/8/40/193

Teacherjob satisfaction and incentive,TanyaKhan,nd viewed by 26/12/12

http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/PDF/Outputs/PolicyStrategy/3888Teacher_motivation_Pakistan.pdf

Teacher role motivating,Jhon Andrius Viewed by 27/12/12

http://www.teachermatters.com/classroom-management/roles-of-the-teacher/motivating.html

appendix http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/jobsurvey.html

Rural Teacher Training Program in Pakistan October 18, 2005,viewed 23/12/12

http://globalministries.org/news/sasia/rural-teacher-training-program-i.html

Hand Tool Ergonomics – Job Design may 2 2011,viewed 23/12/12

http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/handtools/jobdesign.html

Teacher job satisfaction and incentive,Tanya khan,nd,viewed 24 /12/12

http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/PDF/Outputs/PolicyStrategy/3888Teacher_motivation_Pakistan.pdf


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