Impact of training on employee motivation

“The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Motivation and its impact on Customer satisfaction at Chiswick Mcdonald’s


My research will investigate the impact of training and development on employee motivation. It will further examine the mediating effect on custoemr satisfaction. A sample of 25 employees will be selected to test the reliability of the model. The significance of the study, its delimitations and limitations are discussed.



The impact of Training and Development on employee Motivation and its impact on Customer satisfaction at Chiswick Mcdonalds.

Background of the Study

The role The role of employee (the performance of employees) in attaining and maintaining the quality of output& motivation is above any question. Too much budget is being spent on the administrative, marketing and other side of development (management development, re-structuring, etc.), less attention is given to the underlying dimensions of the employee Performance. The ability of an employee is often thought to be the sole criterion for his/her performance. This oversimplification of the phenomenon results in an oversimplified solution of the problem. The most often exercised solution is the conduction of professional training programs, usually in the relevant areas. This tendency of considering performance being outcome of only ability, leads to many undesirable consequences. Firstly the selection of employees is not on the bases of the nature of job, or he’s not shown or doesn’t knows the JD’s of what he has to perform, or no proper training is given to them, while ignoring the importance of on-the-work-motivation which may affect the performance of the individual. In fact, the Performance of employees is a construct with a variety of underlying dimensions. With all these issues in mind the aim of this research is to develop and test a model for Employee Performance. The model will analyze The Role of Training & Development, and motivation on the performance of employee

3. Study’s Relation to Theory and Literature

Literature Review







Training equipments and Performance


Environment and Performance


Training methodology and Performance


Employee commitment & performance


Training analysis & performance

Figure 2.1


A study was conducted by “ann stes, mieke clement” on the topic of “The effectiveness of a faculty training program: influencing factors” in this article it was said that, in view of the investments made, one should not be surprised that, in times of growing attention for accountability, questions with regard to the impact of faculty development initiatives are raised. Consequently, the impact of the training program for novice faculty was evaluated with a written survey shortly after the training was completed (see also stes, clement & nelissen, 2002). In today’s research literature, a lot of attention is devoted to the impact of faculty development initiatives (Gibbs & Coffey, 2000; McAlpine, 2003). However, before questioning the effect of the training program, one should seriously think about the underlying framework and the accompanying outcomes one wishes to achieve (Gilbert & Gibbs, 1998). A Study was conducted named “Driving simulator fidelity and training effectiveness”. By the following “J.C.F. de Winter1, P.A. Wieringa1, J. Dankelman1, M. Mulder2, M.M. van Paassen2, S. de Groot1″The existing organizational culture (‘the change environment’) will undoubtedly constrain or promote this development (Clarke &Hollingsworth, 2002; Trowler & Cooper, 2002). The main reasons for pursuing higher levels of fidelity appear to be based on the assumption that higher fidelity improves validity of performance and improves transfer to real car driving. The downside is that, generally, higher fidelity increases costs (e.g.,AGARD, 1980; Roza, 2004). Stereo presentations have been reported to improve task performance in simulated environments (e.g., mollenhauer, 2004; kim et al (2005)). Several studies yield mixed results (mollenhauer et al, 2004; nash et al, 2000) or indicate that a stereo presentation may reduce performance when display artefacts are present (pfautz, 2003) The training application was designed based on the framework espoused by the constructivist view of learning.

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Dalgarno (2001) outlined three broad principles of this view based on studies by Kant (1946) and Dewey (1938) for the first principle, Piaget (1969) for the second principle, and Vygotsky (1978) for the third principle. The first principle informs that individuals formed their own representation of knowledge and there was no particular ‘correct’ representation of knowledge. The second principle prescribes that learning occurred when learners uncovered a deficiency in their knowledge representation or an inconsistency between their current knowledge representation and their experience during active exploration. Learning that takes place within a social context is the third principle of this constructivist view. These three broad principles have been adopted in formulating approaches to the teaching and learning process. A research conducted on “How military research can improve team training Effectiveness in other high-risk industries” by Jeffrey M. Beaubien, Ph.D., David P. Baker, Ph.D., Amy K. Holtzman, M.A. American Institutes for ResearchOser and colleagues define scenario-based training is a systematic process of linking all aspects of scenario design, development, implementation, and analysis (Oser, Cannon-Bowers, Salas, & Dwyer, 1999) . Similar to simulator-based training,

TCT has been widely applied in aviation and has recently been introduce in healthcare. In aviation, TCT is referred to as Crew Resource Management (CRM) training (Salas, Fowlkes, Stout, Milanovich, & Prince, 1999).

so, this shows the relationship of performance with all other factors are given below


I suggest that perception of supportive managerial activities affect moderating on training effectiveness through effects on performance. Supportive managerial practices are positively related to the positive performance, which mediate effects on motivation. I intend to replicate this model by altering the theme and thus testing the training effectiveness- moderating relationship of supportive managerial practices with motivation and performance.

4. The Study

The Significance of Study

The study will broaden our understanding of employee performance by including the role of management in the proposed model. Since the traditional view of employee’ performance is very narrow, current study will add to existing body of knowledge by signifying:

The role of training on employee performance

The role which of employee commitment and motivation with performance.

It will further strengthen the research finding regarding the antecedents of training effectiveness.

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By looking into the motivational aspect of Employee Performance, the study will

Signify the importance of antecedents of motivation for performance

It will greatly facilitate the policy making bodies to evolve a comprehensive view

Of employee Performance and thus undertake necessary administrative

Adjustments accordingly.

A concomitant aim of this study is to test the discussed western theories and model in an eastern advancing country (Pakistan)

The Theoretical Framework

This research will be utilizing the following theories to build its conceptual framework:

Expectancy Theory of Motivation (Vroom, 1964)

(Context for this Research: Higher Perceived Organizational Support will result in high organizational commitment and job satisfaction, (high instrumentality) and this will result in high work-motivation.

Conceptual Framework

Based on stated review of literature and theories, following conceptual framework is devised to conduct this study:

“Employees’ perception of supportive organizational practices and training effectiveness contribute to motivation, which in turn mediates the impact of these practices on performance”

Research Questions

Main Question:

Does training mediate the relationship between managerial Practices and Performance through mediating the Motivation of Employees performance?

Sub Questions:

Does training builds employee commitment?

Does environment effects employee performance?

Does training methodology & training equipments build motivation?

Key Terms of the Study Defined

Organizational Commitment

The affective commitment of employees to the organization is termed as organizational commitment.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is a work-related attitude, which indicates that employee is not dissatisfied with the job. But this in itself does not motivate employee. (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman, 1959).


Simply stating motivation is the force behind any action. In the model under consideration motivation is force to perform.


The work-related output or outcome of organizational employees in his/her performance.

The Methodology

Research Design

In line with the requirements of the research, a longitudinal research design will be used. The data, as indicated in the coming lines, will be collected over a period of almost three months.

Sampling Technique and Sample:

Stratified-random sampling technique will be used to take care of both public and private sector institutions, appropriate stratification will be undertaken to represent both male and female Teachers. A sample, each of 200 employees, will be used to conduct the study. In this study the data about the attitudinal variables regarding perception of human resource practices will be collected at time 1 while the data concerning personal attitudes (training, employee Commitment, techniques, Motivation Performance) will be collected, at time 2, about 3 months after time 1 to draw a conclusion about the casual nature of relationships.

Tools of Data Collection:

Data on all the variables will be collected through questionnaire.


Organizational commitment

Commitment will be measured with a 9-item version of the organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ; 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree; Mowday, Steers & Porter, 1979) proposed by Bozeman and Perrewe (2001). They suggested that several items in the OCQ may be confounded with withdrawal intentions and proposed a 9-item version that removes withdrawal-related items. We conducted all analyses using both the full and the 9-item OCQ and found no substantive differences in the results. Various researches reported that results using the 9-item version that removes withdrawal-related items. A sample item is “I really care about the fate of this organization.” The validity and reliability analysis of the instrument can be found in Allen, D.G., Shore, L.M. & Griffeth, R.W. (2003). .

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Job satisfaction. Job satisfaction will be measured with a 4-item scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree) developed by Price (1977). A sample item is “I feel satisfied with my job.”(David G. Allen et al, 2003).


Motivation will be measure by an instrument, which was adopted by House & Dessler (1973). The Responses categorizing seven point Lickert scale ranging from “definitely not true” to “definitely true”. Factor analysis will be carried out to reveal two factors. Factor one: Performance and Reward Belief. And Factor two: effort and performance belief. ( Henry P. Sims, J.R, et al, 1976). The validity and reliability analysis of the instrument can be found in Sims, H.P., Szilagyi, A.D., & McKemey, D.R. (1976)..


Supervisors will rate employee performance by indicating the extent of their agreement with each statement on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1=Below satisfaction to 5=Excellent) This practice had been adopted by most of the public (University of the Punjab) and private (Superior university) educational institutions in Pakistan. Supervisors will be asked to compare each rated employee with the average of other employees holding similar jobs. Supervisor rated performance evaluation method had been successfully used in different studies like Williams and Anderson (1991) Organ, and Near (1983). And specially with reference to Organizational support theory this method had also been adopted by. Lynch, P.D., Eisenberger, R., & Armeil, S. (1999).

Ethical Considerations

The subjects of study will be briefed about the nature of study before collecting data. The data provided by the respondents will be kept confidential. Further, the data collected from students, peers and immediate-supervisor about the motivation and performance of individuals will also be kept confidential and will only be used for research purposes.

Delimitations and Limitations


This study is restricted to the Employees:

With 02 or more years of experience (02 years are supposed to be minimum

Appropriate time period to make a mind about HR practices)


Motivation is a deeply rooted psychological phenomenon the antecedents of

Which may be more complex than organizational commitment and job


The performance is not only the function of motivation but also that of ability.

This aspect of proposed model invites further research.

Statistical Analysis

The exact nature of detailed statistical analysis is not known at this stage of the study, but some major steps are:

Use of Factor Analysis for Questionnaire Development.

Descriptive Statistics, including demographics will be provided about the subjects

of study.

Regression Analysis will be applied using SPSS (statistical package).

Confirmatory Factory Analysis will be carried to confirm the model.

Results and Discussion

Results of the study will be discussed to check the significance of proposed model. Further the implications of study for both theoretical and practical purposes will be discussed. Further, scope for future research in this area will be highlighted.

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