Implementing An Effective Food Safety Management System Management Essay
Regarding to the research hypothesis, the researcher concluded that there are two main critical factors were revealed through the data analysis that not only were considered as the most important factors in implementing an effective Food Safety Management System (ISO 22000), but also proved to be the most influential factors in the optimization of the degree of the effectiveness of FSMS (ISO 22000) for implementation in Egyptian food processing company. The management responsibility with regard to enhance communication between stuff, update FSMS, motivate stuff members and allocate resources for effective FSMS implementations and planning for realization of safe products implementation such as identifying potential hazards, update and review HACCP plan and planning for meeting FSMS requirements have a major and important impact on increasing the effective implementation of FSMS (ISO 22000).
Regarding to availability of uncomplicated documentation and general managerial procedures requirements beside good resources management have a good impact on effective implementation of FSMS (ISO 22000). In other words, in order for the food companies to effectively implement FSMS system they should focus their efforts to strengthen their internal documentation system, management responsibility, resources management and planning and realization of safe products for enhancing improvement and effective implementation of FSMS (ISO22000).
As a final conclusion, the food safety quality management system should be reviewed, evaluated and updated regularly to improve its effectiveness. An effective planning for producing a safe food product will participate in achieving a positive progress trend in FSMS effectiveness implementation.
The researcher believes that HACCP planning has a big influence on the success of the effective implementation of a food safety quality management system in any food manufacturing organization, training courses, inductions and seminars should be regularly conducted for all levels of personnel to enhance their awareness of the importance of the food quality management system.
6.2 Recommendations for Future Work
It is recommended to expand the scope of study to cover other sectors in the company food chain not only food manufacturing but also suppliers, warehouses, export and end user or any other sector, to have an overall evaluation of the food safety quality management system implemented in Dreem Company.
This overall evaluation will help maintain and improve the food safety quality management system to be able to cope with the future developments and strengthen the ability of Dreem Company to produce safe products and compete in both local and international markets.
However, this study suffers from some limitations, which need corrective actions to help the system to be more effective, this limitation can be summarized as follows:
Concerning sample size
Due to the small sample size, these results cannot be generalized to the entire Egyptian food industry. Further work must incorporate a larger sample size and many companies interested in the field of food processing.
Concerning Documentation and General Requirements
1. It can be noticed that there is a lot of paper work and documents that are used in monitoring FSMS, that consider being a hindrance of the constraints the application system effectively, redesign documentation system and eliminating all non value added paper work will support implementing FSMS effectively.
2. Documentation system needed to be updated periodically according to continuous updating of FSMS and to meet system and company modern applications.
3. Additional awareness and efforts is required to inform staff member with the importance of documents in monitoring FSMS and involve staff member in establishing documents that fit with the purpose of use.
4. Hazards that might affect products and food safety needed to be more defined and addressed in different functions to generate sharp focus considering potential hazards, only production, quality control and quality assurance functions have posted and addressed visual aids clarify hazards might affect the product, hazards that might affect Food Safety should be addressed in other functions like warehouses maintenance and logistics
5. It can be noticed that there is a lake of proper systems to drive the consistent implementation of the policy, since not all staff and employees understand the company policy and strategy of the company to achieve desired levels of food safety, awareness and inductions especially to the new comers or new entry employees needed to highlight policy and strategy.
Concerning Management Responsibility
1. Top management should counter about motivating employee and inspiring them, high number of the staff feeling that top management focused only on quantities rather that quality, so employees and stuff needed to be motivated by top management and to align both of focusing on quantities with focus on product quality
2. Lack of defining responsibilities and authorities inter company, researcher noticed that many employees are not aware by the authority and responsibilities of middle management staff and team leaders and how the responsibility and authority can be used effectively in effective implementation of FSMS and overcome different potential obstacles, top management should prepare appropriate job descriptions and well defined rules for different employees in FSMS applications
3. Communication between top management and staff members should be developed to know the problems and listening to their suggestions for solving and removing obstacles that impede effective implementation of FSMS
4. At the same time top management should inform staff member with modification and updates in regulatory and statutory in regular manner through meeting with function headers and food safety team members.
Concerning Resources Management
1. The researcher concluded that financial and physical resources should be ad equated provided to improve the effective implementation of FSMS, facilities and materials that enhance hygiene and GMPs should be available and provided in timely manner for different areas.
2. It is noticed that a lot of number of new employers are coming from different cultures and they have not previous experience about how to handle food products, hygiene requirements, GMPs and food manufacturing instructions, continuous inductions, awareness and training should be delivered to new comer employees and current employees
3. Level of current competences for staff members should be reviewed regularly to evaluate different training needs for staff member that enhance effective implementations of FSMS.
Concerning Planning and realization for safe products
1. The researcher found that PRPs must gain more attention to be an effective tool in improving FSMS applications, procedures should be established to ensure the effectiveness of PRPs implementations and allocated resources for implementing PRPs programs.
2. To improve quality control level visual aids should be addressed and posted to communicate and inform staff members with quality parameters levels. Also to provide training for labors and quality control observers with the recent modification in FSMS and updated quality control parameters for different products.
3. Evaluating and monitoring CCPs results should be announced to staff member to participate in solving and remove potential hazards that might affect the products.
4. Corrective actions should be reviewed in timely regular manner. Remove all obstacles that might hinder follow up and implementation of corrective actions that researcher found that many corrective actions still opened and needed for effective actions to close them.
Concerning Improve Food Safety Management System
1. It can be noticed that there is a lake of implementing evaluation and measurement for FSMS implementations before and after improvements or corrective actions to view the progress of applications. Analysis of performance is applied but not on wide scale in FSMS
2. Researcher found that there is shortage in validation of the effectiveness of implementing FSMS during regular period of times. Many methods and applications of FSMS needed to be verificated and validated, also all assignable root causes should be removed.
3. The FSMS could be more effective if the findings for internal and external audits are gained more attention for implementations and validations.
Adams, C.E. (1994), Â¿Â½ISO 9000 and HACCP systemsÂ¿Â½, Food and Drug Law Journal., Vol. 49, pp. 603-7.
Adams, C. (2000), Â¿Â½HACCP applications in the foodservice industryÂ¿Â½, Journal of the Association of Food and Drug Officials, Vol. 94 No. 4, pp. 22-5.
Al-Nakeeb, A., Williams, T., Hibberd, P. and Gronow, S. (1998), Â¿Â½Measuring the effectiveness of quality assurance systems in the construction industryÂ¿Â½, Property Management, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 222-8.
American Society for Quality (ASQ), “Food Safety- A Quality Management Systems Approach”, Quarterly Quality Report, June 2007.
Armistead, C.,Pritchard, J.P. and Machin, S. (1999), Â¿Â½Strategic business process management for organisational effectivenessÂ¿Â½, Long Range Planning, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp. 96-106.
Bauman, H.E. (1994), “The origin of the HACCP systems and subsequent evaluation”, Food Science and Technology Today. Vol.8, pp,66-72.
Bennet, W.L. and Steed, L.L. (1999), Â¿Â½An integrated approach to food safetyÂ¿Â½, Quality Progress,February, pp. 37-42.
Bertolini, M., Rizzi, A. and Bevilacqua, M. (2007), Â¿Â½An alternative approach to HACCP system implementationÂ¿Â½, Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 79 No. 4, pp. 1322-8.
Bhuiyan, N. and Alam, N. (2005), Â¿Â½An investigation into issues related to the latest version of ISO 9000Â¿Â½, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 199-213.
Birkenstock, J. (1999), Why ISO 9000?, Quality Resource Center, Sacramento, CA, available at: www.qrccentral.com/whyiso.htm
Bauman, H. E. (1974). “The HACCP concept and microbiological hazard categories”. Food Technology, 28(9), 30Â¿Â½32.
Bauman, H. E. (1994). “The origin of the HACCP systems and subsequent evaluation” , Food Science and Technology Today, Vol, 8,pp.66-72
Cianfrani, A., Tsiakalas, J. and West, E. (2002), The ASQ ISO 9000:2000 Handbook, Quality Press, Milwaukee, WI.
Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (2001), Â¿Â½Proposed draft revised guidelines for the application of the HACCP system in small and/or less developed businesses (SLDBs)Â¿Â½, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Codex Committee on Food Hygiene, Report of the 34th Session, Agenta Item 10, CX/FH 01/10, CAC, Rome.
Codex (2003), Codex Standard for Fermented Milks, Codex STAN 243-2003, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome.
Davenport, T.H. (2005), Â¿Â½The coming commoditization of processesÂ¿Â½, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 83 No. 6, pp. 100-8.
Dumond, E.J. (1994), Â¿Â½Making best use of performance measures and informationÂ¿Â½, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 14 No. 9, pp. 16-31.
Ehiri, E., Morris, P. and McEwen, J. (1995), Â¿Â½Implementation of HACCP in food businesses: the way aheadÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 6 No. 6, pp. 341-5.
Elmi, M.(2004), Food safety: current situation, unaddressed issues and the emergin priorities, La Revue de SantÂ¿Â½ de la MÂ¿Â½diterranÂ¿Â½e orientale, Vol. 10, No 6.
Eves, A. and Dervisi, P. (2005), Â¿Â½Experiences of the implementation and operation of hazard analysis critical control points in the food service sectorÂ¿Â½, Hospitality Management, Vol. 24 No. 1, pp. 3-19.
Eyles, M.J. (1995), Â¿Â½Trends in food-borne diseases and implications for the dairy industryÂ¿Â½, The Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, Vol. 50, pp. 10-14.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO ), World Health Organization (WHO), (2003), “Assuring food safety and quality: guidelines for strengthening national food control systems”. Rome
Food Standard Agency (2007),”Food safety management evaluation Research”, Report available at www.jigsaw-research.co.uk.
GFSI (2007), “What is ISO 22000?,), Technical Committee position paper, September, available at: www.globalfoodsafety.com
Gilling, S.J., Taylor, E.A., Kane, K. and Taylor, J.Z. (2001), Â¿Â½Successful hazard analysis critical control point implementation in the United Kingdom: understanding the barriers through the use of a behavioural adherence modelÂ¿Â½, Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 64 No. 5, pp. 710-5.
Gorris, L.G.M. (2005 ), Â¿Â½Food safety objective: an integral part of food chain managementÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 16 No. 9, pp. 801-9.
Griffith, C. (2000), Â¿Â½Food safety in catering establishments35Â¿Â½, in Farber, J.M. and Todd, E.C. (Eds), Safe Handling of Foods, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, pp. 235-56.
Hammer, M. (2002), Â¿Â½Process management and the future of Six SigmaÂ¿Â½, MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 43 No. 2, pp. 26-32.
Hunter, Laura and Erin Leahey. 2008. “Collaborative Research in Sociology: Trends and Contributing Factors”. American Sociologist 39:290Â¿Â½306
Joee, C. (2008), “The ISO 22000 standard procedures for a food safety management system, a guide to creating a food safety management system for any organization in the supply chain”, Bizmanulaz Inc, 2008.
Little, C.L., Lock,D., Barnes,J., and Mitchell, R.T. (2002), “Microbiological quality of take-away cooked rice and chicken sandwiches: effective of good hygiene training of the management “, Communicable Disease and Puplic Health, Vol. 11, pp. 154-7.
Little, C.L., Lock,D., Barnes,J., and Mitchell, R.T. (2003), “Microbiological quality of food in relation to hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training of the management”, Communicable Disease and Puplic Health, Vol. 6, pp. 250-8.
Luning, P. and Marcelis, W. (2007), Â¿Â½A conceptual model of food quality management functions based on a techno-managerial approachÂ¿Â½, Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 159-66.
Luning, P., Bango, L., Kussaga, J., Rovira, J. and Marcelis, W. (2008), Â¿Â½Comprehensive analysis and differentiated assessment of food safety control systems: a diagnostic instrumentÂ¿Â½, Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 19 No. 10, pp. 522-34.
Manning, L. and Baines, R. (2004), Â¿Â½Effective management of food safety and qualityÂ¿Â½, British Food Journal, Vol. 106 No. 8, pp. 598-606.
Mayes, T. (1993), Â¿Â½The application of management systems to food safety and qualityÂ¿Â½, Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 4, July, pp. 216-19.
Mehta, S. and Wilcock, A. (1996), Â¿Â½Quality system standards in the Canadian food and beverage industryÂ¿Â½, Quality Management Journal, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 72-93.
Mehrdad, T. (2007) “New food safety management systems; ISO 22000 Global food safety initiative system”, available at www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu
Minitab Statistical Software (2006), Release15 for Windows, Pennsylvania, Minitab Inc.
Mortimore, S. and Wallace, C. (1996), HACCP: A Practical Approach, Chapman & Hall, London.
Mossel,D.A.A., Corry,J.E.L., Struijk,C.B. and Baird,R.M. (1995), Essential of the Microbiology of foods:A text book for advanced studies, John Willy & Sons, Chichester.
National Food Processors Association (1992), Â¿Â½HACCP and total quality management Â¿Â½ winning concepts for the 1990s: a reviewÂ¿Â½, Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 55 No. 6, pp. 459-62.
Newslow, D. (1997), Â¿Â½HACCP/ISO 9000: commonalities and distinctionsÂ¿Â½, Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, Vol. 17, pp. 156-61.
Oakland, J. (1995), Total Quality Management Â¿Â½ Text with Cases, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann Professional Publishing, Oxford.
Pallett, A.J.M. (1994), Â¿Â½ISO 9000: the companyÂ¿Â½s viewpointÂ¿Â½, Food Technology, December, pp. 60-2.
Panagiotis, C. (2009), “Standardized food safety management Â¿Â½the case of industrial yoghurt”, British Food Journal, Vol. 111 No. 9, 2009, pp. 897-914
Panisello, P. and Quantick, P. (2001), Â¿Â½Technical barriers to Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)Â¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 165-73.
Panisello, P., Quantick, P. and Knowles, M. (1999), Â¿Â½Towards the implementation of HACCP: results of a UK regional surveyÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 87-98.
Philippa, S.(2008), “ISO22000 food safety management system and their related requirements”, Six World Congress on Sea Food Safety, Quality and Trade,Standard Australia, 14-16 September.,
Redshaw, B. (2000), Â¿Â½Evaluating organisational effectivenessÂ¿Â½, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 32 No. 7, pp. 245-8.
Roberto, C.D., Brandao, S.C.C. and da Silva, C.A.B. (2006), Â¿Â½Costs and investments of implement ting and maintaining HACCP in a pasteurized milk plantÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 17 No. 8, pp. 599-603.
Satin, M. (Ed.) (2002), Quality Enhancement in Food Processing Through HACCP, Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo.
Stringer, M.F. (1994), Â¿Â½Safety and quality management through HACCP and ISO 9000Â¿Â½, Dairy Food and Environmental Sanitation, Vol. 14 No. 8, pp. 428-81.
Stringer, M. (2004), Â¿Â½Food safety objectives-role in microbiological food safety managementÂ¿Â½, Food Control Journal, Vol. 16, pp. 775-794.
Strohbehn, C., Gilmore, S. and Sneed, J. (2004), Â¿Â½Food safety practices and HACCP implementation: perceptions of registered dieticians and dietary managersÂ¿Â½, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 104 No. 11, pp. 1692-9.
Surak, J.G. (1999), Â¿Â½Quality in commercial food processingÂ¿Â½, Quality Progress, February, pp. 25-9.
Surak, J.G. and Simpson, K. (1994), Â¿Â½Using ISO 9000 standards as a quality frameworkÂ¿Â½, Food Technology, December, pp. 63-4.
Suttiprasit, P. (2007), Â¿Â½Innovative integration of food safety standards using current process model (CPM) approachÂ¿Â½ Technology Promotion Association Journal, Part 1: No. 41 and Part 2-4: Nos. 43-45.
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS-15).-SPSS Inc.
Stringer, M. (2005), Â¿Â½Food safety objectives Â¿Â½ role in microbiological food safety managementÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 16 No. 9, pp. 775-94.
Taylor, E. (2001), Â¿Â½HACCP in small companies, benefit or burdenÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 217-22.
Taylor, E. and Kane, K. (2005), Â¿Â½Reducing the burden of HACCP in SMEsÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 16 No. 10, pp. 833-9.
Taylor, E. and Taylor, J. (2004), Â¿Â½Using qualitative psychology to investigate HACCP implementation barriersÂ¿Â½, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Vol. 14 No.
Untermann, F. (1999), Â¿Â½Food safety management and misinterpretation of HACCPÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 161-7.
Vela, R. and Fernandez, M. (2003), Â¿Â½Barriers for the developing and implementation of HACCP plans: results from a Spanish regional surveyÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 14 No. 5, pp. 333-7.
Walker, E., Pritchard, C. and Forsythe, S. (2003), Â¿Â½Hazard analysis critical control point and prerequisite programme implementation in small and medium size food businessesÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 169-74.
Ward, G. (2001), Â¿Â½HACCP: heaven or hell for the food industry?Â¿Â½, Quality World, March, pp. 12 15.
Wasik, R. (1994a), Â¿Â½ISO programsÂ¿Â½, Food in Canada, April, p. 61.
Wasik, R. (1994b), Â¿Â½TQL + HACCP + ISO 9000 Â¿Â½ total quality (part I)Â¿Â½, Food in Canada, March, pp. 28-9.
World Health Organisation (WHO) (1999), Â¿Â½Report of a WHO consultation strategies for implementing HACCP in small and/or less developed businessesÂ¿Â½, WHO/SDE/PHE/FOS/99.7, Food Safety Programme World Health Organization, The Hague, 16-19 June.
Yapp, C. and Fairman, R. (2006), Â¿Â½Factors affecting food safety compliance with small and medium-sized enterprises: implications for regulatory and enforcement strategiesÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 42-51.
Vel, Pillay. and Victor, Muliyil. (2005), “ISO 22000 food safety management systems, The one universal food safety management standard that works across all others”, SGS, System and Certification Services, October 2005.
Zhou, J., Jin, S., and Ye, J. (2008), Â¿Â½Adoption of HACCP system in the Chinese food industry: a comparative analysisÂ¿Â½, Food Control, Vol. 19 No. 8, pp. 823-8.