Job Design And Key Factors In Job Analysis Management Essay

There are some techniques which are used for job design like job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification. Productivity level of an organization can be raised by offering non-monetary rewards like to enlarge the job of an employee by appraise him in the meeting and prepare him to face new challenges, this can be done through job design. Job design is basically the arrangement of work in order to reduce or overcome job dissatisfaction and employee isolation occurring in the result of repetition of the task.

Job Analysis

The process of analysis that involves diversified techniques in order to examine the important duties, task and responsibilities is called as Job Analysis. As the job analysis is a very difficult task to identify the required skills and competencies but the process helps to determine the demand of the job with other requirements to meet the local area and University’s need. It also helps to make possible the appropriate recruitment and selection process, sets standards for performance appraisals and allows appropriate classification/reclassification of positions.

Key Factors in Job Analysis

Task identity:

If the employees have the clear vision about the beginning and ending of the task then it will give more satisfaction to them by the completion of whole piece of work. It is also very obvious that employees want to know the result of the work whatever they have done or produced.


Employees always want to do variety of work as they get easily fade up by the repetition of work. They may lose their interest and get dissatisfied with their task, so variety of task can improve their interest level, challenge and commitment to the task. Variety means more than simply adding an extra but similar task. For example, processing different forms would not make the work more meaningful as there would be no extra challenge. But employees can get frustrated with the plenty of variety so it must depend on the level of the position.


Employees must know that their success and failure depends upon their performance. This is very important to make them feel about their responsibilities towards their task. The employee should understand the significance of the work and where it fits into the purpose of the organisation.


Autonomy means giving more scope to employees to regulate and control their own work. They should know they also have some responsibilities of decision making within the framework of their job.

Working environment:

There must not be any type of discrimination and harassment in the job. It is also very necessary that job should provide a safe and healthy working environment and consider the types of work aids and equipment required to perform the role.

Recognition and support:

The moral of employees goes high when they got acceptance and recognition from their fellow workers and supervisors because it gives satisfaction to their self-respect. So encouragement to team work and individual relationships give them positive feelings about their task and the environment and the worker would never feel isolated within the environment.

Outcomes & performance measures:

Employees must know about their identified targets and their outcomes according to their position and also they have the knowledge about how to relate all the operations of the organization. Performance measures can be identified through the standard of performance. An equitable capacity for ongoing learning and advancement can be provided by the feed back.

Different Roles in an Organization

Managers are building blocks of the organization. A manager performs five basic functions – Planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. At different levels of management, a manger performs different managerial functions at a time and has the key function to achieve the effective utilization of resources. Manager is the person who delivers the vision of an organization to the employees of that organization. It is also included in the responsibilities of a manger that he takes part in the decision making process of an organization. Mostly managers have to perform functions at three different levels of management and they have different role according to their positions that are given below:

Top Level Management:

This is the administrative level management. Managers do executive coaching, change management, leadership, delegations and empowerment.

Middle Level Management:

It is the executor management in which managers have the responsibility of problem solving, team building, talent development and performance management.

Low Level Management:

It is also known as supervisor management and the managers are also known as “first-line managers” and their functions are emotional intelligence and coaching for performance.

Strategic Objectives of Indus Motor Company Ltd

The strategic objectives of IMC are as given under:

Achieving market leadership by delivering value to customers

Bringing Toyota quality to Pakistan

Optimizing cost by Kaizen (need of continues improvement)

Respecting our people

Becoming a good corporate citizen

Job Design and Job Analysis supports Strategic Objectives of IMC

Employees of IMC have the clear vision about “Customer First” philosophy in their manufacturing and providing high quality vehicles in order to fulfill the needs of their customers. They also have had their customer insight and feedback that leads to the continuous corporate renewal by means of product development, service improvement and care for customers. IMC is also trying to improve its quality, reliability and durability through the utilization of newly entered technologies in the market in order to meet the Toyota Global Standards. Every employee is responsible for the implementation of Toyota Production System and does the operations in lowest cost quartile of the industry. Employees are considered as the most key element as sustainable competitive recourse and they are provided by the continuous learning environment in order to enhance their individual creativity and team work. Company provide them diversified task and equal employment opportunities and also build competitive value through mutual trust and mutual responsibility between the Indus Team and the Company. Every employee of IMC is restricted to follow the ethical business practices and the laws of the land, and also engaging in generous and social activities that contribute to the enrichment of Pakistani society, especially in areas that are strategic to both societal and business needs e.g. Road Safety, Technical Education, Environment Protection, etc.

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Importance of Competency Modeling in the Current Environment

Enhanced manufacture expertise by tracking latest inclusive technological trends and publicize it to engineering industry after doing the Gap Analysis of Industries and carrying out investigation to discover weaknesses of native industry and their technological needs and adopt best practices, environmental and quality standards. Sector wise revelation to relevant trade fairs is being studied. There is a need to give International Exposure to local engineering industry through participation in local and international exhibitions.

Approaches to Human Resources Management to aid the Development of Business Strategy

The Human Resources Management (HRM) function involves different activities, and key among them is resolve what employment needs you have and whether to use autonomous service provider or hire employees to fulfill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices be conventional to a variety of system. Activities also include administration move towards employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Generally small businesses have to carry out these activities. Though, they should always ensure that employees have — and are aware of — personnel policies that match to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have.

Assess the Effectiveness of Human Resource Strategy

The Indus Motor Company puts together a vigorous attempt to promote a sagacity of belonging and a family feeling amongst its employees. It refers to all of them as team members irrespective of their work. IMC constantly motivates its employees through various techniques such as the reward system in Kaizen, leisure activities such as fun fair, meals and conventions.

IMC tries to improve a team spirit and has done away with obstacle such as eminence dissimilarity. A practicable exhibit is the fact all the people in offices are made to sit in the same hall irrespective of their description.

IMC strictly implements the Japanese practice of Participative Management. Every worker is allowed to make decisions related to his work and to make suggestions so as to improve it.

Planning Process

The strategic planning process involves the following steps, which are given below:

Clearly define the target / goal in writing.

It should be set by a person having authority.

The goal should be realistic.

It should be specific.


Easily measurable

Identify all the main issues which need to be addressed.

Review past performance.

Decide budgetary requirement.

Focus on matters of strategic importance.

What are requirements and how will they be met?

What will be the likely length of the plan and its structure?

Identify shortcomings in the concept and gaps.

Strategies for implementation.

Review periodically.

Manpower Planning Framework

Manpower planning is the first step towards manpower management. It refers to the procedure of employ existing assets for the completion of the business plans. It also involves the procedure of synchronizing and scheming a variety of actions in the organization. An effective manpower planning requires a cautious evaluation of the future requirements of the organization. It engages the growth of approaches to match the obligation of workers and accessibility of positions at a regional as well as a national level. Those in charge of manpower planning need to have forethought about the business plans. They need to plan the activities for achieving business growth. They are required to estimate the business needs of the organization and plan for the resources needed to realize the business goals. We can refer to manpower planning as the process of reconsidering existing resources, envisaging prospect requirements and ensuring that the demand and supply of people and skills is balanced. Manpower planning is useful for both the employees as well as the organization.

Principles Related to the Demand and Supply of Labour

Affiliation between the amount of a product that manufacturers have accessible for auction and the amount that customers are eager and capable to purchase. Demand depends on the price of the article of trade, the value of allied merchandise, and customers’ profits and flavors. Supply depends not only on the price available for the commodity but also on the prices of comparable products, the practices of assembling, and the accessibility and costs of contribution. The gathering of the market is to balance demand and supply through the price device. If buyers want to acquire more of a commodity than is obtainable on the market, they will tend to bid the price up. If more of a commodity is available than buyers care to purchase, suppliers will offer prices down. Thus, there is a propensity toward a stability price at which the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. The measure of the receptiveness of supply and demand to changes in price is their flexibility.

Role of Legal and Organizational Requirements in Creating a HR Plan

HRP is an energetic and continuing procedure. The process of modernizing is not very easy, since HRP is prejudiced by numerous aspects, which are as follows:

Type of organization establishes the manufacture practice and amount and type of human reserve needs of an organization depend on the staff needed. Strategic plan adopted by it. For e.g. the enlargement of a business calls for engaging organization of additional labour, while mergers will need a plan for layoffs. Operates under different political, social environment and has to carefully express the HR policies and so the HR manager has to evolve suitable mechanism to deal with reservations through career developments, succession planning, HRP also depends on the time periods and consequently retirement schemes etc. The short and long-term plans are adopted. And this time span is based on the category and feature of information extent of environmental qualms used in making forecasting is an important factor manipulating HRP. Precise and appropriate human resource information system helps in receiving improved quality HRP is required to make sure that appropriate candidates should be personnel. Prearranged for the right kind of job. It is very difficult to determine future manpower requirements of an organization, as future is always indeterminate. It is a time countries that face the problem of insufficiency of human resources. It is advantageous in the organizations that overwhelming and costlier procedure. Accept a specialized method and at the same time are deliberate about the HRP is valuable where sufficient skillful manpower is altering environment. HRP is also made difficult in the organizations that have a very obtainable high labor precedes.

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Employee Personal and Managerial Effectiveness through a Process of Personal Reflection

A positive, supportive, encouraging, and rewarding culture must be created, which motivates staff, facilitates the acquisition of knowledge and encourages innovation and creativity.

Organizational arrangements and service procedures should be urbanized that assist, rather than hold back or dissuade, individual and team achievements. Cut through red tape, reduce bureaucracy and assist decision-making as close to the exploit as possible.

Intimates must also be considered and cope as assets. This means preventing the dual criterion of valuable the staff that they are the enterprise’s supreme assets while telling the intermediate and speculation community that people are the greatest cost (which infers the greatest liability) to the organization. While the accounting statistics may show that staff-related costs do in fact represent the major item of expenses, predominantly in labor-intensive industries, the semantics and communication processes require considerable care.

Organization Culture in Recruitment Process

Using culture for recruitment requires identifying aspects of company’s culture that make it different from other companies. In essence to identify the unique beliefs, behaviors and practices of company. A culture audit should provide the primary cultural attributes that set company apart. These themes will probably not be completely positive. However, culture tends to evolve based on a past or current need, and it is usually possible to find ways to word each attribute in a way that highlights its advantages.

Methods and Tools of Recruitment

A manager can recruit in two different ways:

Internal recruitment is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from within its existing workforce.

External recruitment is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from any suitable applicant outside the business.

The stipulation of selection tools in recruitment has happen to an industry all on it’s own. From psychometrics, verbal and numerical reasoning, assessment centers and competency based interviews. With so many surrogates it can be difficult for recruitment agencies to fathom what to use where. Here are some deliberations when preferring which tools to use and where.

Creation of the Learning Organization through self-managed Learning, the Promotion of Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management

Managers need to give up power in order for erudition potentials to be improved. This will direct to superior business consequences by abolishing wasteful routines, and bring about the expansion of new business practices that lead to better results. And rational sculpts need to be observed. The restrictions that obstruct organizational learning inventiveness have a great deal to do with the mental models entrenched in the culture of an organization.

For important change to lead to sustainability, hierarchical control must be put aside. The appearance and expansion of unperturbed system must be supported so that people can share their implied information and help one another. Communities of practice can be geared so that people continually learn to help each other. The dispersal of pioneering practices needs informal networks through which new ideas can extend in and transversely organizations. Such informal networks are almost always superior to hierarchical channels for spreading new innovations because these informal networks already exist; research with new ideas needs help and time to think in a safe circumstance; and because there is a strong element of trustworthiness with people whom we know. Without active internal societies of practice, an organization cannot anticipate thoughtful and continued change.

Approaches to Employee Relations with a Focus on the Benefits of Partnership Involvement and Engagement

The idea of some kind of employee influence in organizational decision-making is

one that seems to attract much support amongst all the parties who are involved

in the employment relationship; that is, employers, employees, trade unions and

the state. Initially then the thread will consider this debate about how best to conceptualize the contemporary employment landscape. Conflict can be considered at a number of levels, one of which is the potential conflict of interests between trade unions and employers. However, the tourism and hospitality industry is often suggested as

being one where trade unions have little or no influence. The veracity or otherwise

of this view will be discussed, including why tourism and hospitality employees

may or may not join trade unions. Having considered one mechanism for articulating

an employee ‘voice’, that of trade unions, the thread moves on to consider

a range of other mechanisms which seek to involve employees in the decision making

process in organizations through the processes of employee involvement

and participation.

Purposes and Benefits of Performance and Reward Management

Performance appraisal may be defined as a prearranged official communication between a assistant and administrator, that typically takes the form of a episodic interview in which the job presentation of the subordinate is looked at and talked about, with a sight to recognized weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for development and ability growth.

In many associations – but not all – assessment consequences are used, either directly or indirectly, to help decided reward conclusion. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses, and promotions.

By the same token, appraisal results are used to recognize the shoddier performers who may require some form of therapy, or in tremendous cases, relegation, discharge or decreases in pay. Whether this is a suitable use of performance appraisal – the task and validation of plunder and punishment – is a very uncertain and contentious matter.

Management and Reward Processes to Improve Organizational Performance.

Performance Management (PM) is much additional than appraisal. In the broadest sense, it’s about translating goals to results. Performance Management concentrates not only on individual employees, but also on teams, programs, processes and the organization as a whole. Performance Management programs should have a long-term perception, accentuating worker maturity and procedure development. As such, optimal Performance Management programs are incorporated with an agency’s leadership development, progression development, and guidance agenda.

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Legal Issues Involved in Grievance, Discipline and Dismissal Processes and Procedures

A grievance is distinct in the policy as “a criticism by a worker about an exploit, which his manager has engaged or is considering captivating in relation to him”. The grievance process related to productive removal from office circumstances.

Employers should ensure their disciplinary and grievance procedures are fully up to date and incorporate the minimum statutory procedures. Also, employers should be aware of and implement current best practice when dealing with grievance and disciplinary issues. The DTI’s guidance on the new regulations and particularly, the updated Aces Code of Practice provide vital advice and practical guidance.

Organization’s Grievance and Disciplinary Procedures

The HR department and managers at all levels need to be familiar with the regulations. All procedures and management guidelines affected – such as guidance on record-keeping, the wording and structure of procedures, timescales, adjustments to standard letters, new arrangements for certain types of grievance where they do not already exist, and training – need to take the guidance in the code into account.

Training is important for both employers and trade unions. The code stresses the need for unions to ensure their officials are both experienced in performing this role, and are provided with periodic ‘refresher’ training, and the same applies to managers.

The code also emphasises the need for managers to “know and be able to apply the rules and procedures”, and suggests that organisations may benefit from joint management/trade union training. The code also emphasises the need for managers to “know and be able to apply the rules and procedures”, and suggests that organisations may benefit from joint management/trade union training.

Deal with Problems Situations in a Timely and Effective Manner

Many organizations have struggled with the concepts of Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and taking effective corrective action, but doing a good job of RCA will lead to effective and lasting corrective actions.

The need for corrective action can arise from many different sources including internal audits, external audits, customer complaints, employee complaints, injury reports and the requirements of regulatory bodies. The aforementioned audits may include quality management system (QMS), environmental management system (EMS), occupational health and safety (OHS), or any number of other requirements-based systems. The point is that all of these inputs to the corrective action process should be dealt with in a timely and effective manner. Where ISO/TS 16949 is concerned, the IATF expects that internal nonconformances, customer complaints and nonconformances issued by CBs are areas of critical importance, and need to have an effective root cause analysis done, followed by effective corrective actions taken to resolve the nonconformances.

Stages of the Discipline Issues that Result in Dismissal

The statutory disciplinary, dismissal and grievance procedures amounted to a minimum standard that all employers and employees were obliged to follow until 6 April 2009. 

The main features of the procedures were:

Three step statutory disciplinary, dismissal and grievance procedures 

Failure to follow the statutory procedures by the employer prior to dismissal rendered that dismissal automatically unfair.

Employers could have faced a potential increase in compensation of between 10-50% if the procedures were not followed.

An employee may have been prevented from presenting some types of claim in the employment tribunal if they had not followed the grievance procedure first.

These procedures applied in a wide range of circumstances which were not limited to issues relating to the capability or conduct of the employee but, for example, to dismissals which occured on the expiry of a fixed-term contract and in smaller scale redundancies.

How to Identify and Involve External Agencies that could be involved in Grievance, Discipline and Dismissal Processes

Disciplinary and grievance procedures provide a clear and transparent framework to deal with difficulties which may arise as part of their working relationship from either the employer’s or employee’s perspective.

They are necessary to ensure that everybody is treated in the same way in similar circumstances, to ensure issues are dealt with fairly and reasonably, that employers are compliant with current legislation and follow the Acas Code of Practice for handling disciplinary and grievance issues.

Disciplinary procedures are needed:

So employees know what is expected of them in terms of standards of performance or conduct (and the likely consequences of continued failure to meet these standards).

To identify obstacles to individuals achieving the required standards (for example training needs, lack of clarity of job requirements, additional support needed) and take appropriate action.

As an opportunity to agree suitable goals and timescales for improvement in an individual’s performance or conduct.

To try to resolve matters without recourse to an employment tribunal.

As a point of reference for an employment tribunal should someone make a complaint about the way they have been dismissed.

Grievance procedures are needed:

To provide individuals with a course of action should they have a complaint (which they are unable to resolve through regular communication with their line manager).

To provide points of contact and timescales to resolve issues of concern.

To try to resolve matters without recourse to an employment tribunal.

Determine and Pursue all aspects of Best Practice

The request messages contain data that will be used by the service to perform the business logic of the operation. These messages can also contain data that are more pertinent to system-level processing associated with the transaction, rather than business logic performed by the transaction. Examples of these data include:

Identification of the service requestor application

Service implementation version

Dispatch and receipt timestamps

Similarly, the response message issued by the service operation can contain system-level data, such as:

Identification of the responding application (service provider)

Receipt and dispatch timestamps

Computed response time

These system-level data have to be processed either by the service provider application, in addition to the business-level data, or by the enterprise service bus (ESB) infrastructure. In the context of building SOA solutions,

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