Improving Work Performance And Motivation Through Job Design Management Essay
Organizing the resources is the key to the success of any buniness.The business functions and produces better outcomes when the components are more organised and efficient. Of all the resources in the process of production of goods and services the human component is the only active resource whose efficient exploitation leads to the overall improvement of the productivity of all the resoures. To make the best use of people, attention must be paid to the relationship between the staff , nature and the content of the work. The work organization and the design of jobs can have significant effect on the staff and their levels of performance and productivity. The manager needs to understand how to make work more satisfying for staff and overcome the obstacles for effective performance. This leads to the concept of job design.
Job design reduces job dissatisfaction and employee alienation from repetitive and mechanistic tasks.Organizations attempt to increase productivity levels ,satisfaction and motivation to employees through job design. Various tools used in job design practice may be job enlargement,job enrichment,job rotation and job simplification.The process of job design has been defined as concerned with the relationship between workers and nature and content of jobs, and their task functions.(Mullins,2005,Management and organizational Behavior,714). It has been taken as the specification of the contents,ways and relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as personal requirements. In the context of dynamic nature of business, tecnological changes and competition in the market place, it has widely been realized that Job design enhances the people’s satisfaction from their work and makes the best use of people as the valuable asset of the organization and helps to overcome obstacles to their effective performance.
Hence,increasing employee’s motivation can be achieved through increased job satisfaction. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (1959,as cited in Mullins) explains two sets of factors affecting an employee’s satisfaction and motivation at the work place.He made a distinction between Hygiene or Motivation factors which are concerned with job enviornment whose absence cause dissatisfaction at work, and the motivators or Growth factors which are concerened with the contents of the work and serve to motivate the individual to their superior effort and performance.Herzberg Theory seems to have given rise to different alternative approaches like job enlargement,job rotation,job enrichment and work simplification at the workplace towards motivation of employees.
Reviewing the case study of Hotel Paradise,it has been seen that management is unable to keep employees aware of their tasks,it seems not immuned to the external business environment ,technological advancement that has led to more frustration and demotivation to their staffs.
Hence,job design aims to improve the performance and motivation of employee in an organization.Analysis of job design begins with proper viewing at job with broad perspective and moves towards identifying specific activities required to do the job with the aim of identifying and correcting any deficiencies which affect employee’s performance and motivation.
2. Explain how management should approach recruitment process to attract and retain their employee for organizational success of Hotel Paradise.Critically evaluate the importance of hard and soft skill the hotel management should take into consideration.
Having the right person , in the right place, at the right time , is crucial to organizational performance.The procedures undertaken while filling the vacancies in an organization is regarded as Recruitment process. In simple words, it can said that recruitment process is the process of selecting appropriate candidates. So, the recruitment process is the critical activity to the managers who are involved in the process of selection. Recriutment is the initial attraction of a pool of key talent to the organization. It is the process of attracting individuals on a timely basis,in sufficient numbers and with appropriate qualifications and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization. The main aim of the recruitment is to get required number of people in terms quantity and quality and to attain human resource contributation to the overall organizational objectives. Watson says ‘Recruitment provides the candidates for the selector to judge’ (Recruitment and Selection, 1994a,p.203).
Management always think to retain their employee with proper hard and soft skills inside the organization. Great care is being given at the recruitment process. Different organizations adopt different ways of recruitment process, but major steps tend to similar which involve series of steps. The first of these is job analysis, which is a collection of information about tasks,duties,responsibilities and required skills of a particular job which in turn has close link to job description:a list of general tasks and responsibilities of a position and job specification:a statement of employee characteristics and qualifications required to perform the job.
The second step is attracting and managing applications.The interest is generated from the candidates. It is important not to forget the internal talent pool when recruiting. Providing opportunities for development and career progression increases employee engagement and retentation and supports succession planning. If talent pooling is to be one from outside source , there are many options available for generating interest from individuals outside the organization . These includes placing advertisements in newspapers, trade press, on commrecials job boards and on the organization’s websites. The applications along with CVs are accepted. All applications are treated confidentially and circulated only to those individuals involved in the process of recruitment.Another step is selection,evaluation and hiring, for which different factors to be taken in considerationn are:evidence of job qualification,interview,assesment etc.Finally,selection decision is reached by the company and job is offered. So, the effective recruitment is central and crucial to the successful day to day functioning of an organization. Successful recruitment depends upon finding people with the right skills, expertise and qualifications to deliver organizational objectives and the ability to materialize the values and aims of the organization.
So far the case of Hotel Paradise is concerned,management is not found to consider recruitment process in proper way .It seems that there is lack of team work among employee,lack of awareness of their skills.Management is trying to adopt new competitive strategy but it is not able to make the employee cope with the situation. The company is focusing on e-marketing through attractive company’s web-design, advertising for major business event ,wedding ceremony , training and other business activities. But it is ignoring the crucial fact that it needs to eqip its staff with the every changes it is going to make. It seems there is lack of cultural fit to the employees.Hence,it can be concluded from the above study that,if management wants to attract and retain its employee for organizational success of Hotel Paradise,it should conduct recruitment process in effective and efficient way.Alongwith it ,it must be able to know well about hard and soft skill of employee to cope them better with organizational culture, changing business environment and technological advancement etc.
3. To what extent Hotel Paradise has applied work life balance approach at work reduce employees work stress? Critically evaluate its importance at work place and suggest corrective approach and relate to its impact on performance and well being.
Work Life balance has been regarded as the proper balance between career on the one hand and pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development on the other. In other words, It is the equilibrium between the time and the amount of effort a person devotes at workplace and the other aspect of life i.e. the family life and personal life. It is the way of acheiving a satisfactory level between work and personal life to have an ability of having choices of different time and energy and its value.
Work life balance has been getting an increasing attention in the today,s competitive market place, and is believed to be the quality of life that brings efficiency and satisfaction at work. The growing importance of work life balance is highlighted by the Department of Trade and Industry, the U.K, in its study in these words:
Employers worldwide are recognizing of their own accord that it makes good business to provide oppertunities for their workforce to achieve a better work life balance with a pay of increased morale,better effectiveness and productivity, and the ability to embrace change.
Work Life balance is said to be best practised with flexible working hours which includes flexi-time ,home working, part-time working and job sharing.It benefits both the employer and employee. It increases productivity and the efectiveness,raising morale of the employee,motivating them making them committed and deeply engaged in the work. It reduced absenteeism as it helps to reduce the work stress upon the employees. If the proper work life balance can not be maintained or the long working hours are imposed upon the employee, it has negative impact on health, relationship and job performance of him.
It is very important to retain employees within the organization.Many organizations as BT,Vodafone, etc have practised it in their organizations in effective manner. BT first introduced homeworking in early 80s which developed an approach of anytime,anywhere working that allows employees to control hours and location of the working days.
As the work life balance approach at work place of Hotel Paradise to reduce employees work stress is concerned,it is not found to be in practice.Employees have pressure towards the completion of high standard cleanliness within deadline that lead to the frustation, absenteeism and turnover. One of the staff”s dissatisfaction over inconsiderate supervisor shows the amount of pressure he has to undergo in the working place. He does not get rest even in the break. The employees are dissatisfied with the supervisors behaviours and working schedule.Porters argued that they have given unexpected tasks and asked to carry out the same unexpected time.
Hotel Paradise can practise different approaches as part time work,job sharing,job rotation etc to create work life balance of its employees.it should listened to the employee and try to resolve the suffering they are passing through. Employees should be provided with sufficient break so that they can begin their work with renewed energy.If these approaches are taken in practice,it will reduce- negative impact on employee’s health,negative impact on relationship and negative impact on job performance. It will help the Hotel Paradise to retain the employees which will increase productivity,raise morale,motivate the employees,,reduce absenteeism.
4. What are the main strength and weakness of Hotel Paradise HR approach related to cultural set up,training development?Provide a reasonable approach of the management towards employees to fit in organizational set up.
Culture is made up of the values, beliefs, behaviours,goals ,attitudes, underlying assumptions and practices that characterizes an organization or group. Organizational culture defines the way an organization works together and the beliefs and attitudes it represents as it works in a particular enviornment.Organizational culture is defined in different ways by different people.
Organization culture is “the collection of traditions,values,policies,beliefs and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything we do and think in an organization” (Mullins,72)
Organizational culture forms the basis for the collective effort to achieve the organizational goal.It boosts the culture of team work. Mullins mentions that organizational culture assists the organization in three ways where employees accept the rules identifying themselves with the organization when ‘it is right thing to do’, internalize the organizaation’s values when they believe they are right , and are motivated to achieve the organizations objectives.(Mullins, 891)
Hotel paradise approached the skill development programme where all supervisors and chamber maids are encouraged in NVQ training programme.It has planned to provide meal on duty. It seemed to have recognized the employees as the valuable asset of the organization.These are the strengths of the hotel.But the hotel has more weaknesses than its few strengths. there is lack of job design,job analysis , which obviously lacks job description and job specification.The hotel does not seem to be practising work life balance.There is pressure on employee at work.It lacks team working job sharing etc.
Some reasonable approaches of the management towards employees to fit in organizational cultural set up may be prioritising organizational culture at the time of recruitment of employee,well job design,maintaining work life balance which ultimately leads to better performance, quality of work, competence, better customer services,compititiveness,teamwork and innovation etc.
Hence organizational culture is very important to employees to fit in any organization which if not taken in consideration may lack mutual cooperation among employees,team working among staff that in turn leads the organization away from achieving its objectives,same is the case for Hotel Paradise.
5. Identify the grievance issue at Hotel Paradise.Describe the best practices of grievance procedures at Hotel Paradise.
Grievance is a problem that an employee has about the work, working conditions or the relationship with their collegues. It is a complaint that has been formally presented to a amanagement representative or to a union official. Anybody working in an orgation may at any time have problems or concern about their work , working conditions or relationships with their colleagues that they wish to talk with their Management.Grievance is defined as ” the breakdown of the mutual confidence between employer and employee, or between managers and managed”( Torrington,525)
Grievances may occur at any levels and the organizational practices apply to everyone for management and employee.Grievance may include:terms and conditions of employment,health and safety,work relations,bullying and harassment,new working practices,working environment ,organizational change etc.
When someone starts work at an organization there are mutual expections that form the basis of the forthcoming working relaionship. The maintainance of those expections is central to the human resource management . Employees expect a congenial working situation with the like minded people , opportunities to use existing skills and to acquire others , work that does not offend their personal value system and acceptable leadership. If these values are misspelled in an organization there is the potentiality of grievance.
Reviewing the case of Hotel Paradise,dissatisfaction is found in the employee specially due to more presssure of work given by supervisor at work place.The reason behind is found to be improper working condition of hoover but the supervisors blames the employee of mishandling the hoover.The problem of employee is found to be neglected or unlistened by the management.Mr Gill,a management member is found to interviewing employees to understand problem in depth and dissatisfaction of employees to the supervisor.Porters are arguing as they are given unexpected task and asked to carry it on unexpected time. The management at the hoel paradise seems to be autocratic who wants to run the hotel by thump rule rather than boosting the congenial working condition and mutual relationship between the employees and employers.
Grievances are rare since few employees will question their superior’s judgement.The key features or practices of grievance procedures are fairness,facilities for representation,procedural steps and promptness.