Information Needs Of Different Functional Area Information Technology Essay

The main purpose of functional areas is clear in your mind that all important business activities are carried out competently. This is necessary if the business is to achieve its aims and objectives. Specific area support specific types of aims and objectives.

Different functional area:

HR function: As well as supporting the organization in achieving high performance people management and managing the changes required improving efficiency, the HR function need to review his own performance to ensure that it is efficient and effective. A review of effectiveness of the function will look at whether:

There is appropriate HR leadership so that people issues are considered at the outset of any organizational change.

The function service plan reflects organization need and an appropriate strategy for the deployment, management and development of the work force is in place.

The current HR function organizational structure meets service need.

HR staffs have the relevant competencies and capabilities to deliver what is required.

The HR jobs roles reflect service need.

Administrative function: Performs highly multifaceted and advanced administrative and professional duties in support of a department or elected official. Works with least instruction or administration. This position reports to an elected official or department manager. May supervise office assistants, staff assistants; temporary employees, Or community service workers. Employees perform essential functions as outlined herein according the department, division, or functional assignment area.

Performs research and analyzes data for projects or legal matters and prepares reports for director, administration, or the Board of County Commissioners.

Responsible for following up on action of a court, committee, or assigned group to ensure that decisions are implemented, contracts are prepared and appropriate parties are notified.

Responsible for establishing and maintaining official documents and records in appropriate files.

Develops grant documentation.

Attends meetings, seminars, and conferences as directed to take notes or furnish information.

May supervise subordinate employees.

Prepares reports and correspondence requested by the department manager where information must be obtained from a variety of sources, as well as makes recommendations affecting aspects of office policy.

CUSTOMER SERVICE: This is a front line position for providing excellent customer service. Personal contact with other employees of the unit, other departments within the County, citizens, and customers of the department. Service is provided in person or by phone contact.

SUPERVISION: Responsible for directly and regularly supervising work of a relatively small number of employees (two or more), with no indirect supervision. Includes assigning, directing, evaluating, and reviewing work of subordinate employees. Responsibilities include providing on-the-job training; evaluating job performance; recommending selection of new staff members, promotions, status changes, and discipline; and planning, scheduling, and coordinating work operations.

P1.2: Information needs of each functional area of NHS.


Human resource.




Finance in NHS: The area of financial management is incorporate managing budget and deciding on resource allocation. It will include.

Accounts-paying for goods and services, collecting income.

Payroll and pensions-ensuring staff get paid.

Financial system-the information technology (IT) system the track all financial activity.

Reporting-preparing annual financial reports and coordinating with the Inland Revenue, VAT collection and other authorities.

Financial audit-expenditures and income.

Human resource in NHS: HR staffs are based in human resource/personal departments at hospitals, in trust headquarters and in planned health establishment.

They ensure that complain and objection procedures are properly handled.

Staffs are the greatest asset of the NHS.

They are involved in staff recruitment.

They introduced new employment policies.

Administration in NHS: Administrative staff provides essential backup to doctors, nurses and scientists and other health care professional. There is a wide choice of roles and place to work. You might enjoy dealing with patient and their relatives, for example as a receptionist in a clinic or clerk on a ward. Instead, if you have the right skills, you might wish working personally with a consultant as a medical secretary.

Staff working in administration can be found in a variety of locations.

In a hospital ward.

In a GP surgery.

In an outpatient clinic.

In a hospital administration office with no patient contact.

In a specialist community clinic.

In a central record department in a busy hospital.

At a trust or health authorities.

Research in NHS: Research and clinical trials are an everyday part of the NHS. The people who do research are mostly the same doctor and other health professionals who treat people. They want to find better ways of looking after patients and keeping people healthy. Health research covers a range of activities, from work in a scientific laboratory to carefully noting patterns of health and disease and developing new treatment. Health and social care research looks into many different issues, from illness, disease and disability to the way that health and social care services are provided by NHS.

Information and communication technology (ICT): There are varieties of jobs role and job title in this area of health informatics.

The training administrator this type of post might be responsible for the administration of IM&T training within a trust. Typically responsibilities would include publicizing available training courses, providing advice on suitable courses and all aspects of booking correspondence. Such as a post holder might also be responsible for maintaining the IM&T training database and the IM&T training website.

The ICT function is responsible for the development, management and support of the ICT infrastructure within an NHS organization.

In large terms, this means the internal and external electronics communication networks, local area network and wide area network. These links the operational system within health care organization. Staff role within the group will include network management, technology and help desk support, project management and implementation, application and system development, system security and staff training.

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A HRIS, or Human resource information system, is a software solution for small to mid-sized businesses to help automate and manage their HR, payroll, management and accounting activities. A HRIS generally should provide the capability to more effectively plan, control and manage HR costs; achieve improved efficiency and quality in HR decision making; and improve employee and managerial productivity and effectiveness.

HRIS offers HR, payroll, benefits, training, recruiting and compliance solutions. Most are flexibly designed with integrated databases, a comprehensive array of features, and powerful reporting functions and analysis capabilities that you need to manage your workforce. This can give back hours of the HR administrator’s day previously spent attending to routine employee requests.

An affordable Human Resource Information System (HRIS), for example HRMS, allows companies to manage their workforce through two powerful main components: HR & Payroll. In addition to these essential software solutions, HRIS offers other options to help companies understand and fully utilize their workforce’s collective skills, talents, and experiences.

Some of the most popular modules are:

Recruiting (applicant and resume management).

Attendance (Manage incident based and regular time off, track accrual pay and all attendance plans, create reports easily).

Organization charts (Create professional looking, dynamic organization charts).

Alerts (automatically notify personnel of performance reviews, benefits enrollment, compliance requirements and other key events).

Employee self service (Employees can update personal information and view benefits elections, absence transactions, time-off balances and payroll information).

Benefits Administration (Save paper and postage, take weeks off the benefits open enrollment period, reduce administration time, and improve data accuracy).

Produce reports in minutes.

Succession plans.

Track training for employees

Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) have become one of the most important tools for many businesses. Even the small, 20-person office needs to realize the benefits of using HRIS to be more efficient. Many firms do not realize how much time and money they are wasting on manual human resource management (HRM) tasks until they sit down and inventory their time. HRIS is advancing to become its own information technology (IT) field. It allows companies to cut costs and offer more information to employees in a faster and more efficient way. Especially in difficult economic times, it is critical for companies to become more efficient in every sector of their business; human resources (HR) are no exception. HRIS refers to software packages that address HR needs with respect to planning, employee information access, and employer regulatory compliance.

P2.1: Different types of information systems.

Management information system (MIS): Management information system is the term given to the discipline focused on the integration of computer system with the aims and objectives on an organization.

The development and management of information technology tools assists executives and the general workforce in performing any tasks related to the processing of information. MIS and business systems are especially useful in the collation of business data and the production of reports to be used as tools for decision making.

Applications of MIS: While computers cannot create business strategies by themselves they can assist management in understanding the effects of their strategies, and help enable effective decision-making.

MIS systems can be used to transform data into information useful for decision making. Computers can provide financial statements and performance reports to assist in the planning, monitoring and implementation of strategy. MIS systems provide a valuable function in that they can collate into coherent reports unmanageable volumes of data that would otherwise be broadly useless to decision makers. By studying these reports decision-makers can identify patterns and trends that would have remained unseen if the raw data were consulted manually. MIS systems can provide predictions about the effect on sales that an alteration in price would have on a product. These Decision Support Systems (DSS) enable more informed decision making within an enterprise than would be possible without MIS systems.

For most businesses, there are a variety of requirements for information. Senior managers need information to help with their business planning. Middle management needs more detailed information to help them monitor and control business activities. Employees with operational roles need information to help them carry out their duties.

As a result, businesses tend to have several “information systems” operating at the same time. This revision note highlights the main categories of information system and provides some examples to help you distinguish between them.

Data warehouse system: Data warehouse are computer base information system that are home for “secondhand” data that originated from another application or from an external system or source. Warehouses optimize database query and reporting tools because of their ability to analyze data, often from disparate databases and in interesting ways. They are a way for managers and decision makers to extract information quickly and easily in order to answer questions about their business. In other words, data warehouses are read-only, integrated databases designed to answer comparative and “what if” questions. Unlike operational databases that are set up to handle transactions and that are kept up to date as of the last transaction, data warehouses are analytical, subject-oriented and are structured to aggregate transactions as a snapshot in time. A data warehouses have been at the head of information technology applications as a way for organizations to successfully use digital information for business planning and decision making. As information professionals, we no hesitation will encounter the data warehouse phenomenon if we have not already been showing to it in our work. Hence, an understanding of data warehouse system architecture is or will be important in our roles and responsibilities in information management.

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Executive Support Systems: An Executive Support System (“ESS”) is designed to help senior management make strategic decisions. It gathers analyses and summarizes the key internal and external information used in the business. A good way to think about an ESS is to imagine the senior management team in an aircraft cockpit – with the instrument panel showing them the status of all the key business activities. ESS typically involves lots of data analysis and modeling tools such as “what-if” analysis to help strategic decision-making.

Decision-Support Systems: Decision-support systems (“DSS”) are specifically designed to help management make decisions in situations where there is uncertainty about the possible outcomes of those decisions. DSS comprise tools and techniques to help gather relevant information and analysis the options and alternatives. DSS often involves use of complex spreadsheet and databases to create “what-if” models.

P2.2: Application to solve business problem.

Executive support system (ESS): specialized DSS that includes all hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives within the organization.

Executive support system in perspective:

Tailored to individual executives.

Easy to use.

Support need for external data.

Capabilities of executive support system:

Support for defining an overall vision.

Support for strategic planning.

Support for strategic organizing and staffing.

Support for strategic control.

Support for crisis management.

The decision-making phase of the problem-solving process includes three stages: intelligence, design, and choice. A management information system (MIS) provides managers with information that supports effective decision making and provides feedback on daily operations. A financial MIS provides financial information to all financial managers within an organization.

Over view of management information system: A management information system (MIS) provides managers with information that supports effective decision making and provides feedback on daily operations.

Input to a management information system:

Internal data sources (TPSs and ERP systems and related databases; data warehouses and data marts; specific functional areas throughout the firm)

External data sources (Customers, suppliers, competitors, and stockholders whose data is not already captured by the TPS; the Internet; extranets).

Output of a management information system:

Demand report: Develop to give certain information at someone request.

Exception report: Automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action.

Drill down report: Provide increasingly detailed data about a situation.

Key inductor report: Summary of the previous day’s critical activities.

Schedule report: Produced periodically, or on a schedule.

Over view of decision support system: A DSS is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making and problem solving. The focus of a DSS is on decision-making effectiveness when faced with unstructured or semi structured business problems.

Characteristics of decision support system:

Handle large amounts of data from different sources.

Provide report and presentation flexibility.

Offer both textual and graphical orientation.

Support drill-down analysis.

Perform complex, sophisticated analysis and comparisons using advanced software packages.

Support optimization, satisfying, and heuristic approaches.

Component of decision support system:

Model base: provides decision makers access to a variety of models and assists them in decision making.


External database access.

Access to the Internet and corporate intranet, networks, and other computer systems.

Dialogue manager: allows decision makers to easily access and manipulate the DSS and to use common business terms and phrases.

P2.3: Recognize the information systems suitable for different functional areas of an organization.

I recognize decision support system because a decision support system is an organized collection of people procedures, software, database, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making and problem solving. The DSS handle large amount from different sources and provide report and presentation flexibility.

I show you comparison between Decision support system and Management information system.

Table 10-3a

Table 10-3b

P3.1: Identify the tools required to solve a specific problem within an organization.

Ms Word: A word is used for input, editing, and production of documents and texts. A word processor is general application software used for producing a text document now a day’s most of text documentation is going on word.

Database: A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images. In computing, databases are sometimes classified according to their organizational approach.

Client server: Client/server describes the relationship between two computer programs in which one program, the client, makes a service request from another program, the server, which fulfills the request. Although the client/server idea can be used by programs within a single computer, it is a more important idea in a network. In a network, the client/server model provides a convenient way to interconnect programs that are distributed efficiently across different locations. Computer transactions using the client/server model are very common. For example, to check your bank account from your computer, a client program in your computer forwards your request to a server program at the bank. That program may in turn forward the request to its own client program that sends a request to a database server at another bank computer to retrieve your account balance. The balance is returned back to the bank data client, which in turn serves it back to the client in your personal computer, which displays the information for you.

Expert system: An expert system is a computer program that simulates the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization that has expert knowledge and experience in a particular field. In general, such a system contains a knowledge base containing accumulated experience and a set of rule for applying the knowledge base to each particular situation that is describe to the program.

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Artificial intelligence: The ability of a computer or other machine to perform action through to require intelligence. A Closer Look The goal of research on artificial intelligence is to understand the nature of thought and intelligent behavior and to design intelligent systems. A computer is not really intelligent; it just follows directions very quickly. At the same time, it is the speed and memory of modern computers that allows researchers to manage the huge quantities of data necessary to model human thought and behavior.

Data warehouse: Data warehouse are computer base information system that are home for “secondhand” data that originated from another application or from an external system or source. Warehouses optimize database query and reporting tools because of their ability to analyze data, often from disparate databases and in interesting ways. The data warehouse market consists of tools, technologies that allows for the construction, usage, maintenance and management of the hardware and software used for a data warehouse, as well as the data itself.

Data mining: Data mining is the process in which there is analysis of data from different angle and perspective and summarizing the same data into the relevant information. The kind of information could utilize to increase the revenue, cutting the cost or both.

P3.2: Describe the information processing methods.

Batch processing: A batch process perform a list of commands in a sequence. It be run by a computer’s operating system using a script or batch file, or may be executed within a program using a macro or internal scripting tool. In a batch processing group of transaction collected over a period of time is collected, entered, proceed and then the batch result are produced. Batch processing requires separate program for input, process and output. It is an efficient way of processing high volume of data.

Transaction processing: The main reason of software used to process transactions is to allow the businesses that are using it be able to keep track of all of the business transactions that they have made in a manner that is both reliable and effective, despite whether their business is online or offline. When a business has high quality transaction processing software that will be able to easily tell in what format their customers use to complete their transactions; they will also be able to understand how to better provided their customers with information and products. The software that is used for processing transactions is provided by a large number of different companies. Despite this fact the type of software that is used for processing transactions is normally very similar to each other within the different companies that use it. More often processing transactions is performed for businesses that are found online because they do not keep paper trails in order to be able to more easily track the transactions performed by their customers.

Single user processing: A single user OS could also be a real-time system. The differences in the two are based on how a process is given control or priority within the system. Most single-user operating systems treat processes with equal priority unless you indicate that a certain process is to receive preferential treatment. This can be done by raising the priority of the user process to that of real time, meaning it will receive resources (such as CPU cycles) above other programs in the system.

Multi user processing: Microsoft Dynamics GP supports multiple users accessing the same table at the same time. This is accomplished through Optimistic Concurrency Control (OCC), a form of record locking that allows multiple users to work in the same tables and access the same rows with minimal restrictions, while helping to ensure data integrity. To allow multiple users to successfully use Microsoft Dynamics GP while Visual Studio Tools integrations are accessing data, you must choose the type of locking used. You must also handle any error conditions that occur as a result of multiple users working with the same row in a table.

Centralized processing: Processing performed in one computer or in a cluster of coupled computers in a single location. Access to the computer is via “dumb terminals,” which send only input and receive output or “smart terminals,” which add screen formatting. All data processing is performed in the central computer. Centralized processing evolved from the first computers in the 1950s, which were stand-alone with all input and output devices in the same room. Starting in the 1960s, terminals were added throughout a company’s headquarters and branch offices, and each terminal was wired into the central machine, whether local or via a remote communications method.

Distributed process system: A distributed processing system which enables a plurality of computers to make quick access to a shared storage unit. A storage quota management unit manages storage quotas, which limit the total amount of data that each user can store on the shared storage unit. When a write request to the shared storage unit is issued at a certain computer, a user identification unit identifies the requesting user. Then a free quota calculation unit calculates the remaining free storage quota of the identified user. A reserve space allocation unit allocates an appropriate reserve space to the computer according to the remaining free storage quota, allowing the computer to use the allocated reserve space at its discretion to handle the user’s data write request.

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