Integrating Social Responsibility In Higher Education Management Essay
The perception of Corporate Social Responsibility is generally understood to mean that corporations have a degree of accountability not only for the economic consequences of their activities, but also for the social and green connotation. This is occasionally referred to as a ‘triple bottom line’ approach that considers the economic, social and ecological aspects of corporate activity. a variety of terms are used to describe CSR proposal, including ‘Corporate Responsibility,’ ‘Corporate Accountability’, ‘Corporate Citizenship’ and ‘Sustainability.’ The implication and value of CSR may differ in various statuses, depending on local factors including culture, environmental circumstances, and the legal framework.
Issues like Education, The Environment, Hunger and Equal Opportunity were once thought of as social issues to be addressed completely by government. Today, public and private organizations collaborate; amalgamation resources, skills, energies and relationships to solve what we now understand are economic issues. But every corporation cannot take on every social issue. Today’s most successful corporations must make strategic choices in their approach to Corporate Citizenship. Not only cost-effectively successful, they are deeply occupied in their communities. These companies understand limitations and competencies, and use this knowledge to create a deliberate social agenda that has positive collision in what they do every day. This is the new model for corporate citizenship. A business strategy creating competitive advantage, determining standards and guiding employees in how we manage every day, in communities around the world
The aim of the following literature review is to identify the most important and knowledgeably important academic and practical works throughout the past decade as well as the current practices upon the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in higher education.
According to (Valentine and Fleischman 2008)
CSR is defined as the economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary expectancies that society has of organizations at a given point in time. This definition is based on Carrollâ€Ÿs study (1979) where he defined three components of social responsibility and broadened the scope of its understanding (Maignan 2001, Popa 2010). Carroll suggested that businesses have to fulfill economic, legal and ethical in order to address its entire obligations to society.
Economic responsibilities designate the obligations for businesses to be productive and profitable (Maignan 2001).
Legal responsibilities refer to the framework of legal requirements which businesses need to meet while practicing economic duties (Carroll 1979).
Ethical responsibilities are the defined appropriate behaviors by established norms that businesses should follow.
According to (Filho et al. 2010)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is defined through the ethical relationship and transparency of the company with all its stakeholders that has a relationship as well as with the establishment of corporate goals that are compatible with the sustainable development of society, preserving environmental and cultural resources for future generations, respecting diversity and promoting the reduction of social problems (Filho et al. 2010). While CSR points out a way for companies to contribute to the well-being of the society, it also gives the opportunity to create a true competitive advantage and positive reputation for the business world (Smith 2007, Porter and Kramer 2006).
Under the new circumstances such as the competition in higher education industry, many higher education institutions are adapting a more business-like approach in order to compete and survive in the changing face of the industry (Weymans 2010, Gumport 2000, Goia and Thomas 1996). And during the adaptation of this business-like approach, some institutions are discovering the importance of corporate image, corporate identity, corporate reputation and mainly CSR as a reputation and an advantage building strategy (Atakan and Eker 2007, Stensaker 2007, Porter and Kramer 2006, Melewar and Akel 2005). Although issues of CSR have always been a part of the educational mission of higher education institutions, through implementing CSR strategies, higher education institutions are now using this approach as a part of their competitive strategy. Hence, by developing such strategies higher education institutions are also discovering the opportunity to move the focus beyond the classroom into their own institutional operations.
2.1 Higher education and CSR
One of the most significant indicators of social progress is education, which also plays a decisive
role for a society to achieve selfâ€sustainable and equal development. With an increasing global
realization of how business community can contribute to social objectives, education deserves a higher level of corporate involvement than status quo.
Higher education institutions are often looked upon to take a leadership role within societies. Students expect to learn by examples, whether through advanced research or by extending the bounds of justice on a global scale.
Now business institutions are emphasizing a lot on CSR and they are finding different ways for the implementation of CSR.
Higher education institutions can choose to be followers, or they can grab the opportunity to be leader and adopt CSR a vital aspect of their competitive advantage. A recent academic article on CSR suggests that higher education institutions can lead in the practices of CSR two ways, first, higher education institutions should promote a true culture of CSR throughout their organizations. Second, higher education institutions should develop social marketing actions in order to better communicate and interact with stakeholders.
Higher education institutions have an opportunity to lead in an area that most businesses have recognized as important. Higher education institutions can and should build on a tradition of the past decades of attempting to engage in positive social actions.
2.2 CSR and the Stake Holders
The stakeholders of a higher education include present students, faculty and management.
In the 1980s, student protest often focused on how higher education institutions were managing their large endowments. Students wanted to have an impact; higher education institutions were grappling with how to respond.
In today’s era, students still care about how higher education institutions are exercising their own CSR, from climate change and recycling to making a difference with respect to global inequities in the world.
Higher education institutions can meet the expectations of stakeholders by adopting a well-conceived CSR strategy in the same manner as other organizations.
Higher education institutions should look forward to grab the opportunity about the concern of stake holders (student current and potential, faculty and management). Higher education’s institutions have realized that to gain a competitive edge in the market they have to satisfy the concerns of their stake holders.
Therefore implementing CSR strategies in a higher education institution should be considered in order to obtain a true competitive advantage and a positive reputation. Moreover practicing what is taught and thereby generating a real example of the academic knowledge can create a unique proposition for any higher education institution
The government of Pakistan needs to be focused on educational and other sector and should be socially responsible and business friendly. Now some educational institution is working to incorporated CSR into the business degrees program and courses, especially at leading business institutes such as LUMS or IBA.
2.3 CSR Practices in Pakistan
In Pakistan there is a set of social pressures that force companies and other institutions to act in a much more compact and price-driven manner, thus resulting in a less than 50 percent compliance rate with basic CSR principles and objectives But In educational sector there is less awareness on CSR importance. Now some institutions are putting their efforts to implement the concept of CSR in the future business leaders.
The Multi-National Companies is playing a vital role for making business student aware about what is CSR for this purpose different seminars and workshop is conducted for the student on the importance of CSR and its strategy practice and implementation and creating opportunities for the students, potential employer/employee to learn from their best practices.
Some companies like Unilever, P& G, Gillette, Siemens is performing their job well to aware the future business leaders Of Pakistan.
2.4 Karachi School for Business and Leadership KSBL
Is also committed to promote the core values of integrity and entrepreneurial spirit within our students. So we will be offering a leading-edge MBA programs, with a focus on ethical leadership and corporate social responsibility, to the many talented individuals in the country as well as from abroad.
2.5 Bahria University
A Leadership Development Centre is functional at both the Islamabad and Karachi Campuses of the Bahria University. It is built in order to solve the issues and challenges that are faced by students in the world and to become successful leaders and are able to take higher responsibilities.
To facilitate student activities, Bahria University has set up a Student Resource Centre that helps students to develop their leadership, communication, management and social skills. Bahria University believes in producing all rounder students containing various skills with themselves and therefore it has provided a platform for growth in that context.
The study research method will be the crucial research plan. Both the qualitative and quantitative techniques would be used in our research.
Some of deans, professors and Assistant professors would be interviewed regarding Corporate Social Responsibility and integration with HEC. Students of MBA and BBA were asked to fill a close-ended questionnaire in identification of factors influencing CSR upon Higher Educations, decisions and a suggestion were also be asked from the Professors and students.
Following Measurement procedures are used in this research.
1) We ask for suggestions and recommendation from the students and the professors.
2) We also rate the major factors of CSR upon higher education.
Frame of reference
We interacted with the faculty and student who have moderate level of experience and have sound knowledge about the CSR and the higher education system. This approach would help in our research to compile results by cumulating the opinions of the experienced people.
Primarily we collected data through interviewing management.
Through secondary method, we extracted the information by evaluating the past articles regarding CSR and Higher educations.
Since this study explores the Pakistani environment from the perspective of educated professionals and students, the choice of questionnaire have been selected. People who are in consideration for useful and remarkable information for the study will be initially contacted i.e. Students and Professors
Main variables would be influence upon social responsibility, higher education, course integration, and Business schools.
4. CSR & THE STAKEHOLDERS
Faculty of the institution would be the direct stakeholder of this research as they would be benefited if the research is successful.
Business School students are the indirect stakeholders in this research because they would be utilized in the convenience sampling of our research methodology.
The Management would be the direct stakeholder of this research because it is the management who are the core responsible of Corporate Social Responsibility in any organization, especially in Educational institutions. I.e. Business Schools
5. Conclusion and Recommendations
“Business schools have a responsibility to provide practitioners with training in the basics of ethics, which would ideally act as a catalyst to stimulate socially and ethically managed business organizations.”
(Cornelius Wallace, & Tassabehji, 2007).
“Business ethics course provides an understanding of ethical and social responsibility issues in contemporary business life. The aim is to enhance studentsâ€Ÿ critical perspectives in implementing ethical behavior in organizations in relation to various stakeholders as well as the institutionalization of business ethics in the corporations”
(Undergraduate Handbook 2011-2012).
Due to the lack of jobs, recession, inflation unemployment is increasing day by day which leaves only few jobs for business graduates and companies now are focusing on those students that have an extensive knowledge in their respective specialized skills and a good knowledge about CSR and about its implementation.
Now, why companies are looking for individuals with CSR knowledge because consumers today require every knowledge about the product. Consumers are demanding more information on everything from where and how their goods are produced to the environmental record of the companies they invest in
Pakistan is lacking many things related to Corporate Integration and social responsibility, higher authorities are not taking necessary actions to restore things for the betterment.
Integration of CSR into curriculum
Offer an additional course in the BBA/MBA program on the importance of CSR its strategy building and practice.
For practice and strategy building some reference is needed from case studies and seminars should be offered for the executive MBA Courses which should be make mandatory for all the business students.
An additional fund is needed to trained the faculty member/professors by offering workshops related to CSR and international business leaders should be invited as a guest speaker to share their expertise. The research work is also required to do research on current practices of CSR and It should be referred to CSR in the area of their expertise.
The faculty member should ask for presentations and report related to CSR model building and its implementation in Pakistan. It should be mandatory for completing the course.
Executive programs and seminars on CSR can be developed to help educate business leaders and managers on CSR principles and share international and local best practices.
Academic institutions should make CSR an area of academic research. Academic institutions can make an immense contribution to promoting CSR through research findings.
Educational institutions can collaborate with businesses to effectively introduce future managers to ethical and responsible business etiquette. Such initiatives include making internship arrangements for practical experience to students at exemplary companies. Students and lecturers can also be involved to conduct process assessments in companies. Academic institutions should also tap into funding and resources from state agencies and business community to develop CSR curricular and facilitate better transition from academia to employment.
We need serious, concerted efforts to integrate social corporate responsibility in educational Institution. Business schools should maintain and increase CSR coverage. Business schools should not only react to the growing awareness and demand of students, but also have a proactive role in responsible management education, in both teaching and research.
CSR and ethics can be embedded in core subjects, but also be taught as a separate core subject.
The students with their positive attitudes towards CSR should draw the demand from the suppliers of their management education to include social and ethical management issues and courses. They act upon their attitudes and values by searching for schools that teach responsible management and by creating their own organizations such as Net Impact.