Introduction To Human Resource Development Hrd Management Essay
HRD can be defined as “a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands” (p. 3).
II. History/Evolution of HRD
Relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM) and HRD
Primary HRD Functions:
Training & Development
Roles of an HRD Professional
Challenges to Organizations and to HRD Professionals
A Framework for the HRD Process
Design of the Book (and Course)
Chapter 2: Influences on Employee Behavior
I. A Model of Employee Behavior
From the external environment
In the work environment
Supervision and leadership
Co-workers and teams
III. Internal Influences
Social learning theory
Non-cognitive theory: Reinforcement theory
Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSAs)
Chapter 3: Learning and HRD
Our Answers to the Introductory “Quiz:”
For learning to take place, the most important variable to consider is whether the individual learner has sufficient ability to learn what is being taught.
False. Remember, trainability is a function of motivation, ability, and perceptions of the work environment. Ability is certainly important, but without a sufficient level of motivation and support from the work environment, ability by itself is not enough (p. 80).
In general, people learn best and remember the most when they can spread out the time spent learning new material.
True! This is the idea behind spaced practice sessions (p. 86). For most types of learning, spaced practice results in superior retention of the material to be learned than does massed practice. Thought question: if this is true, why do organizations so often violate this in their actual training practices? [the same could be asked of many of these questions].
Learning something to the point of “overlearning” is generally a waste of time, and should be avoided.
(Mostly) False. If it is really important that something be learned well and retained, then overlearning is not a waste of time. Overlearning may seem boring, but if it is important to learn, then it is usually necessary to learn beyond the point of basic mastery (p. 86).
If training has been effective, then it really doesn’t matter whether there is support in the work environment or not.
(Very) False. Even the best training will not bring about lasting change if there is not support for the skills or knowledge learned in training in the work environment (p. 91). A supportive climate is critical for positive transfer of training (including support from management and co-workers).
Trainers should always seek to match the type of training delivery methods to the characteristics of the individuals being trained.
True! The whole section of the chapter on “individual differences” would suggest that this type of matching should take place (pp. 92-105). Trainees learn at different rates (p. 93), have different learning styles (p. 102), use different learning strategies (p. 103), and have various perceptual preferences (p. 104). For all of these reasons, there are likely to be different levels of effectiveness for different training methods with different types of trainees. This is the whole idea behind an attribute-treatment interaction (p. 95).
Adult learners typically respond best to a lecture-style approach to training.
False. The bulk of the research on adult learning (and andragogy in particular) would suggest that adults prefer a more experiential form of training than is provided by the typical lecture. Lectures tend to be more one-way communication, and adult learners are more likely to want two-way communication that is flexible and interactive. Adults also are more likely than younger learner to demand to see the immediate relevance of the training materials to their work or lives.
Chapter 3: Learning and HRD
Learning and Instruction
Conditions of practice
massed vs. spaced (distributed)
whole vs. part
knowledge of results
degree of original learning
3. Transfer of training
Individual Differences in the Learning Process
Rate of progress (learning curves)
Attribute-treatment interactions (ATIs)
Training adult and older workers
Learning Strategies and Styles
Learning styles (David Kolb)
Recent Developments in Instructional and Cognitive Psychology
Chapter 4: Assessing HRD Needs
What is needs assessment?
Why is it important?
Are there different types of needs?
Links to strategic planning/strategic management
A. Five-step process:
Develop an overall job description
Identify the major task(s)
Describe the KSAOs needed to perform the job
Identify areas that can benefit from training or HRD
Prioritize areas that can benefit from training or HRD
B. Methods of task analysis
Summary person analysis
Diagnostic person analysis
Prioritizing HRD Needs
VI. The HRD Process Model Debate
Chapter 5: Designing Effective HRD Programs
The design process includes at least six activities: setting objectives, selecting the trainer or vendor, developing a lesson plan, selecting program methods and techniques, preparing materials, and scheduling the program.
II. Defining the Objectives of the HRD Program or Intervention
A. An objective is a description of the performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent.
B. Effective objectives state:
1. Expected performance
2. Conditions under which performance will be exhibited
3. Criteria for determining effective performance
III. Creating or Purchasing HRD Programs
Multiple factors should be considered in this “make vs. buy” decision.
IV. Selecting the Trainer (Provided One Will Be Used)
A. Factors to consider
B. Options when subject matter experts lack training competency.
V. Preparing a Lesson Plan
A. A lesson plan is a guide for the actual delivery of the program.
B. A lesson plan should specify training content, sequencing of events, media, exercises, and evaluation.
VI. Selecting Training Methods
Training methods can be grouped into two categories: on-the-job and classroom methods (specific techniques will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 6).
Factors to consider when selecting the most appropriate training method (or methods).
VII. Preparing Training Materials
e.g., announcements, outlines, manuals, textbooks.
VIII. Scheduling the Training/HRD Program
e.g., during vs. after work hours.
IX. Registration and Enrollment Issues
Training registration and tracking modules are available in many current Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS).
Chapter 6: Implementing HRD Programs
II. Training Delivery Methods
A. Training can be conducted on-the-job or away from the job setting.
B. On-the-Job Training (OJT) Methods:
Job Instruction Training (JIT)
Coaching and mentoring
C. Classroom Training Methods – Five primary categories or types:
Dynamic media (e.g., audiotape, CDs, film, videotape, videodisc)
4. Experiential methods
a. Case studies
b. Business games and simulations
c. Role plays
5. Self-paced or computer-based training media and methods
a. Computer-aided instruction
b. Internet- and Intranet-based training
c. Intelligent computer-aided instruction
III. Implementing the Training/HRD Program
A. Arranging the physical environment
B. Getting started
Chapter 7: Evaluating HRD Programs
I. The Purpose of HRD Evaluation
A. HRD evaluation is the systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective HRD decisions related to the selection, adoption, value, and modification of various instructional activities.
B. How often are HRD programs evaluated?
II. Models and Frameworks of HRD Evaluation
A. Kirkpatrick’s framework (the “four levels”)
B. Other frameworks and models of evaluation typically add to the levels suggested by Kirkpatrick and/or emphasize that evaluation should occur throughout the HRD process, not just after HRD activities have been conducted.
C. New models of evaluation build on research and theory on learning outcomes and the variables that influence them.
D. Comparing evaluation frameworks.
III. Data Collection for HRD Evaluation
A. Data collection methods
B. Factors to consider when choosing data collection methods include:
C. Types of data include individual performance, systemwide performance, and economic.
D. The use of self-report data.
IV. Research Design Issues (see Appendix also)
V. Ethical Issues Concerning Evaluation Research
VI. Assessing the Impact of HRD Programs in Dollar Terms
A. Viewing HRD programs as investments
B. Evaluation of HRD costs
C. Computing and using return on investment (ROI) estimates
D. Utility analysis [Hint: for the exercise on p. 265, the estimated change in utility is $150,000]
E. Gaining credibility for dollar estimates of HRD effectiveness
Appendix to Chapter 7: More on Research Design
I. Research Design Validity
A. The extent to which one can be confident that the conclusions drawn from the evaluation are true.
B. Aspects of research design validity include:
1. Internal validity
2. External validity
3. Construct validity
4. Statistical conclusion validity
II. Nonexperimental Designs
A. Nonexperimental research designs are generally seen as leaving considerable doubt as to whether the HRD program has in fact caused a change in participants’ KSAOs.
B. These designs include case study, relational research, and the one group pretest/posttest design.
III. Experimental Designs
A. Experimental designs are constructed to show that any effects observed in the study have resulted from the training/HRD program and not from other factors.
B. These designs typically use an untrained control group, as well as random assignment to training and control groups.
C. Experimental designs include the pretest/posttest, with control design, the posttest only, with control design, and the Solomon four-group design.
IV. Quasi-Experimental Designs
A. Quasi-experimental designs are constructed to permit the researcher to control for as many threats to internal validity as possible, but usually do not include random assignment to groups.
B. These designs include the nonequivalent control group and time series designs.
V. Statistical Power
Ensuring that a change will be detected if one exists. Sample size is a critical issue.
VI. Things to Consider When Selecting a Research Design:
B. The questions you are trying to answer
C. Cost/risk of making an incorrect decision based on flawed results
D. Resources available
E. Attitudes/values of those involved in the evaluation effort
Chapter 8: Employee Socialization and Orientation
I. Organizational Socialization
The process by which an individual acquires the social knowledge and skills necessary to assume an organizational role.
C. Role orientation: custodial vs. innovative
E. Content of socialization
F. Stages of socialization (Feldman):
change and acquisition
G. People processing strategies (Van Maanen)
What do newcomers need?
Realistic job previews (RJPs)
A practice that provides potential newcomers with complete information about the job and the organization.
Programs designed to introduce new employees to the job, supervisor, coworkers, and the organization.
Chapter 9: Skills and Technical Training
A. Skills and technical training programs are designed to ensure employees have the competencies (KSAOs) to effectively perform their jobs.
B. Skills and technical training programs can be categorized into three groups:
1. Basic skills/literacy education
2. Technical training
3. Interpersonal skills training
II. Basic Workplace Competencies/Basic Skills and Literacy Programs
A. Changes in work content, technology, organization, and society are creating a greater need for organizations to ensure that employees are literate and have basic workplace skills.
B. Types of literacy can include prose literacy, document literacy, and quantitative literacy.
C. Designing workplace basic skills/literacy programs.
D. Federal support for basic skills training.
III. Technical Training Programs
A. Apprenticeship training
B. Computer training
C. Technical skills/knowledge training
D. Safety training
E. Quality training, e.g., issues concerning ISO 9000 family of standards
IV. Interpersonal Skills Training
A. Sales training
B. Customer relations/service training
C. Team building/training
V. Role of Labor Unions in Skills and Training Programs (Joint Training Programs)
VI. Professional Development and Education
A. Continuing education at colleges and universities
B. Continuing education by professional associations
C. Company-sponsored continuing education
D. The HRD department’s role in continuing education
Chapter 10: Coaching and Performance Management
I. The Need for Coaching and Performance Management
II. Definition of Coaching
A. Coaching is a process used to encourage employees to accept responsibility for their own performance, to enable them to achieve and sustain superior performance, and to treat them as partners in working toward organizational goals and effectiveness.
B. Coaching consists of at least two processes:
1. Coaching analysis
2. Coaching discussion
III. Coaching to Improve Poor Performance
A. Poor performance is defined as specific, agreed-upon deviations from expected behavior.
B. Issues in responding to poor performance:
1. Poor performance may have multiple causes.
2. Causal attributions may affect the manager/supervisor’s response to poor performance.
C. Conducting the coaching analysis – a nine-step process.
D. The coaching discussion
2. Fournies’ approach
3. Analyzing and synthesizing the approaches
4. What if the coaching discussion fails?
IV. Maintaining Effective Performance and Encouraging Superior Performance
V. Skills Necessary for Effective Coaching
Communication, interpersonal skills, demonstrating commitment to and respect for the employee.
VI. The Effectiveness of Coaching
While there is little direct research on the effectiveness of workplace coaching, research on the performance appraisal interview supports the effectiveness of the techniques used in coaching, e.g., employee participation, supervisory support, providing constructive criticism, setting clear performance goals, training supervisors to effectively coach their employees, and providing strong organizational support for coaching and performance management.
Chapter 11: Employee Counseling and Wellness Services
I. The Need for Employee Counseling Programs
Helping employees overcome personal problems can be beneficial to both the individual and the organization.
II. An Overview of Employee Counseling Programs
A. Six components of a typical program: problem identification, education, counseling, referral, treatment, and follow-up.
B. Characteristics of effective employee counseling programs.
III. Employee Assistance Programs
A. Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are job-based programs operating within a work organization for the purposes of identifying troubled employees, motivating them to resolve their troubles, and providing access to counseling or treatment for employees who need these services.
B. EAPs commonly deal with substance abuse and mental health issues.
C. The EAP approach is based on the assumptions that:
1. the workplace is the best place for employees to seek help.
2. constructive confrontation should be provided by supervisors.
IV. Stress Management Interventions
Stress management interventions (SMIs) are any activity, program, or opportunity initiated by an organization that focuses on reducing the presence of work-related stressors or on assisting individuals to minimize the negative outcomes of being exposed to these stressors.
A model of SMIs
V. Employee Wellness and Health Promotion Programs
A. Employee wellness programs (EWPs) or health promotion programs (HPPs) are a set of activities that promote employee behavior and company practices that ensure employee health and fitness.
B. HPPs can focus on one or more of the following issues: exercise and fitness, smoking cessation, nutrition and weight control, and control of hypertension.
VI. Issues in Employee Counseling
Effectiveness of counseling interventions
Whose responsibility is employee counseling?
Ethical issues in employee counseling
Potential for unintended negative outcomes of employee counseling programs
Chapter 12: Career Management and Development
What is the “new employment relationship?”
II. Defining Career Concepts
A. A career is the pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of one’s life.
B. Relationship of career to nonwork activities.
C. Career development is an ongoing process made up of career planning and career management.
III. Stages of Life and Career Development
A. Stage views of adult development: Erikson’s model, Levinson’s “eras” approach
B. Models of Career Development
1. Traditional models
2. Contemporary views of career development: protean career; multiple career concepts
IV. The Process of Career Management
A. An individually-oriented career management model
B. Organizationally-oriented models: pluralistic, systems, and team-based career development.
V. Roles in Career Management
VI. Career Development Practices and Activities
A. Self-assessment tools and activities
B. Individual counseling or career discussions
C. Internal labor market information exchanges and job-matching systems
D. Organization potential assessment processes
E. Developmental programs (including job rotation and mentoring)
VII. Issues in Career Development
A. Developing career motivation
B. The career plateau
C. Career development for nonexempt employees
D. Enrichment: Career development without advancement
Delivering Effective Career Development Systems
Chapter 13: Management Development
A. Management development is an organization’s conscious effort to provide its managers and potential mangers with opportunities to learn, grow, and change, in hopes of producing over the long term a cadre of managers with the skills necessary to function effectively in that organization.
B. Strategies used to develop managers include management education, management training, and on-the-job experiences.
II. Describing the Manager’s Job: Management Roles and Competencies
A. Approaches to understanding the job of managing:
1. Characteristics approach
2. Identifying the roles managers are typically assigned
3. Process models: integrated competency model; four-dimensional model
B. Managers as persons: A holistic view of the manager’s job
C. Importance of needs assessment in determining managerial competencies
D. The globally competent manager
E. What competencies will future managers need?
III. Making Management Development Strategic
IV. Management Education
A. Management education is the acquisition of a broad range of conceptual knowledge and skills in formal classroom settings in degree-granting institutions.
B. Bachelor’s or Master’s degree programs in business administration.
C. Executive education programs, e.g., executive M.B.A. programs, other approaches.
V. Management Training and Experiences
A. Company-designed courses
B. Company academies, “colleges,” and corporate universities
C. On-the-job experiences
VI. Examples of Approaches Used to Develop Managers
A. Leadership training, e.g., transformational leadership, leaders developing leaders, LeaderLab.
B. Behavior modeling training
VII. Designing Effective Management Development Programs
Chapter 14: Organization Development and Change
I. Organization Development Defined
Organization development (OD) is a process used to enhance both the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions.
II. Organization Development Theories and Concepts
A. Change process theory (unfreezing, moving/change, refreezing)
B. Implementation theories (human process-based, technostructural, sociotechnical, organization transformation)
III. The Porras-Silvers Model of Planned Change
A. Proposes that change interventions affect organizational target variables, which affect individual organization members, which in turn produce organizational outcomes.
B. Types of change: alpha, beta, gamma(A), gamma(B).
IV. Designing an Intervention Strategy
A. Specific roles: change manager, change agent, individuals within the system.
B. Designing the intervention strategy: diagnosis, action plan, and evaluation.
C. Role of HRD professionals in the design of OD interventions.
D. Role of labor unions in OD interventions.
V. Human Process-Based Interventions
Human process-based interventions are directed at improving interpersonal, intragroup, and intergroup relations. Examples include survey feedback and team building.
VI. Technostructural Interventions
Technostructural interventions aim to improve work content, work methods, and the relationship among workers. Examples of technostructural interventions: job enlargement, job enrichment, and alternative work schedules.
VII. Sociotechnical Systems Interventions
Sociotechnical systems interventions are directed at the fit between the technological configuration and the social structure of work units. Examples of sociotechnical systems interventions: 1) quality circles, 2) Total Quality Management (TQM), and 3) self-managing teams.
VIII. Organizational Transformation Interventions
A. Organizational transformation interventions focus on articulating a new vision for the organization with the purpose of redefining the organization’s culture, mission, and strategy.
B. Examples of organizational transformation interventions: 1) cultural interventions, 2) strategic changes, 3) becoming a learning organization, and 4) high performance work systems.
IX. Whither Organization Development?
Chapter 15: HRD and Diversity: Diversity Training and Beyond
I. Workforce Diversity and Organizational Culture
Organizational culture: a set of shared values, beliefs, norms, artifacts, and patterns of behavior that are used as a frame of reference for attempts to understand and work within an organization.
II. Labor Market Changes and Discrimination
Demographic changes have been occurring in the composition of the workforce.
Access and treatment discrimination, especially against women and minority group members.
Equal employment opportunity
The glass ceiling
Impact of recent immigration patterns
III. Adapting to Demographic Changes
A. Affirmative action programs
1. Intended to increase the representation of members of underrepresented groups in the workplace.
2. Elements of an affirmative action program.
3. Issues and effectiveness
B. Valuing differences and diversity training
1. Aimed at making organization members aware of their attitudes toward others and increasing their understanding and acceptance of others.
2. Effectiveness of valuing differences diversity training programs.
C. Managing diversity programs
1. Defined as a comprehensive managerial process for developing an organizational culture that enables all organization members to contribute fully to the organization.
2. Effectiveness of managing diversity programs.
IV. Cross-Cultural Education and Training Programs
V. Human Resource Development Programs for Culturally Diverse Employees
Socialization and orientation
Mentoring to promote diversity
Sexual and racial harassment training