Impact on training and development of employees performance
A study of impact on training and development of employee’s performance in Maldives Police Service (MPS). Training and development is essential human resource management elements for any organization in order to maintain an effective and efficient employee’s. Training needs concern with the improvement of employee’s performance to get the best outcomes from the work environments. This study evaluated on the job and off the job training methods in Maldives Police Service in order to improve the performance of the employee’s. Due to poor performance of the police employee’s the research undertake to evaluate and design a proper training methods to enhance the employee’s in the organization. The reports shows a conclusion of the on and off the job training methods available after critically analysing the related literature reviews for this research project.
Maldives Police Service is the only legal body to maintain law and order in Republic of Maldives with the motto of “To protect and serve”. The research study will investigate the impact of training and development on employee’s performance in Maldives Police Service. In Maldives other than preventing crimes and safety of the peoples, in today’s political environment the organization has to face a lot of challenges with the general public in riots, demonstrations, rally’s and taking these into consideration the local news and other medias and public shows a lot of dissatisfactions and their frustrations towards organizational performance, operations and policing skills of the employee’s when they engaged in dealing with such situations. In order to overcome this critical situation the organization needs to design an effective training and development methods and employee’s performance in a way in which the society accept.
1.1: Study Background
Training and development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the police personnel’s to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioural skills in the organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. Training and Development is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to the general public.
1.2: Study Area
The study area of this research project is to design an effective training and development methods to the personnel’s in Maldives Police Service. The investigations undertakes in operations department where all the frontline police officers works. The frontline officers are the mirror or image of the organization where they are the employee’s who prompt to deal with general public in any crime situations. Moreover the study area focus on on-the job training and off-the job training methods and how those methods will affect the improvement of employee’s performance in the organization.
1.3: Dissertation Structure
The purpose of this study is to provide the reader with an overview of the literature reviews related to the impact of training and development on employee’s performance in Maldives Police Service. In the research, chapter 2 a description will be given of the used methodology in this research literature research by critically analysing and giving the conclusion. In chapter 3 the explanation of conceptualization of impact of training and development on employee’s performance in Maldives Police Service will follow and chapter 4 the data analysis will be presented and the conclusion will be presented in chapter 5. Finally the reader will be provided with discussions and recommendations for further research.
1.4: Aim and Objectives
The aim of the study is to explore in detail the literature related to the impact of training and development of employees performance in Maldives Police Service and to review the existing related literature review in order to understand the matters related to the research topic.
How does Training and Development program help Maldives Police Service to improve Police personnel performance?
To develop a proper training and development methods in Maldives police service
To make suggestions and recommendations
This section detail out the literature that I have reviewed in related to the impact of training and development on employee’s performance in Maldives Police Service and for that purpose related HRM theories written by management scholars that related to training and development were used based on internet articles and journals were referred in the literature review in chapter 2.
Employee training can be conducted through either on-the-job or off-the-job training practices. On-the-job training allows employees to work within the firm, while learning about their job and the company, while off-the-job training removes the employee from the company. Off-the-job training can include technology-driven e-learning programs, formal classroom training, and external training conducted by suppliers or formal educational institutions. The results of employee training include higher productivity, enhanced creativity and increased employee confidence. Furthermore, this investment ensures qualified applicants for “hire from within” policies. Fitz-enz (2000) suggests that training employees can create a superior return-on-investment beyond enhanced productivity in the workplace. Training employees increases employee loyalty, as many workers will recognize that the firm is working to help them attain their career goals (Stovel and Bontis, 2002).
2.2: Off-The-Job Training Methods
Training which takes place in environment other than actual workplace is called off-the job training. Off-the-job training is usually designed to meet the shared learning needs of a group rather than a particular individual’s needs. Lectures, computer-based training, games and simulations are the common forms of off-the-job training methods.
2.2.1 Lectures/Conferences: – This approach is well adapted to convey specific information, rules, procedures or methods. This method is useful, where the information is to be shared among a large number of trainees. The cost per trainee is low in this method.
2.2.2 Films: – can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily presented by other techniques. Motion pictures are often used in conjunction with Conference, discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized.
2.2.3 Simulation Exercise: – Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a Simulation. Simulation activities include case experiences, experiential exercises, vestibule training, management games & role-play.
Cases: – present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might encounter on the job. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem, evaluate alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be most satisfactory.
2.2.3 Experiential Exercises: – are usually short, structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. For instance, rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts & how to deal with them, an experiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation where employees have to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions.
2.2.4 Vestibule Training: – Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. While expensive, Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures. Additionally, it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job.
2.2.5 Role Play: – It’s just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. In this method of training, the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral or written description of a particular situation.
2.2.6 Management Games: – The game is devised on a model of a business situation. The trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competing companies. They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations. Decisions made by the groups are evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are fed back to the groups. The game goes on in several rounds to take the time dimension into account.
2.2.7 In-Basket Exercise: – Also known as In-tray method of training. The trainee is presented with a pack of papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked to take decisions on these problems & is asked to take decisions on these within a stipulated time. The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with one another. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance.
2.3: On-The-Job Training Methods
The purpose of the on-the-job training session is to provide employee with task-specific knowledge and skills in work area. The knowledge and skills presented during on-the-job are directly related to job requirements. Job instruction technique, job rotation, coaching and apprenticeship training are the common forms of on-the job training methods. Fully on-the-job training theoretically does not involve any off-the-job training. However, it is very rare for 100% of training to take place as part of the productive work of the learner. Job instruction training is a structured approach to training, which requires trainees to proceed through a series of steps in sequential pattern. The technique uses behavioral strategy with a focus on skill development, but there are usually some factual and procedural knowledge objectives as well. This type of training is good for task oriented duties such as operating equipment. The instructor or supervisor prepares a job breakdown on the job, while watching an experienced worker perform each step of the job. Job instruction technique consists of four steps, preparation, present, try out and follow up (Blandchard and Thacker, 1999:306).
2.3.1: Job rotation
Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job or project to project within an organization, as a way to achieve various different human resources objectives such as: simply staffing jobs, orienting new employees, preventing job boredom or burnout, rewarding employees, enhancing career development, exposing employees to diverse environments (Woods, 1995:188). Excellent job rotation program can decrease the training costs while increases the impact of training, because job rotation is a hand on experience. Job rotation makes individuals more self-motivated, flexible, adaptable, innovative, eager to learn and able to communicate effectively. One of the possible problems with the rotation programs is the cost, because job rotation increases the amount of management time to spend on lower level employees. It may increase the workload and decrease the productivity for the rotating employee’s manager and for other employees. Job rotation may be especially valuable for organizations that require firm-specific skills because it provides an incentive to organizations to promote from within (Jerris, 1999:329).
Coaching is the process of one-on-one guidance and instruction to improve knowledge, skills and work performance. Coaching is becoming a very popular means of development, and often includes working one-on-one with the learner to conduct a needs assessment, set major goals to accomplish, develop an action plan, and support the learner to accomplish the plan. The learner drives these activities and the coach provides continuing feedback and support. Usually coaching is directed at employees with performance deficiencies, but also used as a motivational tool for those performing well. Coaching methods solve precise problems such as communication, time management and social skills. Executive coaching generally takes place on a monthly basis and continues over a period of several years. Often, coaches are brought in where there is a change in the structure of the company, when a team or individual is not performing well or where new skills are required. Coaching assumes that you are fine but could be even better (Kirwan, 2000).
Apprenticeship is one of the oldest forms of training which is designed to provide planned, practical instruction over a significant time span. Apprenticeship was the major approach to learning a craft. The apprentice worked with a recognized master craft person (McNamara, 2000).
2.4: Summery of the literature review
The research literature related to the training and development reviewed that the organizational learning and development of employee’s performance is continuous learning methods either on the job or off the job training methods. Critically analysing the on the job and off the jobs training methods to Maldives Police Service is compromised. Some of the trainings methods like off the training methods is not applicable because of time limit of availability of the employee’s. The organization’s employee’s work in systematic daily routine and patrolling the metropolitan areas and because of busy duty time availability of the employee’s is not feasible. Beside off the job training the employee’s can learn and develop their skills while on duty and by seniors experiences police officers by apprenticing and by job rotations of employee’s from department wise.
The research project succeeded in meeting all the requirements of the objectives. The objective of this research study was to develop a proper training and development methods in Maldives Police Service. The main conclusion includes the training and developments methods in the job and off the job trainings to the employees in Maldives Police Service and is particularly relevant and appropriate and can apply these methods to develop the employee’s performance. On the job and off the jobs training can assist the employee’s in developing their carriers as well as organizational objectives.